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  • 1.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Infrastructure and Geomatic Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Liu, Chengxi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics. VTI.
    Understanding Seasonal Variation in Individual's Activity Participation and Trip Generation by Using Four Consecutive Two-Week Travel DiaryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the interactions between travel demand, time allocation and mode choice in different seasons by jointly modeling the work and/or study, routine and leisure activity-travel engagements of 67 individuals in Stockholm, Sweden. A longitudinal panel two-week travel diary data collected in four consecutive waves over a span of seven months period that covers all four different seasons; autumn, winter, spring and summer, were analysed by using simultaneous Tobit models. The model was applied to explore the interactions among each activity-travel indicator, and individuals’ unique characteristics and endogeneity in activity-travel engagements between different seasons were also considered in the model system. The results of models reveal clear trade-offs between mandatory activities (work and/or study) and non-mandatory activities (routine and leisure), regardless of any seasons, although the magnitudes vary between seasons. There is also a positive mutual endogeneity relationship between number of trips and activity duration within the same activity type. The trade-offs between work and/or study trips towards routine and leisure trips are larger in winter and spring respectively, than in other seasons. It is also found that mode effects on travel time for conducting mandatory activity are much larger in spring than in other seasons. However, the effects of public transport and slow modes on travel time for leisure activities are much larger in summer than in other seasons.

  • 2.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    Delft University, Netherlands.
    Abenoza, Roberto
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Liu, Chengxi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Evolution of Satisfaction with Public Transport and Its Determinants in Sweden Identifying Priority Areas2015In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2538, 86-95 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring and analysing satisfaction with public transport services facilitates service performance monitoring, market analysis, benchmarking and the identification of priority areas. The systematic and regular collection of information concerning satisfaction enables to investigate how passengers’ satisfaction as well as its determinants changes over time. These changes may be driven by changes in service quality or shifts in passengers’ expectations and preferences. This study analyses how satisfaction with public transport and its determinants evolved over time in Sweden in the years 2001-2013. The determinants of satisfaction are identified based on a factor analysis and the estimation of multivariate satisfaction models. The superposition of our findings culminates in a dynamic passenger satisfaction priority map which allows identifying priority areas based on observed trends in satisfaction with service attributes and their respective importance. The deterioration of overall satisfaction with public transport in Sweden in recent years is driven by a decrease in satisfaction with customer interface and length of trip time. These two service aspects as well as operation were found key determinants of overall satisfaction which users consistently rate among the least satisfactory. The results of this study are instrumental in supporting service providers in designing measures that will foster satisfaction in the future.

  • 3. Chen, M.
    et al.
    Wang, D.
    Sun, Y.
    Liu, Chengxi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Bai, Z.
    Service evaluation of public bicycle scheme from a user perspective2017In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, Vol. 2634, 28-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In late 2005, in an attempt to solve the last-mile problem, China started implementing public bikesharing programs. The effort quickly grew to a massive scale. An estimated 400,000 public bicycles now are in use in China, which is more than in all other countries that have implemented public bicycle schemes (PBSs). As with any emerging service that develops rapidly, an understanding of user behavior and satisfaction is lacking. Factors that influence the frequency of public bicycle use were studied in Hangzhou, China. Online and intercept surveys were conducted with PBS users. Willingness to use the PBS as well as satisfaction with and concerns about the PBS were investigated. Analysis of variance was conducted to identify the six factors that affect a user's decision to rent: car ownership, bicycle ownership, travel purpose, having or lacking familiarity with the rental process, level of satisfaction with the PBS, and level of familiarity with the distribution of docking stations. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to elucidate details of key factors in the group of most frequent users-that is, survey respondents who did not own a car, rented a bicycle primarily for shopping or going out for business, and were familiar with the rental process and the distribution of docking stations. Based on study findings, advice is presented for implementing policy in developing countries. Suggestions include publicizing the PBS more, attracting more commuters to bicycling to reduce congestion, enhancing the accessibility of docking stations to accommodate more potential users, and improving bicycle quality to encourage more participation and make it easier for elderly citizens to participate.

