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  • 1.
    Carlmark, Anna E
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Vestberg, Robert
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström Jonsson, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Atom transfer radical polymerization of methyl acrylate from a multifunctional initiator at ambient temperature2002In: Polymer, ISSN 0032-3861, E-ISSN 1873-2291, Vol. 43, no 15, p. 4237-4242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multifunctional initiator for ATRP has been synthesized by reacting a hyperbranched polyether, based on 3-ethyl-3-(hydroxymethyl)oxetane, with 2-bromo-isobutyrylbromide. The macroinitiator contained approximately 25 initiating sites per molecule. It was used for the atom transfer radical polymerization of methyl acrylate mediated by Cu(I)Br and tris(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)amine (Me-6-TREN) in ethyl acetate at room temperature. This yielded a co-polymer with a dendritic-linear architecture. The large number of growing chains from each macromolecule increases the probability of inter-and intramolecular reactions. In order to control these kinds of polymerizing systems and prevent them from forming a gel, the concentration of propagating radicals must be kept low. The polymerizations under these conditions were well controlled. When a ratio of initiating sites-to-catalyst of 1:0.05 was used, the polymers from all of the reactions had a low polydispersity, ranging from 1.1 to 1.4. None of the polymerizations under these conditions gave gelation. Monomer conversions as high as 65% were reached while maintaining control over the polymerization. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2. Glimsdal, E.
    et al.
    Eriksson, A.
    Vestberg, Robert
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lindgren, A.
    Two-photon absorption cross-section and triplet states of dendritic Pt-acetylides for OPL applications2005In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The photo-physical properties of bis((4-(phenylethynyl)phenyl)ethynyl) bis(tributylphosphine) platinum(II) with 2,2-bis(methylol)propionic acid (bis-MPA) dendritic substituents were studied. The introduction of dendrimer capping was found to give rise to protection from oxygen quenching of phosphorescent states with a considerably longer decay time of the phosphorescence (0.1 -0.4 ms range) for solvents with oxygen removed or dendrimers of larger size (G2-G4) or higher concentration. Presence of oxygen reduces the phosphorescence decay time to below 1 microsecond. Two-photon induced fluorescence and z-scan of fs pulses at low pulse repetition frequency at approximately 720 nm revealed that the two-photon absorption cross-section is in the order of 0.01 cm/GW, well below the 0.34cm/GW reported by Staromlynska et al [J. Staromlynska, T. McKay and P. Wilson, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1726 (2000)] and similar for all dendrimer complexes as well as the non-capped Pt-acetylide. Z-scans performed at high pulse repetition frequency gives an apparent two-photon absorption cross-section that is higher due to the population of excited triplet states, and the contribution from incoherent multiphoton absorption involving the triplet states.

  • 3.
    Lindgren, Mikael
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Minaev, Boris
    Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Glimsdal, Eirik
    Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Vestberg, Robert
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Westlund, Robert
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Electronic states and phosphorescence of dendron functionalized platinum(II) acetylides2007In: Journal of Luminescence, ISSN 0022-2313, E-ISSN 1872-7883, Vol. 124, no 2, p. 302-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The photophysical properties of bis((4-(phenylethynyl)phenyl)ethynyl)bis(tributylphosphine) platinum(II) with 2,2-bis(methylo])propionic acid (bis-MPA) dendritic substituents were studied. The fluorescence emission decay upon excitation in the UV (typically 350-380 nm) was rapid, in the order of I ns or shorter. In oxygen-saturated tetrahydrofuran solvent, the phosphorescence decay time was in the order of 200 ns. Bright phosphorescence at 530 nm was found for dendrimers under certain conditions. The associated phosphorescence decay time considerably increased to above 100-200 mu s at higher concentrations (30-100 mu M), and in oxygen-evacuated samples. Thus, it was clarified that the strongest triplet quenching was caused by oxygen dissolved in the sample, since it was possible to reversibly go between the bright and quenched phosphorescent state by freeze-thaw pumping cycles. The bright phosphorescence formed spontaneously for the cases with the larger dendritic substituents is implying a chromophore protecting effect. From time-dependent density functional calculations, the electronic structure of a few low-lying singlet and triplet states are discussed. A new mechanism for efficient triplet state formation and phosphorescence of Pt-ethynyls is proposed. Here, a fast relaxation via internal conversion takes the excited population of the dominant pi -> pi*, excitation into a lower singlet state of ligand-to-metal charge transfer character of pi sigma* type. This allows an efficient inter system crossing to the triplet state manifold.

