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  • 1.
    Cechin, Andrei
    et al.
    Wageningen University.
    Pacini, Henrique
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Economia verde: por que o otimismo deve ser aliado ao ceticismo da razão2012Inngår i: Estudos Avançados, ISSN 0103-4014, E-ISSN 1806-9592, Vol. 26, nr 74, s. 121-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The green economy initiative carries with it the optimistic view that theeconomy can and should be driven by investments in clean activities as opposed to theextraction of natural resources and polluting industries. However there are limits to theemphasis that is often put on efficiency improvements and on the substitution betweensectors of an economy. For the economy to be green, the reduction in environmentalimpact per unit of GDP should be higher than GDP growth over a period. Even thoughrecent evidence shows that some countries aparently passed the peak in the use of materialsand energy, global extraction of natural resources and CO2 emissions has increased.A probable cause is that rich countries have outsourced polluting activities to poorercountries. It is time to bring the skepticism of reason to the debate and seriously discussdegrowth, not of GDP or of opportunities for human development, but of the globalresource extration and carbon emissions.

  • 2.
    Hamwey, Robert
    et al.
    UNCTAD.
    Pacini, Henrique
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Assuncao, Lucas
    UNCTAD.
    Mapping Green Product Spaces of Nations2013Inngår i: Journal of Environment and Development, ISSN 1070-4965, E-ISSN 1552-5465, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 155-168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As countries transition to a green economy, they will need to identify profitable entry points in which they can favorably compete with other nations in emerging green markets. Identifying and building supply capacity for commercially viable, competitive green product exports can be seen as a fundamental part of supporting green growth and sustainable development. Building on the product space model initially advanced by Hidalgo et al. in 2007, this article proposes a green product space methodology to map the export strengths of countries for a specified set of green products. The methodology does so by identifying green products for which a country is likely to be competitive in the world market based on export performance of related products. Results for Brazil are presented to illustrate the green product space methodology followed by a discussion of its limitations and potential contribution to industrial policy formulation to support emerging green sectors.

  • 3.
    Henrique, Pacini
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Consumer choice between Ethanol and Gasoline: Lessons from the Cases of Brazil and Sweden2010Inngår i: Conference proceedings 3rd International Scientific Conference on “Energy systems with IT” / [ed] Erik Dahlquist, Jenny Palm, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Pacini, Henrique
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Carbon emissions and development paths: A discussion of the Kuznets environmental curve2010Inngår i: UNCTAD Public Symposium 2010, Geneva: United Nations , 2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A common goal among governments is to promote socio-economic development and raise living standards of populations worldwide. As of today, some countries have achieved considerable development levels as measured by the Human Development Index (HDI). On the other hand, a large part of the world population lives in developing countries, and many still lack access to the services and goods thought to be standard in the modern society. This discussion paper engages in a critical discussion of the Kuznets Environmental Curve concept which implies a emporary increase in carbon emissions per unit of GDP as countries transition to higher development levels. The coming years will see enduring efforts for socio-economic improvements in low and mid-developed countries, but the feasibility of conventional development models is put into question. Development paths based on emission-intensive growth have to be phased-out towards a low-carbon equivalent, not only by the leading countries but most importantly in the developing world.

  • 5.
    Pacini, Henrique
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Consumer choice between ethanol and gasoline: Lessons from price mechanisms in Brazil and Sweden2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Pacini, Henrique
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Solar Power in the European Context: Conversion Efficiency and the Issue of Carbon2009Inngår i: Journal of Contemporary European Research, ISSN 1815-347X, E-ISSN 1815-347X, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 114-133Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union is committed to increasing the use of renewable energies across Europe. One of the ways this is to be done is through the promotion of solar photovoltaics (PV), a method with significant environmental benefits. However, the high costs of electricity generated through PV have constrained the market reach of this option. This paper takes the form of a policy discussion, analyzing the fundamental issues concerning this type of energy, and its place in the European alternative energy market. Furthermore, a scenario is drafted to estimate how efficient solar panels should ideally be to make electricity produced by them cost-competitive with conventional, grid-tied energy sources.  The study considers both a conventional scenario and another, with carbon capture costs incorporated into the final electricity prices. It is observed that in order to be competitive with conventional fossil-based electricity, photovoltaic conversion efficiencies should be around 34%. Incorporating carbon costs would further help promote solar PV, making it more price-attractive compared to emission-intensive electricity generation based on fossil fuels. The final part of the paper sheds light on the new developments on European PV, mainly in regards to the 2008 European Commission Climate Change Package, its implications and reactions from the industry.