  • 4.
    Chengxi, Liu
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Understanding the Impacts of Weather and Climate Change on Travel Behaviour2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human behaviour produces massive greenhouse gas emissions, which trigger climate change and more unpredictable weather conditions. The fluctuation of daily weather corresponds to variations of everyday travel behaviour. This influence, although is less noticeable, can have a strong impact on the transport system. Specifically, the climate in Sweden is becoming warmer in the recent 10 years. However, it is largely unknown to what extent the change of travel behaviour would respond to the changing weather. Understanding these issues would help analysts and policy makers incorporate local weather and climate within our policy design and infrastructure management.

    The thesis contains eight papers exploring the weather and climate impacts on individual travel behaviour, each addressing a subset of this topic. Paper I explores the weather impact on individual’s mode choice decisions. In paper II and III, individual’s daily activity time, number of trips/trip chains, travel time and mode shares are jointly modelled. The results highlight the importance of modelling activity-travel variables for different trip purposes respectively. Paper IV develops a namely nested multivariate Tobit model to model activity time allocation trade-offs. In paper V, the roles of weather on trip chaining complexity is explored. A thermal index is introduced to better approximate the effects of the thermal environment. In paper VI, the role of subjective weather perception is investigated. Results confirm that individuals with different socio-demographics would have different subjective weather perception even given similar weather conditions. Paper VII derives the marginal effects of weather variables on transport CO2 emissions. The findings show more CO2 emissions due to the warmer climate in the future. Paper VIII summaries the existing findings in relations between weather variability and travel behaviour, and critically assesses the methodological issues in previous studies. 

  • 5.
    Chengxi, Liu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Anders, Karlström
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Estimating changes in transport CO2 emissions due to changes in weather and climate in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a considerable body of studies on the relationship between daily transport activities and CO2 emissions. However, how these emissions vary in different weather conditions within and between the seasons of the year is largely unknown. Because individual activity–travel patterns are not static but vary in different weather conditions, it is immensely important to understand how CO2 emissions vary due to the change of weather. Using Swedish National Travel Survey data, with emission factors calculated through the European emission factor model ARTEMIS, this study is a first attempt to derive the amount of CO2 emission changes subject to the change of weather conditions. A series of econometric models was used to model travel behaviour variables that are crucial for influencing individual CO2 emissions. The marginal effects of weather variables on travel behaviour variables were derived. The results show an increase of individual CO2 emissions in a warmer climate and in more extreme temperature conditions, whereas increasing precipitation amounts and snow depths show limited effects on individual CO2 emissions. It is worth noting that the change in CO2 emissions in the scenario of a warmer climate and a more extreme temperature tends to be greater than the sum of changes in CO2 emissions in each individual scenario. Given that a warmer climate and more extreme weather could co-occur more frequently in the future, this result suggests even greater individual CO2 emissions than expected in such a future climate.

  • 6.
    Chengxi, Liu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Anders, Karlström
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Weather Variability and Travel Behaviour - What Do We Know and What Do We Not KnowManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that severe weather conditions is becoming more and more frequent, understanding the roles of weathers in influencing individual’s daily activity-travel pattern is important. Whilst some of previously rare events, such as heavy rain, unpredictable snow, higher temperature, less clear differences between seasons etc., would become more common, it is still largely unknown how individual would change and adapt their travel pattern in future climate conditions. Because of this concern, the number of researches on weather and travel behaviour has been increased dramatically in the recent decades. Most of those empirical evidences, however, have not been adopted in cost-benefit analysis (CBA), which serves as the main tool for policy evaluation and project selection by stakeholders. This study summarizes the existing findings in relations between weather variability and travel behaviour, and critically assesses the methodological issues in those studies. Several further research directions are identified and suggested for bridging the gap between empirical evidence and current practice in CBA.

