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  • 1. Anasontzis, George E.
    et al.
    Pena, Margarita Salazar
    Spadiut, Oliver
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Olsson, Lisbeth
    Effects of temperature and glycerol and methanol-feeding profiles on the production of recombinant galactose oxidase in Pichia pastoris2014In: Biotechnology progress (Print), ISSN 8756-7938, E-ISSN 1520-6033, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 728-735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimization of protein production from methanol-induced Pichia pastoris cultures is necessary to ensure high productivity rates and high yields of recombinant proteins. We investigated the effects of temperature and different linear or exponential methanol-feeding rates on the production of recombinant Fusarium graminearum galactose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.9) in a P. pastoris Mut+ strain, under regulation of the AOX1 promoter. We found that low exponential methanol feeding led to 1.5-fold higher volumetric productivity compared to high exponential feeding rates. The duration of glycerol feeding did not affect the subsequent product yield, but longer glycerol feeding led to higher initial biomass concentration, which would reduce the oxygen demand and generate less heat during induction. A linear and a low exponential feeding profile led to productivities in the same range, but the latter was characterized by intense fluctuations in the titers of galactose oxidase and total protein. An exponential feeding profile that has been adapted to the apparent biomass concentration results in more stable cultures, but the concentration of recombinant protein is in the same range as when constant methanol feeding is employed.

  • 2. Ariza, A.
    et al.
    Eklöf, Jens
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Spadiut, Oliver
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Offen, W.A.
    Roberts, S.M.
    Wilson, K.S.
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Davies, G.J.
    Structure and Activity of a Paenibacillus polymyxa Xyloglucanase from Glycoside Hydrolase Family 442011In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 286, no 39, p. 33890-33900Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The enzymatic degradation of plant polysaccharides is emerging as one of the key environmental goals of the early 21st century, impacting on many processes in the textile and detergent industries as well as biomass conversion to biofuels. One of the well known problems with the use of nonstarch (nonfood)-based substrates such as the plant cell wall is that the cellulose fibers are embedded in a network of diverse polysaccharides, including xyloglucan, that renders access difficult. There is therefore increasing interest in the "accessory enzymes," including xyloglucanases, that may aid biomass degradation through removal of "hemicellulose" polysaccharides. Here, we report the biochemical characterization of the endo-beta-1,4-(xylo)glucan hydrolase from Paenibacillus polymyxa with polymeric, oligomeric, and defined chromogenic aryl-oligosaccharide substrates. The enzyme displays an unusual specificity on defined xyloglucan oligosaccharides, cleaving the XXXG-XXXG repeat into XXX and GXXXG. Kinetic analysis on defined oligosaccharides and on aryl-glycosides suggests that both the -4 and +1 subsites show discrimination against xylose-appended glucosides. The three-dimensional structures of PpXG44 have been solved both in apo-form and as a series of ligand complexes that map the -3 to -1 and +1 to +5 subsites of the extended ligand binding cleft. Complex structures are consistent with partial intolerance of xylosides in the -4' subsites. The atypical specificity of PpXG44 may thus find use in industrial processes involving xyloglucan degradation, such as biomass conversion, or in the emerging exciting applications of defined xyloglucans in food, pharmaceuticals, and cellulose fiber modification.

  • 3.
    Bi, Ran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Spadiut, Oliver
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Isolation and identification of microorganisms from soil able to live on lignin as acarbon source and to produce enzymes which cleave the β-o-4 bond in a lignin model compound2012In: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 0576-9787, Vol. 46, no 3-4, p. 227-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several strains of fungi were isolated and identified from Scandinavian soil using agar plates with lignin as a carbon source. The strains grew significantly faster on this medium than on control plates without lignin. Different types of technical lignins were used, some of which contained trace amounts of sugars, even if the increased growth rate seemed not related to the sugar content. Some strains were cultivated in shaking flask cultures with lignin as a carbon source, with lignin apparently consumed by microbes - while accumulation of the microorganism biomass occurred. The cell-free filtrates of these cultures could reduce the apparent molecular weights of lignosulphonates, while the culture filtrate of one strain could cleave the beta-O-4 bond in a lignin model compound.