  • 4.
    Nyström, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Vestberg, Robert
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lindgren, Mikael
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Porphyrin-Cored 2,2-Bis(methylol)propionic Acid Dendrimers2004In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Chemistry of materials, Vol. 16, no 14, p. 2794-2804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis and characterization of dendron-coated porphyrins up to the fifth generation are described. Both free base and zinc-cored tetraphenylporphyrin (TPPH2 and TPPZn) were used, from which the dendrons were divergently grown using the anhydride of acetonide-protected bis-MPA (acetonide-2,2-bis(methoxy)propanoic anhydride). It is shown that a spacer must be attached to the porphyrin to increase the hydrolytic stability and allow synthesis of higher generations. Direct coupling of dendrons to the porphyrins was also investigated but failed to give full substitution of the porphyrin core. The absorption and fluorescence emission data for the TPPZn dendrimers indicate that the porphyrin configuration may change at higher generations. The hydrodynamic volume of the dendrimers is calculated from the polarization anisotropy decay data. It is shown that these bis-MPA dendrimers are significantly smaller than the same generation Frechet-type benzyl ether TPP dendrimer.

  • 5.
    Pitois, Claire
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Vestberg, Robert
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Rodlert, Marlene
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Lindgren, M.
    Fluorinated dendritic polymers and dendrimers for waveguide applications2003In: Optical materials (Amsterdam), ISSN 0925-3467, E-ISSN 1873-1252, Vol. 21, no 1-3, p. 499-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I Fluorinated hyperbranched polymers and dendrimers with low optical losses and functionality to modify refractive index and add a cross-linking unit were developed. The results of refractive index. measurements indicate a tunability of the refractive index between approximately 1.5 and 1.6, and optical losses below 0.5 dB/cm at 1550 nm. Dendrimers with similar, surface group structure and possibility to surface functionalization were prepared using a lanthanide. cation as focal point. Results on luminescent properties in the NIR and IR regions were measured for lanthanide ions such as Nd3+ and Er3+, showing characteristic emission bands at 1.06, 1.3 and 1.5 mum. The associated absorption and excitation spectra were found similar to those of the corresponding ions in optical glasses.

  • 6.
    Rodlert, Marlene
    et al.
    KTH.
    Vestberg, Robert
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Persson, M.
    Lindgren, M.
    Chiral dendritic polymers for photonic applications2002In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 127, no 03-jan, p. 37-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present chiral dendrons of different generations accomplished by reacting the hydroxyl groups at the chain ends with (-)menthoxyacetic acid. Subsequent deprotection of the carboxylic acid rendered acid functional chiral dendrons. The acid-functionalized chiral dendrons were doped with divalent cations CU2+, Fe2+ and Zn2+, and trivalent lanthanide cations Nd3+ and Pr3+. We present results on their optical rotatory power along with circular dichroism spectroscopy and results of paramagnetic resonance. The chiral dendrons were shown to influence the electronic transitions of the metal ions (CD spectra). Attempts to characterize the circularly polarized luminescence of the Nd-dendrimer failed due to low quantum yield. The luminescence efficiency was found to be at least one order of magnitude lower than that of a fluorinated and non-chiral dendrimer structure of similar size and coordination structure.