  • 7.
    Pacini, Henrique
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    The Development of Bioethanol Markets under Sustainability Requirements2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a theoretical and empirical examination of the developmentof bioethanol markets since 2005 when sustainability regulations forbiofuels were introduced globally. The experiences of Brazil and Sweden,and the influence of European regulations on the development ofbioethanol markets receive special attention. The work is based onprimary and secondary data sources gathered between 2009 and 2014,including interviews, field research, data from public and private sources,as well as an extensive literature review. The thesis uses case examples ofcountries that have adopted bioethanol as a transport fuel, such as Braziland Sweden.The research is structured using a bottom-up approach, and addressesthree specific angles of the complex issue of how bioethanol marketshave developed under sustainability requirements.The first part introduces an economic sustainability view of ethanol. Thecharacteristics of bioethanol fuel are presented together with conceptsand a theoretical framework for analysing biofuel sustainability. Policytools are also discussed, particularly those used to introduce fuel ethanolin the transport sector. The discussion is centred on the competitionbetween ethanol and gasoline, considering the hypothesis that consumersare sensitive to prices and tend to choose fuels based on their cost-perenergyunit. The analysis is supported by the case examples of Brazil andSweden, with special focus on the delicate balance between fueleconomies of bioethanol and gasoline systems in the face of differentways oil products are priced in those countries. Findings show thatdrivers tend to choose between bioethanol (E85/E100) or gasoline (E5-E25) depending on the relative prices between the two fuels. Theresearch results suggest that different pricing strategies for bioethanoland gasoline affect how consumers perceive the attractiveness of eachfuel. The examples of E100 in Brazil and E85 in Sweden provide insightson the elastic consumer behaviour that new markets may experience,serving to guide strategies in different contexts.The second part of this work bridges experiences in national contextswith the recent trend for biofuel sustainability regulation in internationalmarkets. Based on the hypothesis that the ethanol industry is responsiveto sustainability regulations, an examination of the development of theiiBrazilian bioethanol industry is carried out. This provides a comparisonframework drawing patterns between the industry's reaction to nationalregulations (past) and international regulations (recent). For this purpose,a comparison between the European sustainability requirements forethanol and the industry’s status quo is explored. Findings show that theEU sustainability criteria for biofuels are likely to have three effects onthe bioethanol industry: (i) compliance through incrementalimprovements in sustainability practices and certification; (ii) riskdiversification by engaging in multi-output production models; and (iii)market leakage towards less-regulated markets.The third part of the thesis brings together the first two parts. Itexamines how in a fuel competition context, the incorporation of costsrelated to sustainability certification can change the attractiveness ofhigh-bioethanol blends for consumers. The model of sustainabilityadopted by major international markets is based on regulations enforcedby mandatory certification. As biofuel market share increased, producerswere faced with costs for sustainability certification in order to obtainmarket access. While it was expected that ‘sustainably’ produced biofuelswould be rewarded with higher prices in the EU, this work found thatprice premiums for ethanol have in general been very small or inexistent,with certified fuels becoming the new norm in the market. New costsbrought into the market through sustainability certification can make itdifficult to balance between national policies heavily reliant on consumerchoice between fuels (and associated price-elasticities), and thedeployment of high blends of ethanol, such as E100 and E85.By analysing the three aspects (consumer behaviour and marketdynamics for ethanol in Brazil and Sweden, the introduction ofsustainability criteria for biofuels, and the implications of sustainabilityfor consumer choice between fuels) this work seeks to increaseunderstanding of the highly complex issue of biofuel market formationin the face of sustainability requirements. The key finding is thatsustainability certification has a cost, which needs to be orchestrated withother sectors of the economy to achieve the desired objectives. Thisthesis suggests that crucial areas of economic and environmentalsustainability have been often dealt with separately in biofuelpolicymaking, which has created weaknesses that deserve attention infuture policy efforts in order to improve biofuel systems.