  • 4.
    Bi, Ran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Spadiut, Oliver
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lawoko, Martin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Isolation and identification of microorganisms from soil able to live on lignin as a carbon source and to produce enzymes which cleave beta-O-4 bond in a lignin model compound2012In: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 0576-9787, Vol. 46, no 3-4, p. 227-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several strains of fungi were isolated and identified from Scandinavian soil using agar plates with lignin as a carbon source. The strains grew significantly faster on this medium than on control plates without lignin. Different types of technical lignins were used, some of which contained trace amounts of sugars, even if the increased growth rate seemed not related to the sugar content. Some strains were cultivated in shaking flask cultures with lignin as a carbon source, with lignin apparently consumed by microbes - while accumulation of the microorganism biomass occurred. The cell-free filtrates of these cultures could reduce the apparent molecular weights of lignosulphonates, while the culture filtrate of one strain could cleave the beta-O-4 bond in a lignin model compound.

  • 5.
    Bi, Ran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Spadiut, Oliver
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Lawoko, Martin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Isolation and identification of microorganisms from soil able to utilize lignin as single carbon source2011In: Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium of wood, fiber and pulp chemistry, 2011, p. 1091-1095Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Bi, Ran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Spaduit, Oliver
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO). KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Brumer, Harry III
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Isolation and identification of microorganisms from soil  able to ive on lignin as carbon source and produce enzymes that cleave beta-O-4mbond in lignin2011In: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 0576-9787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty one strains of micro organism from Scandinavian soil had been isolated that could utilize lignin as only carbon source and 11 strains of them were identified. Different types of technical lignins were used.5 faster growing strains were cultivated in shaking flask cultures with ligninosulfonate as sole carbon source,and lignin appeared to be consumed after several days while mycelia was observed accumulated.Cell free filtrates of the 5 faster growing strains could lower the apparent molecular weights of lignosulphonates and the culture filtrate of one strain could cleave the lignin model compound with.The significances of the results are discussed.

  • 7.
    Hassan, Noor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Tan, T. -C
    Spadiut, Oliver
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Pisanelli, I.
    Fusco, L.
    Haltrich, D.
    Peterbauer, C. K.
    Divne, Christina
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Crystal structures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium pyranose 2-oxidase suggest that the N-terminus acts as a propeptide that assists in homotetramer assembly2013In: FEBS Open Bio, E-ISSN 2211-5463, Vol. 3, p. 496-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flavin-dependent homotetrameric enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase (P2O) is found mostly, but not exclusively, in lignocellulose-degrading fungi where it catalyzes the oxidation of β-. d-glucose to the corresponding 2-keto sugar concomitantly with hydrogen peroxide formation during lignin solubilization. Here, we present crystal structures of P2O from the efficient lignocellulolytic basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Structures were determined of wild-type PcP2O from the natural fungal source, and two variants of recombinant full-length PcP2O, both in complex with the slow substrate 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-. β-. d-glucose. The active sites in PcP2O and P2O from Trametes multicolor (TmP2O) are highly conserved with identical substrate binding. Our structural analysis suggests that the 17°C higher melting temperature of PcP2O compared to TmP2O is due to an increased number of intersubunit salt bridges. The structure of recombinant PcP2O expressed with its natural N-terminal sequence, including a proposed propeptide segment, reveals that the first five residues of the propeptide intercalate at the interface between A and B subunits to form stabilizing, mainly hydrophobic, interactions. In the structure of mature PcP2O purified from the natural source, the propeptide segment in subunit A has been replaced by a nearby loop in the B subunit. We propose that the propeptide in subunit A stabilizes the A/B interface of essential dimers in the homotetramer and that, upon maturation, it is replaced by the loop in the B subunit to form the mature subunit interface. This would imply that the propeptide segment of PcP2O acts as an intramolecular chaperone for oligomerization at the A/B interface of the essential dimer.

  • 8. Hemsworth, Glyn R.
    et al.
    Thompson, Andrew J.
    Stepper, Judith
    Sobala, Lukasz F.
    Coyle, Travis
    Larsbrink, Johan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Spadiut, Oliver
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Goddard-Borger, Ethan D.
    Stubbs, Keith A.
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Davies, Gideon J.
    Structural dissection of a complex Bacteroides ovatus gene locus conferring xyloglucan metabolism in the human gut2016In: Open Biology, ISSN 2046-2441, E-ISSN 2046-2441, Vol. 6, no 7, article id 160142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human gastrointestinal tract harbours myriad bacterial species, collectively termed the microbiota, that strongly influence human health. Symbiotic members of our microbiota play a pivotal role in the digestion of complex carbohydrates that are otherwise recalcitrant to assimilation. Indeed, the intrinsic human polysaccharide-degrading enzyme repertoire is limited to various starch-based substrates; more complex polysaccharides demand microbial degradation. Select Bacteroidetes are responsible for the degradation of the ubiquitous vegetable xyloglucans (XyGs), through the concerted action of cohorts of enzymes and glycan-binding proteins encoded by specific xyloglucan utilization loci (XyGULs). Extending recent (meta) genomic, transcriptomic and biochemical analyses, significant questions remain regarding the structural biology of the molecular machinery required for XyG saccharification. Here, we reveal the three-dimensional structures of an alpha-xylosidase, a beta-glucosidase, and two alpha-L-arabinofuranosidases from the Bacteroides ovatus XyGUL. Aided by bespoke ligand synthesis, our analyses highlight key adaptations in these enzymes that confer individual specificity for xyloglucan side chains and dictate concerted, stepwise disassembly of xyloglucan oligosaccharides. In harness with our recent structural characterization of the vanguard endo-xyloglucanse and cell-surface glycan-binding proteins, the present analysis provides a near-complete structural view of xyloglucan recognition and catalysis by XyGUL proteins.

