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  • 1.
    Besharat, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Material Physics, MF. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Ghadami Yazdi, Milad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Wakeham, Deborah
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Johnson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Göthelid, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Grönbeck, Henrik
    Se-C Cleavage of Hexane Selenol at Steps on Au(111)2018In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 34, no 8, p. 2630-2636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selenols are considered as an alternative to thiols in self-assembled monolayers, but the Se-C bond is one limiting factor for their usefulness. In this study, we address the stability of the Se-C bond by a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of gas phase-deposited hexane selenol (CH3(CH2)(5)SeH) on Au(111) using photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and density functional theory (DFT). Experimentally, we find that initial adsorption leaves atomic Se on the surface without any carbon left on the surface, whereas further adsorption generates a saturated selenolate layer. The Se 3d component from atomic Se appears at 0.85 eV lower binding energy than the selenolate-related component. DFT calculations show that the most stable structure of selenols on Au(111) is in the form of RSe-Au-SeR complexes adsorbed on the unreconstructed Au(111) surface. This is similar to thiols on Au(111). Calculated Se 3d core-level shifts between elemental Se and selenolate in this structure nicely reproduce the experimentally recorded shifts. Dissociation of RSeH and subsequent formation of RH are found to proceed with high barriers on defect-free Au(111) terraces, with the highest barrier for scissoring R-Se. However, at steps, these barriers are considerably lower, allowing for Se-C bond breaking and hexane desorption, leaving elemental Se at the surface. Hexane is the selenol to selenolate formed by replacing the Se-C bond with a H-C bond by using the hydrogen liberated from transformation.

  • 2.
    Besharat, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Göthelid, Mats
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Wakeham, Deborah
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Johnson, C. Magnus
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Ghadami Yazdi, Milad
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Se-C cleavage of hexane selenol at steps on Au(111)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Ghadami Yazdi, Milad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    H. Moud, Pouya
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology. KTH.
    Marks, Kess
    Piskorz, Witold
    Öström, Henrik
    Hansson, Tony
    Kotarba, Andrzej
    Engvall, Klas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Göthelid, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Naphthalene on Ni(111): experimental and theoretical insights into adsorption, dehydrogenation and carbon passivationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An attractive solution to mitigate tars and also to decompose lighter hydrocarbons in biomass gasification is secondary catalytic reforming, converting hydrocarbons to useful permanent gases. Albeit in use for long time in fossil feedstock catalytic steam reforming, the understanding of the catalytic processes is still limited. Naphthalene is typically present in the biomass gasification gas and to further understand the elementary steps of naphthalene transformation, we investigated the temperature dependent naphthalene adsorption, dehydrogenation and passivation on Ni(111). TPD (temperature programmed desorption) and STM (scanning tunneling microscopy) in ultra-high vacuum environment from 110 K up to 780 K, combined with DFT (density functional theory) were used in the study. Room temperature adsorption results in a flat naphthalene monolayer. DFT favors the di-bridge[7] geometry but the potential energy surface is rather smooth. DFT also reveals a pronounced dearomatization and charge transfer from the adsorbed molecule into the nickel surface. Dehydrogenation occurs in two steps, with two desorption peaks at approximately 450 K and 600 K. The first step is due to partial dehydrogenation generating active hydrocarbon species that at higher temperatures migrates over the surface forming graphene. The graphene formation is accompanied by desorption of hydrogen in the high temperature TPD peak. The formation of graphene effectively passivates the surface both for hydrogen adsorption and naphthalene dissociation. In conclusion, the obtained results on the model naphthalene and Ni(111) system, provides insight into elementary steps of naphthalene adsorption, dehydrogenation and carbon passivation, which may serve as a good starting point for rational design, development and optimization of the Ni catalyst surface, as well as process conditions, for the aromatic hydrocarbon reforming process.

