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  • 1.
    Beskow, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Cerrato, Loredana
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Cosi, P.
    Costantini, E.
    Nordstrand, Magnus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Pianesi, F.
    Prete, M.
    Svanfeldt, Gunilla
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Preliminary cross-cultural evaluation of expressiveness in synthetic faces2004In: Affective Dialogue Systems, Proceedings / [ed] Andre E, Dybkjaer L, Minker W, Heisterkamp P, Berlin: SPRINGER-VERLAG , 2004, p. 301-304Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary cross-evaluation experiment run in the framework of the European research project PF-Star(1), with the double I aim of evaluating the possibility of exchanging FAP data between the involved sites and assessing the-adequacy of the emotional facial gestures performed by talking heads. The results provide initial insights in the way people belonging to various cultures-react to natural and synthetic facial expressions produced in different cultural settings, and in the potentials and limits of FAP data exchange.

  • 2.
    Beskow, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Cerrato, Loredana
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Granström, Björn
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    House, David
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Nordenberg, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Nordstrand, Magnus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Svanfeldt, Gunilla
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Expressive animated agents for affective dialogue systems2004In: AFFECTIVE DIALOGUE SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Andre, E; Dybkjaer, L; Minker, W; Heisterkamp, P, BERLIN: SPRINGER , 2004, Vol. 3068, p. 240-243Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present our current state of development regarding animated agents applicable to affective dialogue systems. A new set of tools are under development to support the creation of animated characters compatible with the MPEG-4 facial animation standard. Furthermore, we have collected a multimodal expressive speech database including video, audio and 3D point motion registration. One of the objectives of collecting the database is to examine how emotional expression influences articulatory patterns, to be able to model this in our agents. Analysis of the 3D data shows for example that variation in mouth width due to expression greatly exceeds that due to vowel quality.

  • 3.
    Beskow, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Cerrato, Loredana
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Granström, Björn
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    House, David
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Nordstrand, Magnus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Svanfeldt, Gunilla
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    The Swedish PFs-Star Multimodal Corpora2004In: Proceedings of LREC Workshop on Models of Human Behaviour for the Specification and Evaluation of Multimodal Input and Output Interfaces, 2004, p. 34-37Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to present the multimodal speech corpora collected at KTH, in the framework of the European project PF-Star, and discuss some of the issues related to the analysis and implementation of human communicative and emotional visual correlates of speech in synthetic conversational agents. Two multimodal speech corpora have been collected by means of an opto-electronic system, which allows capturing the dynamics of emotional facial expressions with very high precision. The data has been evaluated through a classification test and the results show promising identification rates for the different acted emotions. These multimodal speech corpora will truly represent a valuable source to get more knowledge about how speech articulation and communicative gestures are affected by the expression of emotions.

  • 4.
    Cerrato, Loredana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Svanfeldt, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    A method for the detection of communicative head nods in expressive speech2006In: Papers from the Second Nordic Conference on Multimodal Communication 2005 / [ed] Allwood, J.; Dorriots, B.; Nicholson, S., Göteborg: Göteborg University , 2006, p. 153-165Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to propose a method for automatic detection of head nods during the production of semi-spontaneous speech. This method also provides means for extracting certain characteristics of head nods, that may vary depending on placement, function and even underlying emotional expression. The material used is part of the Swedish PF-Star corpora which were recorded by means of an optical motion capture system (Qualisys) able to successfully register articulatory movements as well as head movements and facial expressions. The material consists of short sentences as well as of dialogic speech produced by a Swedish actor. The method for automatic head nods detection on the 3D data acquired with Qualisys is based on criteria for slope, amplitude and a minimum number of consecutive frames. The criteria are tuned on head nods that have been manually annotated. These parameters can be varied to detect different kinds of head movements and can also be combined with other parameters in order to detect facial gestures, such as eyebrow displacements. For this study we focused in particular on the detection of head nods, since in earlier studies they have been found to be important visual cues in particular for signaling feedback and focus. In order to evaluate the method a preliminary test was run on semi-spontaneous dialogic speech, which is also part of the Swedish PF-Star corpora and produced by the same actor who read the sentences. The results show that the parameters and the criteria that had been set on the basis of the training corpus are valid also for the dialogic speech, even if more sophisticated parameters could be useful to achieve a more precise result.