  • 7.
    Vestberg, Robert
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Dendron decorated chromophores for optical power limiting applications2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for protection of eyes and electro-optic sensors from powerful lasers has increased the need for new and better optical power limiting (OPL) materials that can protect against laser light. In this study the synthesis and characterization of dendron-coated OPL chromophores (porphyrins, thiophenes, and platinum(II) acetylides) are discussed. The work has been divided into two different main parts.

    In the first part it was investigated if dendrons could be attached to these chromophore molecules. The dendrons were attached using the versatile chemistry of the acetonide protected anhydride of 2,2-bis(methylol)propionic acid (bis-MPA). The resulting dendrimers were characterized with NMR, SEC and MALDI-TOF to verify that well-defined molecules were obtained.

    Well-defined virtually monodisperse dendron-coated chromophores up to the fourth generation were synthesized for the three different chromophores. For the porphyrins the fifth generation were also synthesized but molecular weight measurements showed that they were not perfect.

    In the second part the performance of the dendron-coated materials for protection against lasers was analyzed. Other spectroscopic studies such as absorption, emission, and lifetime measurements were also performed to understand the influence of the dendritic coating on the properties of the materials.

    The dendritic coating had little effect on the free-base porphyrins and the thiophenes and there were no differences in the OPL for different generations. The zinc-cored porphyrins showed significantly better OPL properties but their linear transmissions were low. The zinc porphyrins absorption and emission spectra were affected by the dendron coating and the OPL properties were deteriorated with increasing generation. The effects were most prominent for the largest dendrimers and it is believed that they change the conformation and vibrational substructure of the porphyrin. The platinum(II) acetylides were also influenced by the dendron coating. They showed improved OPL properties with increasing generation. This improvement is attributed to the longer lifetimes of the excited states for the larger dendrons, which increases the excited state absorption.

    Initial solid-state materials in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were made showing that the OPL effects are retained in the solid state but that the linear transmission and damage threshold are reduced.

  • 8.
    Vestberg, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Eriksson, A.
    Lopes, C.
    Lindgren, M.
    Novel dendrimer-capped Pt-acetylides for optical power limiting2004In: OPTICAL MATERIALS IN DEFENCE SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY / [ed] Vere AW; Grote JG; Kajzar F, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2004, Vol. 5621, p. 31-45Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents preliminary optical limiting and spectroscopic characterization of dendrimer capped Pt-ethynyls. Preliminary OPL and spectroscopic characterization revealed that these have better OPL properties than the non-capped analogue. The excited state properties in terms of luminescence for emission at ca 400 nm and 525 nm is in the ns and mus range, respectively. The site isolation provided by the dendrimer capping also give rise to strong phosphorescence involving the same emission bands near 525 nm. The decay time for this was found to be in the range 0.2 ms, considerably longer than for other similar Pt-complexes, and we tentatively assign this to a site-isolation effect that prevents quenching of the triplete state. It was shown how the dendron capping also makes it feasible to blend the dye with e.g. MMA monomers and carry out polymerization to obtain a solid OPL device with good performance.

  • 9.
    Vestberg, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lopes, C.
    Eriksson, A.
    Lindgren, M.
    Dendritic polyesters for optical applications2003In: ORGANIC NANOPHOTONICS    / [ed] Charra F; Agranovich VM; Kajzar F, DORDRECHT, NETHERLANDS: SPRINGER , 2003, Vol. 100, p. 169-176Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the protection against lasers, optical power limiting (OPL) is an area of interest. We have explored the effect of using dendritic molecules, based on bis-MPA (2,2-bis(methylol)-propionic acid), as encapsulants; of porphyrine and thiophene dyes having OPL-properties. Preliminary results indicate that the OPL-effect of the porphyrine is increased approximately by a factor 2 if the porphyrine is. decorated with dendritic wedges. This is thought to be a result of isolation of the dye leading to extended lifetimes for the excited states, increasing the probability for multi-photon absorption. For the thiophenes no OPL-effect was observed. This was probably due to the small size of the dendrons; (first generation).