  • 9.
    Larsbrink, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Rogers, Theresa E.
    Hemsworth, Glyn R.
    McKee, Lauren S.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Tauzin, Alexandra S.
    Spadiut, Oliver
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Klinter, Stefan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Pudlo, Nicholas A.
    Urs, Karthik
    Koropatkin, Nicole M.
    Creagh, A. Louise
    Haynes, Charles A.
    Kelly, Amelia G.
    Nilsson Cederholm, Stefan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Davies, Gideon J.
    Martens, Eric C.
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    A discrete genetic locus confers xyloglucan metabolism in select human gut Bacteroidetes2014In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 506, no 7489, p. 498-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-balanced human diet includes a significant intake of non-starch polysaccharides, collectively termed 'dietary fibre', from the cell walls of diverse fruits and vegetables(1). Owing to the paucity of alimentary enzymes encoded by the human genome(2), our ability to derive energy from dietary fibre depends on the saccharification and fermentation of complex carbohydrates by the massive microbial community residing in our distal gut(3,4). The xyloglucans (XyGs) are a ubiquitous family of highly branched plant cell wall polysaccharides(5,6) whose mechanism(s) of degradation in the human gut and consequent importance in nutrition have been unclear(1,7,8). Here we demonstrate that a single, complex gene locus in Bacteroides ovatus confers XyG catabolism in this common colonic symbiont. Through targeted gene disruption, biochemical analysis of all predicted glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate-binding proteins, and three-dimensional structural determination of the vanguard endo-xyloglucanase, we reveal the molecular mechanisms through which XyGs are hydrolysed to component monosaccharides for further metabolism. We also observe that orthologous XyG utilization loci (XyGULs) serve as genetic markers of XyG catabolism in Bacteroidetes, that XyGULs are restricted to a limited number of phylogenetically diverse strains, and that XyGULs are ubiquitous in surveyed human metagenomes. Our findings reveal that the metabolism of even highly abundant components of dietary fibre may be mediated by niche species, which has immediate fundamental and practical implications for gut symbiont population ecology in the context of human diet, nutrition and health(9-12).

  • 10.
    Larsbrink, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Spadiut, Oliver
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    McKee, Laurens S.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Klinter, Stefan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Nilsson Cederholm, Stefan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    et al.,
    A discrete genetic locus confers select Bacteriodetes with a niche role in xyloglucan metabolism in the human gutManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11. Pisanelli, I.
    et al.
    Kujawa, M.
    Gschnitzer, D.
    Spadiut, Oliver
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Vienna, Austria .
    Seiboth, B.
    Peterbauer, C.
    Heterologous expression of an Agaricus meleagris pyranose dehydrogenase-encoding gene in Aspergillus spp. and characterization of the recombinant enzyme2010In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0175-7598, E-ISSN 1432-0614, Vol. 86, no 2, p. 599-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH) is a flavin-dependant sugar oxidoreductase found in the family Agaricaceae, basidiomycetes that degrade lignocellulose-rich forest litter, and is catalytically related to the fungal enzymes pyranose 2-oxidase and cellobiose dehydrogenase. It has broad substrate specificity and displays similar activities with most sugar constituents of lignocellulose including disaccharides and oligosaccharides, a number of (substituted) quinones, and metal ions are suitable electron acceptors rather than molecular oxygen. In contrast to pyranose 2-oxidase and cellobiose dehydrogenase, which oxidize regioselectively at C-2 and C-1, respectively, PDH is capable of oxidation on C-1 to C-4 as well as double oxidations, depending on the nature of the substrate. This makes it a very interesting enzyme for biocatalytic applications, as many of the reaction products are otherwise unaccessible by chemical or enzymatic means. PDH was characterized in detail in a limited number of fungi, and the first encoding genes were isolated only recently. We report here, for the first time, the heterologous expression of one of these genes, encoding the major PDH protein in Agaricus meleagris, in the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus niger.