  • 7.
    Chengxi, Liu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Estimating changes in transport CO2 emissions due to changes in weather and climate in Sweden2016In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 49, 172-187 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a considerable body of studies on the relationship between daily transport activities and CO2 emissions. However, how these emissions vary in different weather conditions within and between the seasons of the year is largely unknown. Because individual activity–travel patterns are not static but vary in different weather conditions, it is immensely important to understand how CO2 emissions vary due to the change of weather. Using Swedish National Travel Survey data, with emission factors calculated through the European emission factor model ARTEMIS, this study is a first attempt to derive the amount of CO2 emission changes subject to the change of weather conditions. A series of econometric models was used to model travel behaviour variables that are crucial for influencing individual CO2 emissions. The marginal effects of weather variables on travel behaviour variables were derived. The results show an increase of individual CO2 emissions in a warmer climate and in more extreme temperature conditions, whereas increasing precipitation amounts and snow depths show limited effects on individual CO2 emissions. It is worth noting that the change in CO2 emissions in the scenario of a warmer climate and a more extreme temperature tends to be greater than the sum of changes in CO2 emissions in each individual scenario. Given that a warmer climate and more extreme weather could co-occur more frequently in the future, this result suggests even greater individual CO2 emissions than expected in such a future climate.

  • 8.
    Chengxi, Liu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Jointly modelling individual’s daily activity-travel time use andmode share by a nested multivariate Tobit model system2015In: Transportation Research Procedia: 21st International Symposium on Transportation and Traffic Theory, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 9, 71-89 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding mechanisms underlie the individual’s daily time allocations is very important to understand the variability ofindividual’s time-space constraints and to forecast his/her daily activity participation. At most of previous studies, activity timeallocation was viewed as allocating a continuous quantity (daily time budget) into multiple discrete alternatives (i.e. variousactivities and trips to engage with). However, few researches considered the influence of travel time that needs to be spent onreaching the activity location. Moreover, travel time itself is influenced by individuals’ mode choice. This can lead to an over- orunder-estimation of particular activity time location. In order to explicitly include the individual’s travel time and mode choiceconsiderations in activity time allocation modelling, in this study, a nested multivariate Tobit model is proposed. This proposedmodel can handle: 1. Corner solution problem (i.e. the present of substantial amount of zero observations); 2. Time allocationtrade-offs among different types of activities (which tends to be ignored in previous studies); 3. Travel is treated as a deriveddemand of activity participation (i.e. travel time and mode share are automatically censored, and are not estimated, ifcorresponding activity duration is censored). The model is applied on a combined dataset of Swedish national travel survey(NTS) and SMHI (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute) weather record. Individuals’ work and non-work activitydurations, travel time and mode shares are jointly modelled as dependent variables. The influences of time-locationcharacteristics, individual and household socio demographics and weather characteristics on each dependent variable areexamined. The estimation results show a strong work and non-work activity time trade-offs due to the individual’s time-spaceconstraints. Evidences on a potential positive utility of travel time added on non-work activity time allocation in the Swedish case,are also found. Meanwhile, the results also show a consistent mode choice preference for a given individual. The estimatednested multivariate Tobit model provides a superior prediction, in terms of the deviation of the predicted value against the actualvalue conditional on the correct prediction regarding censored and non-censored, compared to mutually independent Tobitmodels. However, the nested multivariate Tobit model does not necessarily have a better prediction for model componentsregarding non-work related activities.

  • 9.
    Chengxi, Liu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Nursitihazlin, Ahmad Termida
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Subjective perception towards uncertainty on weather conditions and its impact on out-of-home leisure activity participation decisionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Weather is fundamentally a ‘subjective’ perception rather than an objective measure that affects individual’s everyday travel decisions. This study uses data from a four-wave travel diary survey and aims to answer two research questions, i.e. 1. How individuals from different socio-demographic groups perceive weather. 2. How subjective weather perceptions affect individuals’ leisure activity participation decisions. Subjective weather perception and leisure activity participation are modelled in panel static/dynamic ordered Probit models. The results show that the reference thermal environment in general corresponds to the historical mean of the thermal environment. The effects of objective weather measures on subjective weather perception vary substantially between individuals. Moreover, the effect of subjective weather perception on leisure activity participation is non-linear and asymmetric. Only “very bad weather” and “very good weather” significantly influence the leisure activity participation. The effect of “very bad weather” also varies significantly between individuals. The intra-individual heterogeneity in the effect of “very good weather” has a smaller magnitude than that in the effect of “very bad weather”.