  • 4.
    Ghadami Yazdi, Milad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Lousada, Claudio M.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Evertsson, J.
    Rullik, L.
    Soldemo, Markus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Bertram, F.
    Korzhavyi, Pavel A.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Weissenrieder, J.
    Lundgren, E.
    Göthelid, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Structure dependent effect of silicon on the oxidation of Al(111) and Al(100)2019In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 684, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of sub-monolayer silicon on the oxidation of Al(111) and Al(100) surfaces was investigated using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. On both surfaces the adatom site is preferred over substituting Si into the Al-lattice; on Al(100) the four fold hollow site is vastly favored whereas on Al(111) bridge and hollow sites are almost equal in energy. Upon O 2 exposure, Si is not oxidized but buried at the metal/oxide interface under the growing aluminum oxide. On Al(111), Si has a catalytic effect on both the initial oxidation by aiding in creating a higher local oxygen coverage in the early stages of oxidation and, in particular, at higher oxide coverages by facilitating lifting Al from the metal into the oxide. The final oxide, as measured from the Al2p intensity, is 25–30% thicker with Si than without. This observation is valid for both 0.1 monolayer (ML) and 0.3 ML Si coverage. On Al(100), on the other hand, at 0.16 ML Si coverage, the initial oxidation is faster than for the bare surface due to Si island edges being active in the oxide growth. At 0.5 ML Si coverage the oxidation is slower, as the islands coalesce and he amount of edges reduces. Upon oxide formation the effect of Si vanishes as it is overgrown by Al 2 O 3 , and the oxide thickness is only 6% higher than on bare Al(100), for both Si coverages studied. Our findings indicate that, in addition to a vanishing oxygen adsorption energy and Mott potential, a detailed picture of atom exchange and transport at the metal/oxide interface has to be taken into account to explain the limiting oxide thickness.

  • 5.
    Marks, Kess
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Fysikum, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ghadami Yazdi, Milad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Piskorz, Witold
    Jagiellonian Univ Krakow, Fac Chem, Gronostajowa 2, PL-31387 Krakow, Poland..
    Simonov, Konstantin
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Stefanuik, Robert
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Sostina, Daria
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Guarnaccio, Ambra
    CNR, ISM, Tito Scalo Unit, I-85050 Potenza, Italy..
    Ovsyannikov, Ruslan
    Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin Mat & Energie, Inst Methods & Instrumentat Synchrotron Radiat Re, ISRR, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Giangrisostomi, Erika
    Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin Mat & Energie, Inst Methods & Instrumentat Synchrotron Radiat Re, ISRR, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Sassa, Yasmine
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Phys, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Bachellier, Nicolas
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Muntwiler, Matthias
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Johansson, Fredrik O. L.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lindblad, Andreas
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hansson, Tony
    Stockholm Univ, Fysikum, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kotarba, Andrzej
    Jagiellonian Univ Krakow, Fac Chem, Gronostajowa 2, PL-31387 Krakow, Poland..
    Engvall, Klas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Process Technology.
    Göthelid, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Harding, Dan J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    Ostrom, Henrik
    Stockholm Univ, Fysikum, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Investigation of the surface species during temperature dependent dehydrogenation of naphthalene on Ni(111)2019In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 150, no 24, article id 244704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temperature dependent dehydrogenation of naphthalene on Ni(111) has been investigated using vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and density functional theory with the aim of discerning the reaction mechanism and the intermediates on the surface. At 110 K, multiple layers of naphthalene adsorb on Ni(111); the first layer is a flat lying chemisorbed monolayer, whereas the next layer(s) consist of physisorbed naphthalene. The aromaticity of the carbon rings in the first layer is reduced due to bonding to the surface Ni-atoms. Heating at 200 K causes desorption of the multilayers. At 360 K, the chemisorbed naphthalene monolayer starts dehydrogenating and the geometry of the molecules changes as the dehydrogenated carbon atoms coordinate to the nickel surface; thus, the molecule tilts with respect to the surface, recovering some of its original aromaticity. This effect peaks at 400 K and coincides with hydrogen desorption. Increasing the temperature leads to further dehydrogenation and production of H-2 gas, as well as the formation of carbidic and graphitic surface carbon. 