  • 12. Pitsawong, Warintra
    et al.
    Sucharitakul, Jeerus
    Prongjit, Methinee
    Tan, Tien-Chye
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Spadiut, Oliver
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Haltrich, Dietmar
    Divne, Christina
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Chaiyen, Pimchai
    A Conserved Active-site Threonine Is Important for Both Sugar and Flavin Oxidations of Pyranose 2-Oxidase2010In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 285, no 13, p. 9697-9705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pyranose 2-oxidase (P2O) catalyzes the oxidation by O-2 of D-glucose and several aldopyranoses to yield the 2-ketoaldoses and H2O2. Based on crystal structures, in one rotamer conformation, the threonine hydroxyl of Thr(169) forms H-bonds to the flavin-N5/O4 locus, whereas, in a different rotamer, it may interact with either sugar or other parts of the P2O center dot sugar complex. Transient kinetics of wild-type (WT) and Thr(169)-> S/N/G/A replacement variants show that D-Glc binds to T169S, T169N, and WT with the same K-d (45-47 mM), and the hydride transfer rate constants (k(red)) are similar (15.3-9.7 s(-1) at 4 degrees C). k(red) of T169G with D-glucose (0.7 s(-1), 4 degrees C) is significantly less than that of WT but not as severely affected as in T169A (k(red) of 0.03 s(-1) at 25 degrees C). Transient kinetics of WT and mutants using D-galactose show that P2O binds D-galactose with a one-step binding process, different from binding of D- glucose. In T169S, T169N, and T169G, the overall turnover with D- Gal is faster than that of WT due to an increase of kred. In the crystal structure of T169S, Ser(169) O gamma assumes a position identical to that of O gamma 1 in Thr(169); in T169G, solvent molecules may be able to rescue H-bonding. Our data suggest that a competent reductive half-reaction requires a side chain at position 169 that is able to form an H-bond within the ES complex. During the oxidative half-reaction, all mutants failed to stabilize a C4a-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate, thus suggesting that the precise position and geometry of the Thr(169) side chain are required for intermediate stabilization.

  • 13. Salaheddin, Clara
    et al.
    Spadiut, Oliver
    Ludwig, Roland
    Tan, Tien-Chye
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Divne, Christina
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Haltrich, Dietmar
    Peterbauer, Clemens
    Probing active-site residues of pyranose 2-oxidase from Trametes multicolor by semi-rational protein design.2009In: Biotechnology Journal, ISSN 1860-6768, E-ISSN 1860-7314, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 535-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    D-Tagatose is a sweetener with low caloric and non-glycemic characteristics. It can be produced by an enzymatic oxidation of D-galactose specifically at C2 followed by chemical hydrogenation. Pyranose 2-oxidase (P2Ox) from Trametes multicolor catalyzes the oxidation of many aldopyranoses to their corresponding 2-keto derivatives. Since D-galactose is not the preferred substrate of P2Ox, semi-rational design was employed to improve the catalytic efficiency with this poor substrate. Saturation mutagenesis was applied on all positions in the active site of the enzyme, resulting in a library of mutants, which were screened for improved activity in a 96-well microtiter plate format. Mutants with higher activity than wild-type P2Ox were chosen for further kinetic investigations. Variant V546C was found to show a 2.5-fold increase of k(cat) with both D-glucose and D-galactose when oxygen was used as electron acceptor. Because of weak substrate binding, however, k(cat)/K(M) is lower for both sugar substrates compared to wild-type TmP2Ox. Furthermore, variants at position T169, i.e., T169S and T169N, showed an improvement of the catalytic characteristics of P2Ox with D-galactose. Batch conversion experiments of D-galactose to 2-keto-D-galactose were performed with wild-type TmP2O as well as with variants T169S, T169N, V546C and V546C/T169N to corroborate the kinetic properties determined by Michaelis-Menten kinetics.