  • 5.
    Nordenberg, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Svanfeldt, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Wik, Preben
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Artificial gaze. Perception experiment of eye gaze in synthetic face2005In: Proceedings from the Second Nordic Conference on Multimodal Communication, 2005, p. 257-272Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate people's sensitivity to directional eye gaze, with the longterm goal of improving the naturalness of animated agents. Previous research within psychology have proven the importance of the gaze in social interactions, and should therefore be vital to implement in virtual agents . In order to test whether we have the appropriate parameters needed to correctly control gaze in the talking head, and to evaluate users' sensitivity to these parameters, a perception experiment was performed. The results show that it is possible to achieve a state where the subjects perceive that the agent looks them in the eyes, although it did not always occur when we had expected.

  • 6.
    Nordstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Svanfeldt, Gunilla
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Granström, Björn
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    House, David
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Measurements of articulatory variation in expressive speech for set of Swedish vowels2004In: Speech Communication, ISSN 0167-6393, E-ISSN 1872-7182, Vol. 44, no 1-4, p. 187-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Facial gestures are used to convey e.g. emotions, dialogue states and conversational signals, which support us in the interpretation of other people's feelings and intentions. Synthesising this behaviour with an animated talking head would widen the possibilities of this intuitive interface. The dynamic characteristics of these facial gestures during speech affect articulation. Previously, articulation for neutral speech has been studied and implemented in animation rules. The results obtained in this study show how some articulatory parameters are affected by the influence of expressiveness in speech for a selection of Swedish vowels. Our focus has primarily been on attitudes and emotions conveying information that is intended to make an animated agent more "human-like". A multimodal corpus of acted expressive speech has been collected for this purpose.

  • 7.
    Svanfeldt, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Expressiveness in virtual talking faces2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, different aspects concerning how to make synthetic talking faces more expressive have been studied. How can we collect data for the studies, how is the lip articulation affected by expressive speech, can the recorded data be used interchangeably in different face models, can we use eye movements in the agent for communicative purposes? The work of this thesis includes studies of these questions and also an experiment using a talking head as a complement to a targeted audio device, in order to increase the intelligibility of the speech.

    The data collection described in the first paper resulted in two multimodal speech corpora. In the following analysis of the recorded data it could be stated that expressive modes strongly affect the speech articulation, although further studies are needed in order to acquire more quantitative results and to cover more phonemes and expressions as well as to be able to generalise the results to more than one individual.

    When switching the files containing facial animation parameters (FAPs) between different face models (as well as research sites), some problematic issues were encountered despite the fact that both face models were created according to the MPEG-4 standard. The evaluation test of the implemented emotional expressions showed that best recognition results were obtained when the face model and FAP-file originated from the same site.

    The perception experiment where a synthetic talking head was combined with a targeted audio, parametric loudspeaker showed that the virtual face augmented the intelligibility of speech, especially when the sound beam was directed slightly to the side of the listener i. e. at lower sound intesities.

    In the experiment with eye gaze in a virtual talking head, the possibility of achieving mutual gaze with the observer was assessed. The results indicated that it is possible, but also pointed at some design features in the face model that need to be altered in order to achieve a better control of the perceived gaze direction.

  • 8.
    Svanfeldt, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Olszewski, Dirk
    Perception experiment combining a parametric loudspeaker and a synthetic talking head2005In: 9th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology, 2005, p. 1721-1724Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By combining the technologies of targeted audio and talking heads, a perception experiment was performed. Unvoiced consonants in a vowel context produced using speech synthesis were to be identified. It was found that the talking head could eliminate some of the confusions between consonants that occurred when the face was not present. The study also gave the possibility to analyse distortions of the speech signal due to the targeted audio device.

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