  • 8.
    Pacini, Henrique
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    The European Biofuels Policy: from where and where to?: Summary of paper for presentation for Risø Energy Conference, Denmark May 10-12, 20112011Inngår i: Energy Systems and Technologies for the Coming Century, Risø-R-1776(EN) May 2011 Proceedings Risø International Energy Conference 2011, May 10 - 12 / [ed] Leif Sønderberg Petersen and Hans Larsen, RISO STU, 2011, s. 268-274Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels for transport had a long history prior to their formal introduction in the European Union by means of formal directives in 2003 and 2009. Dating back to years before the First World War, busses were already rolling in Paris on a mixture of ethanol and petrol. Between 1920 and 1950 the French continued using sugar-beetbased ethanol as a tool to improve energy independence and reduce trade deficits (Kutas et al, 2007 p. 15). Ethanol utilization as a fuel blend only fell once oil prices achieved record lows in the 1960´s, as large reserves started being tapped in the middle-east.

    In the 1970s oil price shocks brought concerns about the European dependence on foreign energy, and the following decades saw many actions which started to change the biofuels panorama in Europe. By 1973 biodiesel research was already being conducted in Wieselburg, Austria, and in 1982 the country had its first pilot plant for biodiesel (producing fatty-acid methyl ester - FAME). After successful experiences with ethanol in Brazil, the first European directive which opened potential large markets for biofuels in Europe was the Council Directive 85/536/ECC, which authorized blends of 5% ethanol and 15% Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE, a bioether) on petrol. The usage of bioethanol for blending, however, was hampered by the low prices of oil products which marked the late 1980s and most of the 1990s (the same reasons which dealt a blow to the Brazilian ethanol program during that time).

    In tandem with the development of biofuels in Europe, carbon emissions were already consolidated in scholarly literature as the major causal factor behind climate change (Nordhaus, 1983; Daansgaard, 1993). Since the UN's Brundtland commission report from 1987, alternatives to de-carbonize the transport sector were in high demand, but the deployment of alternatives was hampered by a conjuncture of low oil prices. The following years in the 1990s were instrumental for the emergence of the modern environmental policy pursued by the EU, which became rooted in its commitment to the Rio-92 conference and later commitment to the Kyoto protocol. Early in that decade the first attempt at biofuel-promotion legislation at the EU level took place, while at national levels the adoption of technical standards for biofuels gained steam.

  • 9.
    Pacini, Henrique
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    The impacts of the EU Biofuels sustainability scheme in bioethanol markets2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission has adopted recent legislation aggregating many aspects of the promotion of renewable energy in Europe. This Directive proposal was put forward by the European Commission(EC)on 23 January 2008 and adopted in December of the same year. It was part of the Climate Change Package providing the EC regulatory approach on the most critical implications of a stronger biofuels policy for Europe. In the proposal the Commission unveils its sustainability criteria for the production and usage of biofuels, as well as binding 10% targets for all European member states by 2020.

    The objective of this research is to explore the impacts of the proposed European sustainability criteria on the Brazilian bioethanol production and markets and the implications that this may have on the development of biofuel markets at a global level.

  • 10.
    Pacini, Henrique
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    The Impacts of the EU Sustainability Scheme for Biofuels in Bioethanol Markets2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

     The European Commission has adopted recent legislation aggregating many aspects of the promotion of renewable energy in Europe. This Directive proposal was put forward by the European Commission (EC) on 23 January 2008 and adopted in December of the same year. It was part of the Climate Change Package providing the EC regulatory approach on the most critical implications of a stronger biofuels policy for Europe.  In the proposal the Commission unveils its sustainability criteria for the production and usage of biofuels, as well as binding 10% targets for all European member states by 2020. The objective of this research is to explore the impacts of the proposed European sustainability criteria on the Brazilian bioethanol production and markets and the implications that this may have on the development of biofuel markets at a global level.

