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  • 1. Ekblom, M. M.
    et al.
    Eriksson, Martin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Concurrent EMG feedback acutely improves strength and muscle activation2012In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, no 5, p. 1899-1905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of electromyographic (EMG) feedback on muscle activation and strength during maximal voluntary concentric and eccentric muscle actions. 15 females performed two sets of three lengthening and three shortening maximal voluntary isokinetic knee extensions at 20A degrees A s(-1) over 60A degrees range of motion. After the first set, subjects were randomized to either a control group (n = 8) or a feedback group (n = 7). In the second set, the control group performed tasks identical to those in the first set, whereas the feedback group additionally received concurrent visual feedback of the EMGrms from Vastus Medialis (VM). Knee extensor strength and EMG activation of VM, Vastus lateralis (VL) and hamstrings (HAM) were measured during the MVCs. Analyses were performed separately in a 1 s preactivation phase, a 1 s initial movement phase and a 1 s late movement phase. EMG feedback was associated with significantly higher knee extensor strength in all phases (20.5% p < 0.05, 18.2% p < 0.001 and 19% p < 0.001, respectively) for the eccentric MVCs and in the preactivation phase (16.3%, p < 0.001) and initial movement phases (7.2%, p < 0.05) for concentric MVCs. EMG feedback from VM further improved activation in VM and HAM but not VL. These findings suggested that concurrent visual EMG feedback from VM could acutely enhance muscle strength and activation. Before recommending implementation of EMG feedback in resistance training paradigms, the feedback parameters needs to be optimized and its long-term effects needs to be scrutinized.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Martin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Video based analysis and visualization of human action2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyzing human motion is important in a number of ways. An athlete constantly needs to evaluate minute details about his or her motion pattern. In physical rehabilitation, the doctor needs to evaluate how well a patient is rehabilitating from injuries. Some systems are being developed in order to identify people only based on their gait. Automatic interpretation of sign language is another area that has received much attention. While all these applications can be considered useful in some sense, the analysis of human motion can also be used for pure entertainment. For example, by filming a sport activity from one view, it is possible to create a 3D reconstruction of this motion, that can be rendered from a view where no camera was originally placed. Such a reconstruction system can be enjoyable for the TV audience. It can also be useful for the computer-game industry. This thesis presents ideas and new methods on how such reconstructions can be obtained. One of the main purposes of this thesis is to identify a number of qualitative constraints that strongly characterizes a certain class of motion. These qualitative constraints provide enough information about the class so that every motion satisfying the constraints will "look nice" and appear, according to a human observer, to belong to the class. Further, the constraints must not be too restrictive; a large variation within the class is necessary. It is shown how such qualitative constraints can be learned automatically from a small set of examples.

    Another topic that will be addressed concerns analysis of motion in terms of quality assessment as well as classification. It is shown that in many cases, 2D projections of a motion carries almost as much information about the motion as the original 3D representation. It is also shown that single-view reconstruction of 2D data for the purpose of analysis is generally not useful. Using these facts, a prototype of a "virtual coach" that is able to track and analyze image data of human action is developed. Potentials and limitations of such a system are discussed in the the thesis.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS) (Closed 20130701).
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Improving running mechanics by use of interactive sonification2010In: Proceedings of the Interaction Sonification workshop (ISon) 2010 / [ed] Bresin, Roberto; Hermann, Thomas; Hunt, Andy, Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2010, p. 95-98Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Running technique has a large effect on running economy interms of consumed amount of oxygen. Changing the naturalrunning technique, though, is a difficult task. In this paper, a method based on sonification is presented, that will assist the runner in obtaining a more efficient running style. The system is based on an accelerometer sending data to a mobile phone.Thus the system is non-obtrusive and possible to use in theeveryday training. Specifically, the feedback given is based on the runner’s vertical displacement of the center of mass. As this is the main source of energy expenditure during running, it is conjectured that a reduced vertical displacement should improve running economy.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Carlsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Maximizing validity in 2D motion analysis2004In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PATTERN RECOGNITION, VOL 2 / [ed] Kittler, J; Petrou, M; Nixon, M, 2004, p. 179-183Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Classifying and analyzing human motion from a video is relatively common in many areas. Since the motion is carried out in 3D space, the 2D projection provided by a video is somewhat limiting. The question we are investigating in this article is how much information is actually lost when going from 3D to 2D and how this information loss depends on factors, such as viewpoint and tracking errors that inevitably will occur if the 2D sequences are analysed automatically.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Carlsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Monocular reconstruction of human motion by qualitative selection2004In: SIXTH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AUTOMATIC FACE AND GESTURE RECOGNITION, PROCEEDINGS, LOS ALAMITOS: IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2004, p. 863-868Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main difficulties when reconstructing human motion from monocular video is the depth ambiguity. Achieving a reconstruction, given the projection of the joints, can be regarded as a search-problem, where the objective is to find the most likely configuration. One inherent problem in such a formulation is the definition of "most likely". In this work we will pick the configuration that best complies with a set of training-data in a qualitative sense. The reason for doing this is to allow for large individual variation within the class of motions, and avoid an extreme bias towards the training-data. In order to capture the qualitative constraints, we have used a set of 3D motion capture data of walking people. The method is tested on orthographic projections of motion capture data, in order to compare the achieved reconstruction with the original motion.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan A.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Gullstrand, Lennart
    Immediate effect of visual and auditory feedback to control the running mechanics of well-trained athletes2011In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 253-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The correlation between mechanical factors of running and running economy as measured by metabolic cost is a subject of much interest in the study of locomotion. However, no change in running technique has been shown to result in an immediate improvement in running economy on an intra-individual basis. To evaluate the effect of a modified running technique, it is probably necessary that the individual trains with the new technique for a longer period using a feedback system to control the new kinematics. In this study, we examine the feasibility of using visual and auditory feedback to adapt running technique according to a simplistic model of the mechanical cost of running. The model considers only the mechanical work against gravity, which is the product of the magnitude of the vertical displacement of the runner's centre of mass and the step-frequency. In the experiments reported here, 18 trained runners, running at 16km center dot h-1 on a treadmill, were given feedback on these parameters together with indicated target levels. In almost all cases, the runners were able to adjust their technique accordingly.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Sturm, Dennis
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Gullstrand, Lennart
    Swedish Sports Confederation.
    Wireless Vertical Displacement Measurement during Running using an Accelerometer and a Mobile Phone2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in the usability of a wireless accelerometer linked to a mobile phone via Bluetooth radio for measuring vertical displacement in running athletes. Five experienced runners were monitored during lactate threshold testing at three to five different velocities. Accelerometer data was received, processed and stored on the phone to be compared to simultaneous position transducer (ground truth) recordings after data collection. A paired t-test and statistical analysis show no significant differences in the reliability of the recordings. While further investigations are encouraged, the accelerometer and algorithm (running in J2ME on the mobile phone) proof as aflexible, easy-to-use tool for out-of-the-lab monitoring and to provide real-time feedback for running technique experiments.