  • 10.
    Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Understanding of the sensitivity of weather on people’s mode choice decision: a case study in Sweden2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the influence of weather condition on Swedish people’s mode choice, using Swedish National Transport Survey Data and daily weather data from Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. Since time duration covered in these data is 13 years and distinct regions all over Sweden are included, seasonal effect and regional effect of weather indicators on individual’s mode choice decision are studied. The sensitivity of these weather indicators on mode choice is investigated using multinomial logit model. Results show that, in mode choice decision, Swedish people are more sensitive to temperature increase when it is below 10°C than when it is up to 10°C. Also the sensitivity to temperature and precipitation varies in different temperature and precipitation intervals, which is similar to the notion of perception constraint. Also further analysis indicates that sensitivity of weather indicator differs in different seasons and different regions. Temperature increase has a positive effect on walk choice in summer, while the opposite holds true in other three seasons. However the influence of precipitation in different seasons seems to be vague, probably because increased precipitation leads to a slight shortening of the distance and thus would increase the share of non-motorized mode, which interacts with the direct effect that precipitation would reduce the share of non-motorized mode. Regional effect shows that,generally speaking, people in north Sweden are less affected by changing of weather than that in south and middle Sweden. However north bicycle users’ sensitivity to temperature in autumn is much larger than that for middle and south bicycle users, showing a lagged effect of willing to use bicycle in north after summer when weather is still moderate (autumn temperature>0°C).

  • 11.
    Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Karlstrom, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Investigating the impacts of weather variability on individual's daily activity-travel patterns: A comparison between commuters and non-commuters in Sweden2015In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 82, 47-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding travel behaviour change under various weather conditions can help analysts and policy makers incorporate the uniqueness of local weather and climate within their policy design, especially given the fact that future climate and weather will become more unpredictable and adverse. Using datasets from the Swedish National Travel Survey and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute that spans a period of thirteen years, this study explores the impacts of weather variability on individual activity-travel patterns. In doing so, this study uses an alternative representation of weather from that of directly applying observed weather parameters. Furthermore, this study employs a holistic model structure. The model structure is able to analyse the simultaneous effects of weather on a wide range of interrelated travel behavioural aspects, which has not been investigated in previous weather studies. Structural equation models (SEM) are applied for this purpose. The models for commuters and non-commuters are constructed separately. The analysis results show that the effects of weather can be even more extreme when considering indirect effects from other travel behaviour indicators involved in the decision-making processes. Commuters are shown to be much less sensitive to weather changes than non-commuters. Variation of monthly average temperature is shown to play a more important role in influencing individual travel behaviour than variation of daily temperature relative to its monthly mean, whilst in the short term, individual activity-travel choices are shown to be more sensitive to the daily variation of the relative humidity and wind speed relative to the month mean. Poor visibility and heavy rain are shown to strongly discourage the intention to travel, leading to a reduction in non-work activity duration, travel time and the number of trips on the given day. These findings depict a more comprehensive picture of weather impact compared to previous studies and highlight the importance of considering interdependencies of activity travel indicators when evaluating weather impacts.

  • 12.
    Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Examining the impact of weather variability on non-commuters' daily activity-travel patterns in different regions of Sweden2014In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, Vol. 39, 36-48 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By jointly modelling the routine and leisure activity travel engagements of non-commuters in different regions of Sweden, this paper explores the interactions between time allocation, travel demand and mode choice under different weather conditions. Combined weather and travel survey datasets that span a period of over 13 years were analysed. Simultaneous Tobit models were applied to explore the interactions among these activity travel indicators, whilst municipalities' unique conditions and heterogeneities between different time-points were taken into account. The model results reveal the trade-offs between routine and leisure activities in terms of activity duration, number of trips and travel time. Positive mutual endogeneity was found between slow-mode share in routine and leisure trips. The results also highlight the trade-offs between routine and leisure activities under abnormal weather conditions. Regional differences between weather effects are substantial due to differences in direct, indirect and total marginal effects. Between-municipality variability constitutes a considerable part of the variability in activity duration and travel time. Between-municipality variability in leisure activity duration and leisure travel time is larger in northern Sweden, while that of routine activity duration and routine travel time is larger in central Sweden, after weather and social demographics have been controlled.