  • 11.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Assuncao, Lucas
    United Nations.
    Sustainable biofuels in the EU: the costs of certification and impacts on new producers2011Inngår i: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, Vol. 2, nr 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    While certification aims to differentiate biofuels according to their sustainability, itcan also affect prospects for market access. While the final consumer ultimately bearsthe costs of certified biofuels, the split of certification costs along supply chains couldhave strong implications for new producers in developing countries.

  • 12.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Assunção, Lucas
    UNCTAD.
    van Dam, Jinke
    Toneto Jr, Rudinei
    FEARP-USP.
    The price for biofuels sustainability2013Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 59, s. 898-903Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The production and usage of biofuels has increased worldwide, seeking goals of energy security, lowcarbonenergy and rural development. As biofuels trade increased, the European Union introducedsustainability regulations in an attempt to reduce the risks associated with biofuels. Producers were thenconfronted with costs of sustainability certification, in order to access the EU market. Hopes were thatsustainably-produced biofuels would be rewarded with higher prices in the EU. Based on a review ofrecent literature, interviews with traders and price data from Platts, this paper explores whethersustainability premiums emerged and if so, did they represent an attracting feature in the market forsustainable biofuels. This article finds that premiums for ethanol and biodiesel evolved differentlybetween 2011 and 2012, but have been in general very small or inexistent, with certified fuels becomingthe new norm in the market. For different reasons, there has been an apparent convergence betweenbiofuel policies in the EU and the US. As market operators perceive a long-term trend for full certificationin the biofuels market, producers in developing countries are likely to face additional challenges in termsof finance and capacity to cope with the sustainability requirements.

  • 13.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Batidzirai, Bothwell
    Chinhoyi University of Technology .
    The Development of Biofuel Capacities - Strengthining the Position of African Countries through Increased Energy Security2011Inngår i: Bioenergy for Sustainable Development and International Competitiveness: The Role of Sugar Cane in Africa / [ed] Francis X Johnson and Vikram Seebaluck, Earthscan , 2011Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    African countries face a broad spectrum of challenges in their pursuit for progress. Among the key challenges to sustainable development in the region is the issue of energy security. Fears of oil supply disruptions, high prices, power blackouts and fuelwood shortages have all become issues of concern especially for poor oil importing countries in SSA (Batidzirai and Wamukonya, 2010; UNECE, 2007). Concerns are more critical for landlocked countries, where transportation costs of fuel are high and supply lines are vulnerable to disruptions in the case of civil unrest, natural disasters, geopolitical instability or barriers to trade (Habitat, 1993; Scurlock et al, 1991).

    For most Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the ability to meet growing demand for energy is among the top national priorities. The availability of reliable and affordable energy in sufficient quantities is essential for meeting basic needs and driving economic development. While seeking to improve their energy security, SSA countries must tackle a number of challenges; including diversification of supply, securing capital and financing for energy infrastructure, develop technical expertise and technical solutions tailored to specific national needs.

    Where conditions are conducive, biofuels have potential to substitute a significant amount of energy used in the transport, electricity and cooking sectors. Biofuels are an attractive transport energy option for most SSA countries as the production does not require sophisticated technologies. Furthermore many SSA countries possess abundant natural resources and favourable conditions such as high temperatures, solar incidence and availability of land which are pre-requisites for development of successful biofuels industries. Recent studies have shown that potential for biomass energy is very high in SSA. The sugar industry is one of the key sectors which has potential to contribute significantly to the supply of bioethanol fuel for transportation as well as supply of bagasse-fired electricity.