  • 10.
    Vestberg, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Nilsson, C.
    Lopes, C.
    Lind, P.
    Eliasson, B.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Thiophene-cored 2,2-bis(methylol)propionic acid dendrimers for optical-power-limiting applications2005In: Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 0887-624X, E-ISSN 1099-0518, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1177-1187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis and characterization of dendron-coated 2,5-bis(phenylethynyl)thiophene chromophores are described. The dendrimers were grown divergently on the arylthiophene core with the versatile anhydride of 2,2-bis(methylol)propionic acid. The arylthiophene core was synthesized with Sonogashira coupling reactions. Structurally well-defined dendrimers up to the fourth generation were grown, as confirmed by size exclusion chromatography, NMR, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis. The different dendritic substitution did not influence the absorption spectra of the compounds in or near the visible region. Solutions of arylthiophenes had good transparency at wavelengths greater than 400 nm. The dendritic thiophenes exhibited an optical-power limit at the laser wavelength of 532 nm. However, the magnitude of the optical-power limit of these compounds was slightly lower than that of a nondendritic arylthiophene with n-pentyl substituents.

  • 11. Vestberg, Robert
    et al.
    Piekarski, Ashley M.
    Pressly, Eric D.
    Van Berkel, Kim Y.
    Malkoch, Michael
    Gerbac, Jeffrey
    Ueno, Nobuhiko
    Hawker, Craig J.
    A General Strategy for Highly Efficient Nanoparticle Dispersing Agents Based on Hybrid Dendritic Linear Block Copolymers2009In: Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 0887-624X, E-ISSN 1099-0518, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 1237-1258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A modular approach to the synthesis of a library of hybrid dendriticlinear copolymers was developed based on RAFT polymerization from monodisperse dendritic macroRAFT agents. By accurately controlling the molecular weight of the linear block, generation number of the dendrimer and the nature of the dendritic chains ends, the performance of these hybrid block copolymers as dispersing agents was optimized for a range of nanoparticles. For titanium dioxide nanoparticles, dispersion in a poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix was maximized with a second generation dendrimer containing four carboxylic acid end groups, and the quality of dispersion was observed to be superior to commercial dispersing agents for TiO2. This approach also allowed novel hybrid dendritic-linear dispersing agents to be prepared for the dispersion of Au and CdSe nanoparticles based on disulphide and phosphine oxide end groups, respectively.

  • 12.
    Vestberg, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Westlund, Robert
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Department of Functional Materials, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Lopes, Cesar
    Department of Functional Materials, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Carlsson, Marcus
    Department of Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Eliasson, Bertil
    Department of Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Glimsdal, Eirik
    Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Lindgren, Mikael
    Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Dendron Decorated Platinum(II) Acetylides for Optical Power Limiting2006In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 2238-2246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of dendritic substituents on a nonlinear optical chromophore for optical power limiting (OPL) has been investigated. Synthesis and characterization of bis((4-(phenylethynyl)phenyl)ethynyl)bis-(tributylphosphine) platinum(II) with dendritic end groups are described. Polyester dendrimers up to the fourth generation were grown divergently using the anhydride of 2,2-bis(methylol)propionic acid (bis-MPA). The introduction of the dendritic moieties onto the NLO chromophore enables further processing of the materials using polymeric and related techniques. OPL measurements performed at 532, 580, and 630 nm show that the OPL properties improve with increasing size of the dendritic substituent. It is also shown that the addition of the dendrons increase the OPL as compared to the nondecorated bis((4-(phenylethynyl)phenyl) ethynyl)bis-(tributylphosphine)platinum(II). By use of femtosecond z-scan measurements carried out at different pulse-repetition frequencies, it is shown that the two-photon absorption cross section is ∼10 GM. Using pulse repetition frequencies (100 kHz-4.75 MHz) so that the time between the pulses is comparable with the triplet excited lifetime, the z-scans become dominated by excited-state absorption of excited triplet states.