  • 6.
    Saleemi, Mohsin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Nikkam, Nader
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Ghadami Yazdi, Milad
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Effect of particles size and surface modification on thermal conductivity and viscosity of alumina nanofluids2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronics industry growing faster and it demands ultrahigh performance cooling systems to manage the heat loses in terms of energy and money. Conventional cooling fluids are approaching to its limit due to the poor thermal transport performance and a new era for the heat transfer fluids had been initiated about two decades ago. When nanoparticles dispersed in conventional heat transfer fluid (like water, oil, glycols), the mixture is called as nanofluids. Alumina suspensions are well known class of nanofluids, which have been investigated in many recent studies to determine the non-classical behavior of the suspensions. The aim of this study is to investigate optimized particle size and suitable surface modification for the improved dispersion properties of nanofluids with enhanced thermal performance and low viscosity. We have utilized two different types of alumina crystal phases; one is Boehmite (γ-AlOOH) and clay type (α -Al2O3) and the nanofluids were prepare d by suspending different size of nanoparticles in water and water/ethylene glycol (EG) mixtures. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to determine the agglomerate size and scanning electron microscope (SEM) used to study the particle size and morphology. Zeta potential was measured to determine the electrostatic stability for the dispersed nanoparticles. Thermal conductivity was estimated by using KD2 Pro setup and up to 10 % enhancement in TC was observed as compared to the base fluid. Viscosity was measured by capillary viscometer, which shows the significant effect from the addition of additives and surfactants. Possible mechanisms contributing in reducing the viscosity and increasing the thermal conductivity are described in details.

  • 7.
    Soldemo, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Halldin Stenlid, Joakim
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Besharat, Zahra
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Ghadami Yazdi, Milad
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Önsten, Anneli
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Göthelid, Mats
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Brinck, Tore
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Weissenrieder, Jonas
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    The Surface Structure of Cu2O(100)2016In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 120, no 8, p. 4373-4381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the industrial importance of copper oxides, the nature of the (100) surface of Cu2O has remained poorly understood. The surface has previously been subject to several theoretical and experimental studies, but has until now not been investigated by atomically resolved microscopy or high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. Here we determine the atomic structure and electronic properties of Cu2O(100) by a combination of multiple experimental techniques and simulations within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) characterized the three ordered surface structures found. From DFT calculations, the structures are found to be energetically ordered as (3,0;1,1), c(2 x 2), and (1 x 1) under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Increased oxygen pressures induce the formation of an oxygen terminated (1 x 1) surface structure. The most common termination of Cu2O(100) has previously been described by a (3 root 2 x root 2)R45 degrees unit cell exhibiting a LEED pattern with several missing spots. Through atomically resolved STM, we show that this structure instead is described by the matrix (3,0;1,1). Both simulated STM images and calculated photoemission core level shifts compare favorably with the experimental results.

  • 8.
    Suvanam, Sethu Saveda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Usman, M.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Experimental Physics Laboratories, National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Martin, D.
    Yazdi, Milad G.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Linnarsson, Margareta K.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Tempez, A.
    Göthelid, Mats
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Improved interface and electrical properties of atomic layer deposited Al2O3/4H-SiC2018In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 433, p. 108-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we demonstrate a process optimization of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 on 4H-SiC resulting in an improved interface and electrical properties. For this purpose the samples have been treated with two pre deposition surface cleaning processes, namely CP1 and CP2. The former is a typical surface cleaning procedure used in SiC processing while the latter have an additional weak RCA1 cleaning step. In addition to the cleaning and deposition, the effects of post dielectric annealing (PDA) at various temperatures in N2O ambient have been investigated. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy show the presence of structural defects on the Al2O3 surface after annealing at 500 and 800 °C. These defects disappear after annealing at 1100 °C, possibly due to densification of the Al2O3 film. Interface analyses have been performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering (ToF MEIS). Both these measurements show the formation of an interfacial SiOx (0 < x < 2) layer for both the CP1 and CP2, displaying an increased thickness for higher temperatures. Furthermore, the quality of the sub-oxide interfacial layer was found to depend on the pre deposition cleaning. In conclusion, an improved interface with better electrical properties is shown for the CP2 sample annealed at 1100 °C, resulting in lower oxide charges, strongly reduced flatband voltage and leakage current, as well as higher breakdown voltage.