  • 14.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Cechin, A.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Sustainability policy: A case study of the limits to biofuel sustainability2013Inngår i: Mechanism Design for Sustainability: Techniques and Cases, Springer Netherlands, 2013, s. 283-305Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels are attractive alternative energy carriers not least due to their interface with existing infrastructure for conventional fuels in the transportation sector. But while representing a renewable alternative to petroleum fuels, an expanded usage of biofuels could conflict with ecological and social systems. In face of this risk, a number of countries are designing sustainability standards and safeguard mechanisms for biofuels, in an attempt to reduce the negative effects of their growing usage. This chapter explores biofuel sustainability policies, their economic rationale, and specially their limits, as seen from the basic strategies of dematerialization, detoxification, and transmaterialization. The chapter then frames where biofuel sustainability policies have margin for action, exemplified by the case of the European scheme proposed in 2009. By understanding the economic rationale and guiding principles behind efforts to improve biofuel sustainability, the chapter can contribute to better understand the actual scope and limitations of policy efforts currently aiming to promote responsible biofuels usage. The study concludes by proposing that transparency and dialogue, including parties directly and indirectly affected by biofuel strategies, as the only way to legitimize the sharing of risks in this emerging international market.

  • 15.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    da Silva Filho, Antonio Carlos
    Uni-FACEF, Brazil.
    Bruno, Francaroli
    Ethanol vs. Gasoline in Brazil: what to expect when sustainability is incorporatedManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 16.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    da Silva Filho, Antonio Carlos
    Uni-FACEF.
    de Oliveira Silva, Giulia
    Uni-FACEF.
    Guasti Lima, Fabiano
    Universidade de São Paulo.
    When is pure ethanol attractive as a fuel option? Quantifying the gasoline vs ethanol dilemma faced by consumers in Brazil2011Inngår i: Journal of Academy of Business and Economics, ISSN 1542-8710, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 109-115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian light vehicle fleet runs mainly on two energy carriers: Gasoline and Ethanol (E100). While inBrazil bioethanol is used both as a low blend with gasoline (E20-25) and in a pure, separate option(E100), a large share of the fleet is flex-fuel capable, meaning cars can take pure ethanol, gasoline or anymixture of both. The choice on which fuel to use depends on consumer preferences when presented withboth choices at the pump. Previous research indicates that prices are a major factor influencing the fuelchoice at any given moment. Gasoline prices were relatively stable between 2005 and 2011, whileethanol prices experienced strong fluctuations based on sugarcane harvest seasons, suboptimalregulatory stocks and increasing demand due to the rising share of flex-fuel cars as well as exports to theUS and European Union markets. Therefore, depending on relative prices between ethanol and gasoline,the consumer appears to decide on the economic attractiveness of each fuel. The limit ratio betweenethanol and gasoline prices is considered to lie between 0.6 and 0.7 (due to different energy content andengine efficiencies characteristic to ethanol and gasoline). This study enhances previous investigationson consumer behavior in face of high biofuels blends, in form of an in-depth statistical analysis of thechoice phenomenon. The study focuses on the price-trigger which leads to fuel shift based on demandand price data from the Brazilian Agency for Oil, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP), the Ministry ofAgriculture and the Brazilian Statistical Institute (IBGE) for the period between January 2005 and January2011, with monthly resolution. Relative prices and consumption between ethanol and gasoline priceswere calculated for all 27 Brazilian states (1971 observations). The analysis proceeded in form ofcorrelations and non-linear regressions in order to determine the quantitative reaction from the market inface of different price variations faced by consumers at the pump, in different seasons of the year. Theresulting regressions from the Brazilian case serve as a tool for policy-makers to seek efficient biofuelspromotion strategies, which specially guarantee the economic sustainability of the competing fuels,specially the attractiveness of biofuels when used as high-blends.

  • 17.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Tailor-made solutions: Small-scale biofuels and trade2010Inngår i: Bridges Trade BioRes Review, ISSN 1996-9198, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 10-11Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    In current debates on biofuels trade, the focus tends to be on large-scale production. However, the production of small-scale biofuels is better suited for many smaller developing and least-developed countries. Small-scale biofuels can bring many social and environmental benefits at the local level and, cumulatively, their production and utilisation can bring significant trade benefits.