  • 13.
    Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Susilo, Yusak O
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Measuring the impacts of weather variability on home-based trip chaining behaviour: a focus on spatial heterogeneity2015In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the 2011 Swedish national travel survey data, this paper explores the influence of weather characteristics on individuals’ home-based trip chaining complexity. A series of panel mixed ordered Probit models are estimated to examine the influence of individual/household social demographics, land use characteristics, and weather characteristics on individuals’ home-based trip chaining complexity. A thermal index, the universal thermal climate index (UTCI), is used in this study instead of using directly measured weather variables in order to better approximate the effects of the thermal environment. The effects of UTCI are segmented into different seasons to account for the seasonal difference of UTCI effects. Moreover, a spatial expansion method is applied to allow the impacts of UTCI to vary across geographical locations, as individuals in different regions have different weather/climate adaptions. The effects of weather are examined in subsistence, routine, and discretionary trip chains. The results reveal that the ‘ground covered with snow’ condition is the most influential factor on the number of trips chained per trip chain among all other weather factors. The variation of UTCI significantly influences trip chaining complexity in autumn but not in spring and winter. The routine trip chains are found to be most elastic towards the variation of UTCI. The marginal effects of UTCI on the expected number of trips per routine trip chain have considerable spatial variations, while these spatial trends of UTCI effects are found to be not consistent over seasons.

  • 14.
    Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    The influence of weather characteristics variability on individual's travel mode choice in different seasons and regions in Sweden2015In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, Vol. 41, 147-158 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the influence of weather on the Swedish people's mode choice decision in different seasons and regions using a long term series of the Swedish National Transport Survey datasets (NTS) and weather data from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). The weather data includes mean of daily temperature, amount of rain precipitation and road surface condition. The daily mean temperature is normalised based on each region and season and classified into five categories as 'very cold', 'cold', 'normal', 'warm', and 'very warm'. This normalisation approach enables us to investigate the impact of individual's heterogeneity in perceiving regional and seasonal variability of temperature. The impacts of these weather indicators' variability on individual's mode choice is investigated with multinomial logit models. The results show that the impacts of weather differ in different seasons and different regions. Pedestrians' perception of variation of temperature differs between those in the northern Sweden and those in the central and southern Sweden. Such perception also differs in summer and in spring and autumn. Similarly, northern Sweden cyclists are more aware of temperature variation than cyclists in the central and southern Sweden in spring and autumn when temperature changes significantly. The influence of temperature variation on motorised modes also varies among seasons and regions. However, the trend is less straightforward than that on non-motorised modes. The findings highlight the importance to incorporate individual and regional unique anticipation and adaptations behaviours within our policy design and infrastructure management.

  • 15.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Liu, Chengxi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Examining the relationships between individual's time use and activity participations with their health indicators2017In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 2, 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Using a three-week household activity-travel survey, this paper explores the relationship between individuals’ self-reported physical, mental and social health conditions and their time allocation for different types of in-home and out-of-home time activities. Methods: A path model is developed to investigate the roles of activity-travel time use on the self-reported health conditions, while the socio-demographics and residential environment characteristics are also considered. Results: The model results reveal heterogeneous impacts of different types of activities and intensities on individual’s self-reported health conditions. This study, however, did not find evidence of positive relationship between cycling and walking and self-reported physical health condition, which has been found in many developed countries. Presumably this is because in developing countries like Indonesia the individuals who walk and cycle are likely to be a part of economically disadvantaged groups who have less awareness to their own health conditions. Conclusion: Beside activity and travel time use factors, age and working status were found significantly affecting the self-reported health conditions, regardless of respondents’ gender and income. Neighbourhood characteristics, such as population density, are also found positively correlated to self-reported respondents’ physical, social and mental health conditions.