  • 14.
    Spadiut, Oliver
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Brugger, Dagmar
    Coman, Vasile
    Haltrich, Dietmar
    Gorton, Lo
    Engineered Pyranose 2-Oxidase: Efficiently Turning Sugars into Electrical Energy2010In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 22, no 7-8, p. 813-820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the recent interest in enzymatic biofuel cells (BECs), sugar oxidizing enzymes other than the commonly used glucose oxidase are gaining more importance as possible bioelements of implantable microscale-devices, which can, for example, be used in biosensors and pacemakers. In this study we used rational and semi-rational protein design to improve the catalytic activity of the enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase (P2Ox) with its alternative soluble electron acceptors 1,4-benzoquinone and ferricenium ion, which can serve as electron mediators, to possibly boost the power output of enzymatic BECs. Using a screening assay based on 96-well plates, we identified the variant H450G, which showed lower K-M and higher k(cat) values for both 1,4-benzoquinone and ferricenium ion compared to the wild-type enzyme, when either D-glucose or D-galactose were used as saturating electron donors. Besides this variant, we analyzed the variants V546C and T169G/V546C for their possible application in enzymatic BECs. The results obtained in homogeneous solution were compared with those obtained when P2Ox was immobilized on the surface of graphite electrodes and either "wired" to an osmium redox polymer or using soluble 1,4-benzoquinone as mediator. According to the spectrophotometrically determined kinetic constants, the possible energy output, measured in flow injection analysis experiments with these variants, increased up to 4-fold compared to systems employing the wild-type enzyme. Our results show that by increasing the catalytic activity of the redox enzyme P2Ox with its alternative electron acceptors 1,4-benzoquinone and ferricenium ion, it is possible to achieve a higher energy output of an enzymatic BFC when using the same concentration of sugar substrate.

  • 15.
    Spadiut, Oliver
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Ibatullin, Farid M.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Peart, Jonelle
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Gullfot, Fredrika
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Martinez-Fleites, Carlos
    Ruda, Marcus
    Xu, Chunlin
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Sundqvist, Gustav
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Davies, Gideon J.
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Building Custom Polysaccharides in Vitro with an Efficient, Broad-Specificity Xyloglucan Glycosynthase and a Fucosyltransferase2011In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 133, no 28, p. 10892-10900Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current drive for applications of biomass-derived compounds, for energy and advanced materials, has led to a resurgence of interest in the manipulation of plant polymers. The xyloglucans, a family of structurally complex plant polysaccharides, have attracted significant interest due to their intrinsic high affinity for cellulose, both in muro and in technical applications. Moreover, current cell wall models are limited by the lack of detailed structure-property relationships of xyloglucans, due to a lack of molecules with well-defined branching patterns. Here, we have developed a new, broad-specificity "xyloglucan glycosynthase", selected from active-site mutants of a bacterial endoxyloglucanase, which catalyzed the synthesis of high molar mass polysaccharides, with complex side-chain structures, from suitable glycosyl fluoride donor substrates. The product range was further extended by combination with an Arabidopsis thaliana alpha(1 -> 2)-fucosyltransferase to achieve the in vitro synthesis of fucosylated xyloglucans typical of dicot primary cell walls. These enzymes thus comprise a toolkit for the controlled enzymatic synthesis of xyloglucans that are otherwise impossible to obtain from native sources. Moreover, this study demonstrates the validity of a chemo-enzymatic approach to polysaccharide synthesis, in which the simplicity and economy of glycosynthase technology is harnessed together with the exquisite specificity of glycosyltransferases to control molecular complexity.

  • 16.
    Spadiut, Oliver
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Olsson, Lisbeth
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    A comparative summary of expression systems for the recombinant production of galactose oxidase2010In: Microbial Cell Factories, ISSN 1475-2859, E-ISSN 1475-2859, Vol. 9, p. 68-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The microbes Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris are convenient prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts, respectively, for the recombinant production of proteins at laboratory scales. A comparative study was performed to evaluate a range of constructs and process parameters for the heterologous intra-and extracellular expression of genes encoding the industrially relevant enzyme galactose 6-oxidase (EC 1.1.3.9) from the fungus Fusarium graminearum. In particular, the wild-type galox gene from F. graminearum, an optimized variant for E. coli and a codon-optimized gene for P. pastoris were expressed without the native pro-sequence Results: The intracellular expression of a codon-optimized gene with an N-terminal His(10)-tag in E. coli, using the pET16b(+) vector and BL21DE3 cells, resulted in a volumetric productivity of 180 U.L-1.h(-1). The intracellular expression of the wild-type gene from F. graminearum, using the pPIC3.5 vector and the P. pastoris strain GS115, was poor, resulting in a volumetric productivity of 120 U.L-1.h(-1). Furthermore, this system did not tolerate an N-terminal His(10)-tag, thus rendering isolation of the enzyme from the complicated mixture difficult. The highest volumetric productivity (610 U.L-1.h(-1)) was achieved when the wild-type gene from F. graminearum was expressed extracellularly in the P. pastoris strain SMD1168H using the pPICZ alpha-system. A C-terminal His(6)-tag did not significantly affect the production of the enzyme, thus enabling simple purification by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Notably, codon-optimisation of the galox gene for expression in P. pastoris did not result in a higher product yield (g protein.L-1 culture). Effective activation of the enzyme to generate the active-site radical copper complex could be equally well achieved by addition of CuSO4 directly in the culture medium or post-harvest. Conclusions: The results indicate that intracellular production in E. coli and extracellular production in P. pastoris comprise a complementary pair of systems for the production of GalOx. The prokaryotic host is favored for high-throughput screening, for example in the development of improved enzymes, while the yeast system is ideal for production scale-up for enzyme applications.