  • 18.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Carbon Intensities of Economies from the Perspective of Learning Curves2013Inngår i: Challenges in Sustainability, ISSN 2297-6477, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 94-103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While some countries have achieved considerable development, many others still lack accessto the goods and services considered standard in the modern society. As CO2 emissions and development are often correlated, this paper employs the theoretical background of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) and the learning curves toolkit to analyze how carbon intensities have changed as countries move towards higher development (and cumulative wealth) levels. The EKC concept is then tested with the methodology of learning curves for the period between 1971 and 2010, so as to capture a dynamic picture of emissions trends and development. Results of both analyses reveal that empirical data fails to provide direct evidence of an EKC for emissions and development. The data does show, however, an interesting pattern in the dispersion of emissions levels for countries within the same HDI categories. While data does not show that countries grow more polluting during intermediary development stages, it does provide evidence that countries become more heterogeneous in their emission intensities as they develop, later re-converging to lower emission intensities at higher HDI levels. Learning rates also indicate heterogeneity among developing countries and relative convergence among developed countries. Given the heterogeneity of development paths among countries, the experiences of those which are managing to develop at low carbon intensities can prove valuable examples for ongoing efforts in climate change mitigation, especially in the developing world.

  • 19.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Consumer choice between ethanol and gasoline: Lessons from Brazil and Sweden2011Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, nr 11, s. 6936-6942Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of flex-fuel vehicles since 2003 has made possible for Brazilian drivers to choose between high ethanol blends or gasoline depending on relative prices and fuel economies. In Sweden, flex-fuel fleets were introduced in 2005. Prices and demand data were examined for both Brazil and Sweden. Bioethanol has been generally the most cost-efficient fuel in Brazil, but not for all states. In any case, consumers in Brazil have opted for ethanol even when this was not the optimal economic choice. In Sweden, a different behavior was observed when falling gasoline prices made E85 uneconomical in late 2008. In a context of international biofuels expansion, the example of E85 in Sweden indicates that new markets could experience different consumer behavior than Brazil: demand falls rapidly with reduced price differences between ethanol and gasoline. At the same time, rising ethanol demand and lack of an international market with multiple biofuel producers could lead to higher domestic prices in Brazil. Once the limit curve is crossed, the consumer might react by shifting back to the usage of gasoline.

  • 20.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Ethanol or gasoline?: Consumer choice in face of different fuel pricing systems in Brazil and Sweden2010Inngår i: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, Vol. 1, nr 5, s. 685-695Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of high biofuel blends and flex-fuel fleets, consumers are faced with variations in the attractiveness of high-ethanol blends (E85 and E100), which depend, among other factors, on the different price mechanisms applied to gasoline. This research article examines scenarios in which different levels of oscillation in oil prices are transmitted to final gasoline markets in Brazil, influencing the attractiveness of ethanol to consumers. Our analysis suggests that the consumer might prefer more constant price advantages (e.g., in Brazil), while reacting negatively to very volatile markets (e.g., in Sweden). Since consumers apparently use more biofuels in a context of less price volatility, price stability might be an important aspect for policy makers to consider when designing policies to promote biofuel markets.

  • 21.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Gasoline pricing systems and the attractiveness of high-ethanol blends: The cases of Brazil and Sweden2010Inngår i: Conference proceedings 3rd International Scientific Conference on “Energy systems with IT” at Alvsjö fair in association with Energitinget March 16-17 2010 / [ed] Erik Dahlqvist, Jenny Palm, Malardalen University Press , 2010, s. 132-139Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioethanol fuel is considered by a number of countries as a tool to reduce the carbon intensity of the transport sector, improve energy security and promote rural development. (Macedo et al., 2008; Hoekman, 2009; Goldemberg, 2007). This has been reflected by the broader move towards biofuels taken by leading economic blocks. The European Union and United States have both manifested their intention to increase the share of biofuels in their final energy consumption (European Commission 2009; US Congress 2007). Most fuel-grade ethanol in the world is used as an oxygenate into gasoline (low blend) which allows the utilization of conventional fuel infrastructure. On the other hand, some countries opted for high-blend ethanol (E100 and E85) in their fuel pools as a way to offer a "green" alternative to gasoline.

    However, biofuels can only deliver an effective contribution to climate change mitigation if, at the end, they prove to be an attractive choice for consumers.