  • 9.
    Suvanam, Sethu Saveda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Elektronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Usman, Muhammed
    Martin, David
    Yazdi, Milad
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Linnarsson, Margareta K.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Götelid, Mats
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Elektronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Improved Interface and Electrical Properties of Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3/4H-SiCManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Suvanam, Sethu Saveda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Yazdi, Ghadami Milad
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Usman, Muhammad
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan.
    Götelid, Mats
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Interface analysis of p-type 4H-SiC/Al2O3 using synchrotron-based XPS2016In: 16th International Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials, ICSCRM 2015, Trans Tech Publications Ltd , 2016, p. 693-696Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the interface between Al2O3 and p-type 4H-SiC is evaluated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. These studies are made on dielectricsemiconductor test structures with Al2O3 as dielectric with different pre- and post-deposition treatments. XPS measurements on the as-deposited samples with two different pre-surface cleaning methods have shown no formation of a SiO2 interlayer. However, after the post deposition rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 1100 °C in N2O for 60 s, a SiO2 interlayer is formed. The surface band bending was determined from Si 2p core level peak shifts measured using XPS. These results suggest that Al2O3 deposited on the p-type 4H-SiC have a net positive oxide charge which is complementary to that of Al2O3 on n-type 4H-SiC. From these shifts it was found that the asdeposited RCA cleaned sample had an oxide charge of 5.6×1013 cm-2, as compared to standard cleaned samples, having 4.6×1013 cm-2. A further reduction in oxide charge was observed after annealing at 1100 °C in N2O, down to a value of 4×1013 cm-2.

  • 11.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits. Quaid I Azam Univ, Pakistan.
    Suvanam, Sethu Saveda
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Yazdi, Milad Ghadami
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Göthelid, Mats
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Sultan, Muhammad
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Stoichiometry of the ALD-Al2O3/4H-SiC interface by synchrotron-based XPS2016In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 49, no 25, article id 255308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interface of Al2O3 with 4H-SiC is investigated with synchrotron-based high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to clarify the effect of post-dielectric deposition annealing processes (rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and furnace annealing (FA)) involved in device fabrication. Our results show that post-deposition annealing of Al2O3/4H-SiC up to 1100 degrees C forms a thin interfacial layer of SiO2 between Al2O3 and SiC, which possibly improves the dielectric properties of the system by reducing oxide charges and near-interface traps. Moreover, the formation of SiO2 at the interface gives additional band offset to the dielectric system. We have also observed that the RTA and FA processes have similar results at a high temperature of 1100 degrees C. Therefore, we propose that high-temperature post-oxide (Al2O3) deposition annealing of up to 1100 degrees C may be used in device processing, which can improve overall dielectric properties and consequently the device performance.

  • 12.
    Yazdi, Milad Ghadami
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Ivanic, M.
    Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Div Marine & Environm Res, Zagreb, Croatia..
    Mohamed, Alaa
    Cairo Univ, Egypt Nanotechnol Ctr, EGNC, 6Th October City 12588, Egypt.;Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Inst Funct Interfaces IFG, Membrane Technol Dept, D-76344 Karlsruhe, Germany.;Akhbar El Yom Acad, Prod Engn & Printing Technol Dept, Giza 12655, Egypt..
    Uheida, Abdusalam
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Surface modified composite nanofibers for the removal of indigo carmine dye from polluted water2018In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 8, no 43, p. 24588-24598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface coated magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) with 3-mercaptopropionic acid were immobilized on amidoximated polyacrilonitrile (APAN) nanofibers using electrospinning followed by crosslinking. The prepared composite nanofibers were characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared analysis (FTIR). The composite nanofiber was evaluated for the removal of indigo carmine dye from aqueous solutions. The effects of contact time, initial dye concentration, solution pH and adsorption equilibrium isotherms were studied. The adsorption of indigo carmine was found to be greatly affected by solution pH. The maximum loading capacity was determined to be 154.5 mg g(-1) at pH = 5. The experimental kinetic data were fitted well using a pseudo-first order model. The adsorption isotherm studies showed that the adsorption of indigo carmine fits well with the Langmuir model. The reuse of the composite nanofiber was also investigated in which more than 90% of indigo carmine was recovered in 5 min. The results of stability studies showed that the adsorption efficiency can remain almost constant (90%) after five consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles.

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