  • 17.
    Spadiut, Oliver
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Posch, Gerald
    Ludwig, Roland
    Haltrich, Dietmar
    Peterbauer, Clemens K.
    Evaluation of different expression systems for the heterologous expression of pyranose 2-oxidase from Trametes multicolor in E. coli2010In: Microbial Cell Factories, ISSN 1475-2859, E-ISSN 1475-2859, Vol. 9, p. 14-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The heterologous production of the industrially relevant fungal enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase in the prokaryotic host E. coli was investigated using 3 different expression systems, i.e. the well-studied T7 RNA polymerase based pET21d(+), the L-arabinose inducible pBAD and the pCOLD system. Preliminary experiments were done in shaking flasks at 25 degrees C and optimized induction conditions to compare the productivity levels of the different expression systems. The pET21d(+) and the pCOLD system gave 29 U/L.h and 14 U/L.h of active pyranose 2-oxidase, respectively, whereas the pBAD system only produced 6 U/L.h. Process conditions for batch fermentations were optimized for the pET21d(+) and the pCOLD systems in order to reduce the formation of inactive inclusion bodies. The highest productivity rate with the pET21d(+) expression system in batch fermentations was determined at 25 C with 32 U/L.h. The pCOLD system showed the highest productivity rate (19 U/L.h) at 25 degrees C and induction from the start of the cultivation. Using the pCOLD system in a fed batch fermentation at 25 degrees C with a specific growth rate of mu = 0.15 h(-1) resulted in the highest productivity rate of active pyranose oxidase with 206 U/L.h.

  • 18. Spadiut, Oliver
    et al.
    Radakovits, Katrin
    Pisanelli, Ines
    Salaheddin, Clara
    Yamabhai, Montarop
    Tan, Tien-Chye
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Divne, Christina
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Haltrich, Dietmar
    A thermostable triple mutant of pyranose 2-oxidase from Trametes multicolor with improved properties for biotechnological applications.2009In: Biotechnology Journal, ISSN 1860-6768, E-ISSN 1860-7314, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 525-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to increase the thermal stability and the catalytic properties of pyranose oxidase (P2Ox) from Trametes multicolor toward its poor substrate D-galactose and the alternative electron acceptor 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ), we designed the triple-mutant T169G/E542K/V546C. Whereas the wild-type enzyme clearly favors D-glucose as its substrate over D-galactose [substrate selectivity (k(cat)/K(M))(Glc)/(k(cat)/K(M))(Gal) = 172], the variant oxidizes both sugars equally well [(k(cat)/K(M))(Glc)/(k(cat)/K(M))(Gal) = 0.69], which is of interest for food biotechnology. Furthermore, the variant showed lower K(M) values and approximately ten-fold higher k(cat) values for 1,4-BQ when D-galactose was used as the saturating sugar substrate, which makes this enzyme particularly attractive for use in biofuel cells and enzyme-based biosensors. In addition to the altered substrate specificity and reactivity, this mutant also shows significantly improved thermal stability. The half life time at 60 degrees C was approximately 10 h, compared to 7.6 min for the wild-type enzyme. We performed successfully small-scale bioreactor pilot conversion experiments of D-glucose/D-galactose mixtures at both 30 and 50 degrees C, showing the usefulness of this P2Ox variant in biocatalysis as well as the enhanced thermal stability of the enzyme. Moreover, we determined the crystal structure of the mutant in its unligated form at 1.55 A resolution. Modeling D-galactose in position for oxidation at C2 into the mutant active site shows that substituting Thr for Gly at position 169 favorably accommodates the axial C4 hydroxyl group that would otherwise clash with Thr169 in the wild-type.