  • 16.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Liu, Chengxi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    The influence of parents' travel patterns, perceptions and residential self-selectivity to their children travel mode shares2016In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 43, no 2, 357-378 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the UK National Travel Survey from 2002 to 2006, this paper investigates the influence of households' residential self-selectivity, parents' perceptions on accessibilities and their travel patterns on their children daily travel mode share. In doing this, this study introduces a model structure that represents the complex interactions between the parents' travel patterns, their perceptions on public transport services and their reported residential self-selectivity reasons and the children travel mode shares. This structure is analysed with structural equation modelling. The model estimation results show that parents' residential self-selectivity, parents' perceptions and satisfactions on accessibilities and their daily travel patterns significantly influence the children's daily travel mode shares. However, the effects are not uniform across household members. This study has revealed that households' residential self-selectivity behaviours have more correlations with the children's non-motorised mode shares, whilst the parents' perceptions and satisfactions on transport infrastructure and public transport service qualities have more correlations with parents' mode shares. The results also confirm that parents' non-motorised modes use in travelling is highly correlated with the children's physically active travel mode shares. However, at the same time, the results also show that the effects of mothers' car use to the children travel mode shares is more apparent than fathers'.

  • 17. Xiang, Yiqiang
    et al.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Chao, Chunfeng
    Liu, Huishi
    Risk Analysis and Assessment of Public Safety of Submerged Floating Tunnel2010In: ISAB-2010 - FIRST INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ARCHIMEDES BRIDGE, 2010, 117-125 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Based on the structural characteristics and preliminary design of submerged floating tunnel (SFT) prototype in Qiandao Lake, this paper gives the risk index system of public safety of SFT and risk assessment methods by analyzing different impact factors of SFT public safety. Moreover, the public safety risk is evaluated during construction and operation of SFT prototype in Qiandao Lake by the presented analytic hierarchy process method. The results show that in spite of facing many technical problems and potential risks, these potential risks of SFT can be controlled or reduced to a minimum level with the help of reasonable design and certain measures

  • 18. Xiang, Yiqiang
    et al.
    Liu, Chengxi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Wu, Qiangqiang
    Risk analysis and management of submerged floating tunnel and its application2010In: ISAB-2010 - FIRST INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ARCHIMEDES BRIDGE / [ed] Hong, Y; Mazzolani, FM; Gao, F, 2010, 107-116 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining with the characteristics of submerged floating tunnel (SFT) and surrounding environment, it is of great theoretical and practical significance to develop research in the areas of potential risk and impact factors, risk index system, risk level of SFT. This paper summarized the main content of risk analysis of SFT, and classified the risk management into six stages: planning, feasibility study, design, tendering, construction and operation. Risk management workflow of SFT was given. Then, we focused on discussing the potential risks of SFT in investment, design, and environmental condition during planning and feasibility study stage. After identifying the risk factors of SFT, the risk assessment method of SFT was described by the presented fuzzy AHP method (FAHP). Finally, taking environment risks assessment of SFT prototype in Qiandao Lake as an example, environment risk assessment of SFT was completed by the programmed integration evaluation system of SFT based on Matlab7.5. Some measures and suggestions in risk control strategy were given.

  • 19. Xiang, Yiqiang
    et al.
    Tang, Guobin
    Liu, Chengxi
    Dept. of Civil Engineering, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.
    Cracking Mechanism and Simplified Design Method for Bottom Flange in Prestressed Concrete Box Girder Bridge2011In: Journal of Bridge Engineering, ISSN 1084-0702, Vol. 16, no 2, 267-274 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serious cracking has occurred frequently in the bottom flange of box girders during construction in recent years. This paper aims at studying the cracking mechanism and countermeasures. The stress field in the bottom flange associated with the bottom continuity tendon is presented, and the propagation of cracks during tensioning is simulated by nonlinear analysis according to the actual construction sequence. A cracking mode, which is not easy to detect in field investigation, is illustrated through numerical and theoretical study. It is caused by the deficient shear strength of the bottom flange attributed to the void in tendon ducts. Based on numerical results and field investigation, four types of cracking in the bottom flange are proposed and discussed, and a simplified design method is recommended for control of cracking.

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