    This summary is based on work presented at the 3 rdInternational Scientific Conference on Energy Systems with IT, part of Energitinget 2010. It consists of a summary of an initial investigation from Pacini and Silveira (upcoming), with a deepened focus on a further examination on how gasoline pricing systems can be important in determining the attractiveness of high ethanol blends for the consumer (Pacini and Silveira, 2010).

  • 22.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    da Silva Filho, Antonio Carlos
    Uni-FACEF, Brazil.
    The European Biofuels Policy: from where and where to?2013Inngår i: European Energy Journal, ISSN 2211-9175, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 1-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the development of the European biofuels policy, from its origins in the form of scattered national initiatives tocurrent directives enforced at EU level. Future trends are discussed based on a forecastingexercise for biofuels consumption in the EU27 following three steps. Firstly, the origins and evolution of biofuels policy in Europe arepresented, with particular attention to thegradual shift from national initiatives toEU-level directives after 2003. Secondly, theEuropean Energy Journal | Volume 3 | Issue 1 | January 2013The European Biofuels Policy: from where and where to18paper analyses recent developments, such asthe implementation of the RED, the RenewableEnergy Action Plans (NREAPs), the mandatorysustainability criteria for biofuels and thedevelopment of certification schemes. Toconclude, the paper provides projections forthe future use of biofuels in the EU27 based onthe policy framework in place as well as recent information from member states’ strategies.These projections serve as a tool for policy benchmark and baseline for policy adjustments.

  • 23.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Strapasson, Alexandre
    Imperial College, London.
    Innovation subject to sustainability: the European policy on biofuels and its effects on innovation in the Brazilian bioethanol industry2012Inngår i: Journal of Contemporary European Research, ISSN 1815-347X, E-ISSN 1815-347X, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 367-397Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels are a suitable complement for fossil energy in the transport sector and bioethanol is the main biofuel traded worldwide. Based on the assumption that innovation can be influenced by regulation, the Brazilian bioethanol industry is facing new requirements from external actors while reaching for international markets. Until 2010, national environmental laws were the main sustainability instrument that the biofuel industry faced. With the introduction of sustainability criteria for biofuels in the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD) and Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of 2009, bioethanol producers have been pressured to innovate in respect of the requirements of future markets. Here, the aim is to analyse the case of Brazil, given the potential exports of sugarcane-based ethanol from this country to the EU. Brazil provides an interesting overview of how a bioethanol industry innovated while facing sustainability requirements in the past. A comparison between the European requirements and the industry´s status quo is then explored. The EU criteria are likely to have effects on the Brazilian bioethanol industry and incremental improvements in sustainability levels might take place based on the sustainability requirements. In addition, the industry could follow two other paths, namely risk diversification by engaging in multi-output models; and market leakage towards less-regulated markets. At the same time, an environmental overregulation of the biofuel market may make it more difficult for emerging biofuel industries in other countries, especially in Africa, by creating a barrier rather than contributing to its expansion. The results of this analysis show the main challenges to be addressed and the potential positive and negative impacts of the European Union biofuels policy on the Brazilian bioethanol industry.

  • 24. Vanpeperstraete, Ben
    et al.
    Duyck, Sebastien
    Bhandari, Medani P.
    Brizga, Janis
    Rijnhout, Leida
    Lorek, Sylvia
    Castro, A. Peter
    Chang, Chiung Ting
    Daly, Herman
    Didham, Robert J.
    Ferraro, Gianluca
    Greenfield, Oliver
    Khosla, Ashok
    von Weizsaecker, Ernst Ulrich
    Lode, Birgit
    Miles, Simon
    Pacini, Henrique
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Perch, Leisa
    Rijnsburger, Jaap
    Sanwal, Mukul
    Savarala, Sameera
    Scherr, S. Jacob
    Seetharam, Kallidaikurichi E.
    Adeeb, A. M. M.
    Shepherd, Donna
    Smith, Adrian
    Ulatowska, Lisinka
    Vincent, Alice
    John, Werner
    "What do you think should be the two or three highest priority political outcomes of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), scheduled for Rio de Janeiro in June 2012?"2011Inngår i: Natural resources forum (Print), ISSN 0165-0203, E-ISSN 1477-8947, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 334-342Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
1 - 24 of 24
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