  • 19.
    Spadiut, Oliver
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Tan, Tien-Chye
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry.
    Pisanelli, Ines
    Haltrich, Dietmar
    Divne, Christina
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry.
    Importance of the gating segment in the substrate-recognition loop of pyranose 2-oxidase2010In: The FEBS Journal, ISSN 1742-464X, E-ISSN 1742-4658, Vol. 277, no 13, p. 2892-2909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pyranose 2-oxidase from Trametes multicolor is a 270 kDa homotetrameric enzyme that participates in lignocellulose degradation by wood-rotting fungi and oxidizes a variety of aldopyranoses present in lignocellulose to 2-ketoaldoses. The active site in pyranose 2-oxidase is gated by a highly conserved, conformationally degenerate loop (residues 450-461), with a conformer ensemble that can accommodate efficient binding of both electron-donor substrate (sugar) and electron-acceptor substrate (oxygen or quinone compounds) relevant to the sequential reductive and oxidative half-reactions, respectively. To investigate the importance of individual residues in this loop, a systematic mutagenesis approach was used, including alanine-scanning, site-saturation and deletion mutagenesis, and selected variants were characterized by biochemical and crystal-structure analyses. We show that the gating segment (454FSY456) of this loop is particularly important for substrate specificity, discrimination of sugar substrates, turnover half-life and resistance to thermal unfolding, and that three conserved residues (Asp452, Phe454 and Tyr456) are essentially intolerant to substitution. We furthermore propose that the gating segment is of specific importance for the oxidative half-reaction of pyranose 2-oxidase when oxygen is the electron acceptor. Although the position and orientation of the slow substrate 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-glucose when bound in the active site of pyranose 2-oxidase variants is identical to that observed earlier, the substrate-recognition loop in F454N and Y456W displays a high degree of conformational disorder. The present study also lends support to the hypothesis that 1,4-benzoquinone is a physiologically relevant alternative electron acceptor in the oxidative half-reaction.

  • 20.
    Tan, Tien Chye
    et al.
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Spadiut, Oliver
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Gandini, Rosaria
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haltrich, Dietmar
    Divne, Christina
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Structural Basis for Binding of Fluorinated Glucose and Galactose to Trametes multicolor Pyranose 2-Oxidase Variants with Improved Galactose Conversion2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 1, article id e86736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Each year, about six million tons of lactose are generated from liquid whey as industrial byproduct, and optimally this large carbohydrate waste should be used for the production of value-added products. Trametes multicolor pyranose 2-oxidase (TmP2O) catalyzes the oxidation of various monosaccharides to the corresponding 2-keto sugars. Thus, a potential use of TmP2O is to convert the products from lactose hydrolysis, D-glucose and D-galactose, to more valuable products such as tagatose. Oxidation of glucose is however strongly favored over galactose, and oxidation of both substrates at more equal rates is desirable. Characterization of TmP2O variants (H450G, V546C, H450G/ V546C) with improved D-galactose conversion has been given earlier, of which H450G displayed the best relative conversion between the substrates. To rationalize the changes in conversion rates, we have analyzed high-resolution crystal structures of the aforementioned mutants with bound 2- and 3-fluorinated glucose and galactose. Binding of glucose and galactose in the productive 2-oxidation binding mode is nearly identical in all mutants, suggesting that this binding mode is essentially unaffected by the mutations. For the competing glucose binding mode, enzyme variants carrying the H450G replacement stabilize glucose as the a-anomer in position for 3-oxidation. The backbone relaxation at position 450 allows the substrate-binding loop to fold tightly around the ligand. V546C however stabilize glucose as the beta-anomer using an open loop conformation. Improved binding of galactose is enabled by subtle relaxation effects at key active-site backbone positions. The competing binding mode for galactose 2-oxidation by V546C stabilizes the beta-anomer for oxidation at C1, whereas H450G variants stabilize the 3-oxidation binding mode of the galactose alpha-anomer. The present study provides a detailed description of binding modes that rationalize changes in the relative conversion rates of D-glucose and D-galactose and can be used to refine future enzyme designs for more efficient use of lactose-hydrolysis byproducts.