  • 13.
    Westlund, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Glimsdal, Eirik
    Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Lindgren, Mikael
    Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Vestberg, Robert
    Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara.
    Hawker, Craig
    Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara.
    Lopes, Cesar
    Department of Functional Materials, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Malmström, Eva E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Click Chemistry for Photonic Applications: Triazole-Functionalized Platinum(II) Acetylides for Optical Power Limiting2008In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 166-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three different triazole-containing platinum(ii) acetylide compounds were synthesized by click chemistry and evaluated for their use in optical power limiting (OPL) applications. The triazole unit was incorporated at three different positions within, or at the end of, the conjugation path of the chromophore. The aim is to explore the possibilities of using click chemistry to prepare dendronized chromophores, and to evaluate how the triazole structure affects the photophysical properties and the optical power limiting abilities of these acetylide compounds. It is shown that the concept of click chemistry can be used to attach branched monomer units to ethynyl-phenyl arms by Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, forming triazole units within the chromophore. Photophysical characterization of these triazole-containing materials shows an absorption maximum within the UV-A region and emission through both fluorescence and phosphorescence. Bright phosphorescence was emitted from argon purged samples, and decay measurements thereof showed triplet lifetimes of up to 100 μs. The results from the photophysical characterization suggest that the triazole does break the conjugation path, and in order to gain maximum optical limiting the triazole needs to be placed at the end of the conjugation. All three investigated triazole-containing platinum(ii) acetylides show good optical power limiting at 532 nm (10 ns pulse, f/5 set-up, 2 mm cells). The most efficient compound, with the triazole positioned at the end of the conjugation, reaches a defined clamping level of 2.5 μJ for a sample with a concentration of 50 mM in THF and a linear transmission above 80% at 532 nm. These data can be compared to the OPL properties of Zn-based porphyrins or derivatized thiophenes, reaching clamping levels of 6-15 μJ.

  • 14.
    Westlund, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hoffmann, Markus
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Vestberg, Robert
    Hawker, Craig
    Glimsdal, Eirik
    Lindgren, Mikael
    Norman, Patrick
    Eriksson, Anders
    Lopes, Cesar
    Multi-functionalized platinum(II) acetylides for optical power limiting2006In: Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology III / [ed] Grote JG; Kajzar F; Lindgren M, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2006, Vol. 6401, p. U87-U94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preliminary results on the optical power limiting properties of platinum(II) acetylides containing triazole units are presented. It is shown that the triazole units give a positive contribution to the limiting abilities of the platinum(H) acetylide and that this modified chromophore could have potential use in sensor protection devices. Moreover, this paper discusses how the versatile building block 2,2-bis(methylol)propionic acid (bis-MPA) can be used advantageously to functionalize nonlinear optical (NLO) platinum(H) acetylides. The bis-MPA units can be used to prepare dendritic substituents offering site isolation to the chromophore leading to improved clamping. The bis-MPA functionalization also improves the solubility of the platinum(H) acetylides in many organic solvents. The preparation of solid-state optical power limiters, where the NLO chromophore is inserted in an optically transparent matrix, is addressed. Again, the bis-MPA unit can be employed to increase the number of accessible end-groups to which matrix-compatible species can be attached. It is concluded that the hydroxy-functional platinum(II) acetylides can be modified to fit almost any matrix, organic or inorganic. Finally, depending on functionalization, it is possible to prepare doped glasses where the chromophore is either embedded in the matrix, or covalently bonded to the matrix.

  • 15.
    Westlund, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Vestberg, Robert
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Glimsdal, Eirik
    Lindgren, Mikael
    Lopes, Cesar
    Malmström, Eva E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Synthesis and Characterization of a 3-Arm Star Platinum(II) Acetylide Chromophore Targeted for Optical Limiting ApplicationsIn: Organometallics, ISSN 0276-7333, E-ISSN 1520-6041Article in journal (Other academic)
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