  • 21.
    Tan, Tien Chye
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry (closed 20130101).
    Spadiut, Oliver
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Wongnate, T.
    Sucharitakul, J.
    Krondorfer, I.
    Sygmund, C.
    Haltrich, D.
    Chaiyen, P.
    Peterbauer, C. K.
    Divne, Christina
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    The 1.6 Å Crystal Structure of Pyranose Dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris Rationalizes Substrate Specificity and Reveals a Flavin Intermediate2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pyranose dehydrogenases (PDHs) are extracellular flavin-dependent oxidoreductases secreted by litter-decomposing fungi with a role in natural recycling of plant matter. All major monosaccharides in lignocellulose are oxidized by PDH at comparable yields and efficiencies. Oxidation takes place as single-oxidation or sequential double-oxidation reactions of the carbohydrates, resulting in sugar derivatives oxidized primarily at C2, C3 or C2/3 with the concomitant reduction of the flavin. A suitable electron acceptor then reoxidizes the reduced flavin. Whereas oxygen is a poor electron acceptor for PDH, several alternative acceptors, e.g., quinone compounds, naturally present during lignocellulose degradation, can be used. We have determined the 1.6-Å crystal structure of PDH from Agaricus meleagris. Interestingly, the flavin ring in PDH is modified by a covalent mono- or di-atomic species at the C(4a) position. Under normal conditions, PDH is not oxidized by oxygen; however, the related enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase (P2O) activates oxygen by a mechanism that proceeds via a covalent flavin C(4a)-hydroperoxide intermediate. Although the flavin C(4a) adduct is common in monooxygenases, it is unusual for flavoprotein oxidases, and it has been proposed that formation of the intermediate would be unfavorable in these oxidases. Thus, the flavin adduct in PDH not only shows that the adduct can be favorably accommodated in the active site, but also provides important details regarding the structural, spatial and physicochemical requirements for formation of this flavin intermediate in related oxidases. Extensive in silico modeling of carbohydrates in the PDH active site allowed us to rationalize the previously reported patterns of substrate specificity and regioselectivity. To evaluate the regioselectivity of D-glucose oxidation, reduction experiments were performed using fluorinated glucose. PDH was rapidly reduced by 3-fluorinated glucose, which has the C2 position accessible for oxidation, whereas 2-fluorinated glucose performed poorly (C3 accessible), indicating that the glucose C2 position is the primary site of attack.

  • 22.
    Tan, Tien-Chye
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Centres, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova.
    Pitsawong, Warintra
    Wongnate, Thanyaporn
    Spadiut, Oliver
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Centres, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova.
    Haltrich, Dietmar
    Chaiyen, Pimchai
    Divne, Christina
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Centres, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova.
    H-Bonding and Positive Charge at the N(5)/O(4) Locus Are Critical for Covalent Flavin Attachment in Trametes Pyranose 2-Oxidase2010In: Journal of Molecular Biology, ISSN 0022-2836, E-ISSN 1089-8638, Vol. 402, no 3, p. 578-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flavoenzymes perform a wide range of redox reactions in nature, and a subclass of flavoenzymes carry covalently bound cofactor. The enzyme-flavin bond helps to increase the flavin's redox potential to facilitate substrate oxidation in several oxidases. The formation of the enzyme-flavin covalent bond-the flavinylation reaction-has been studied for the past 40 years. For the most advocated mechanism of autocatalytic flavinylation, the quinone methide mechanism, appropriate stabilization of developing negative charges at the flavin N(1) and N(5) loci is crucial. Whereas the structural basis for stabilization at N(1) is relatively well studied, the structural requisites for charge stabilization at N(5) remain less clear. Here, we show that flavinylation of histidine 167 of pyranose 2-oxidase from Trametes multicolor requires hydrogen bonding at the flavin N(5)/O(4) locus, which is offered by the side chain of Thr169 when the enzyme is in its closed, but not open, state. Moreover, our data show that additional stabilization at N(5) by histidine 548 is required to ensure high occupancy of the histidyl flavin bond. The combination of structural and spectral data on pyranose 2-oxidase mutants supports the quinone methide mechanism. Our results demonstrate an elaborate structural fine-tuning of the active site to complete its own formation that couples efficient holoenzyme synthesis to conformational substates of the substrate-recognition loop and concerted movements of side chains near the flavinylation ligand. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 23.
    Xu, Chunlin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Spadiut, Oliver
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Araujo, Ana Catarina
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Nakhai, Azadeh
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Willfor, Stefan
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Chemo-enzymatic assembly of clickable cellulose surfaces via multivalent polysaccharides2012In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 243Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Xu, Chunlin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Spadiut, Oliver
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Araújo, Ana Catarina
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Nakhai, Azadeh
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Chemo-enzymatic Assembly of Clickable Cellulose Surfaces via Multivalent Polysaccharides2012In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 661-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemist′s guide to the galactosyl unit: A chemo-enzymatic process is developed for the multivalent functionalization of cellulose surfaces via regioselective oxidation of heteropolysaccharides with galactose 6-oxidase. Reductive amination, surface sorption, and click chemistry enable the assembly of (bio)chemically active cellulose surfaces for applications ranging from functional biocomposites to in vitro diagnostics.

1 - 24 of 24
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