  • 8. Gullstrand, Lennart
    et al.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    Eriksson, Martin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Measurements of vertical displacement in running, a methodological comparison2009In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 71-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was (1) to evaluate measurements of vertical displacements (V-disp) of a single point on sacrum as an estimate of the whole body centre of mass (CoM) V-disp during treadmill running and (2) to compare three methods for measuring this single point. These methods were based on a position transducer(PT), accelerometers (AMs) and an optoelectronic motion capture system. Criterion method was V-disp of the whole body CoM measured with the motion capture system. Thirteen subjects ran at 10, 12, 14, 16. 18, 20 and 22 km h(-1) with synchronous recordings with the three methods. Four measurements of the (V-disp) were derived: (1) V-disp of CoM calculated from a segment model consisting of 13 segments tracked with 36 reflective markets, (2) V-disp of the sacrum recorded with the PT, (3) V-disp of the sacrum Calculated from the AM, and (4) V-disp of the sacrum calculated as the mid point of two reflective markets (sacrum marker, SM) attached at the level of the sacral bone. The systematic discrepancy between the Measurements of sacrum V-disp and CoM V-disp varied between 0 and 1.5 mm and decreased with increasing running velocity and decreasing step duration. PT and SM measurements showed strong correlation, whereas the AM showed a variability increasing with velocity. The random discrepancy within each Subject was 7 mm for all three methods. In conclusion single-point recordings of the sacrum V-disp may be used to monitor changes in V-disp of CoM during treadmill running.

  • 9.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Eriksson, Martin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Gullstrand, Lennart
    Swedish Sports Confederation.
    Acute Effects Of Reducing Vertical Displacement And Step Frequency On Running Economy2012In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 2065-2070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work studies the immediate effects of altering the vertical displacement of CoM (VD) and step frequency (SF) on the metabolic cost of level treadmill running at 16 km·h on sixteen male runners. Alterations of VD, SF and the product VD SF was induced using a novel feedback system which presents target and current values to the runner by visual or auditory display. Target values were set to 5 and 10% reductions from individual baseline values. Results were expressed as relative changes from baseline values.Alterations led to an increase in metabolic cost in most cases, measured as VO2 uptake per minute and kg body mass. Correlations were weak. Still, linear multiple regression revealed a positive coefficient (0.28) for the relationship between VD SF and VO2. Separate rank correlation tests showed negative correlation (τ = -0.19) between SF and VO2 and positive correlation (τ = -0.16) between VD and VO2. There is a coupling between VD and SF caused by the mechanics of running, hence isolated reduction of either factor was hard to achieve. The linear model also showed a negative coefficient for the relationship between the height of center of mass above ground (CoMh) and VO2.The effect size was small (multiple R-squared 0.07 and 0.12). Still the results indicate that reducing VD SF by reducing vertical displacement can have a positive effect on running economy, but a concurrent reduction in CoMh may reduce or diminish the positive effect. Mid- and long-term effects of altering the technique should also be studied.

  • 10.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Eriksson, Martin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Gullstrand, Lennart
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Minimal marker set for center of mass estimation in running2009In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 552-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to study the validity of a recently proposed method [Forsell C, Halvorsen K. A method for determining minimal sets of markers for the estimation of center of mass, linear and angular momentum. journal of Biomechanics 2009;42(3):361-5] for estimating the trajectory of the whole-body center of mass (CoM) in the case of running at: velocities ranging from 10 to 22 km h(-1). The method gives an approximation to the CoM using the position of fewer markers on the body than the standard method of tracking each segment of the body. Fourteen male athletes participated. A standard method for determining the CoM from a model of 13 segments and using the position of 36 markers was used as reference method. Leave-one-out cross-validation revealed errors that decreased with increasing number of markers used in the approximative method. Starting from four markers, the error in absolute position of the CoM decreased from 15 mm to 3 mm in each direction. For the velocity of the CoM the estimation bias was neglectable, and the random error decreased from 0.15 to 0.05 m s(-1). The inter-subject and intra-subject variability in the estimated model parameters increased with increasing number of markers. The method worked well also when applied to running at velocities outside the range of velocities in the data used to determine the model parameters. The results indicate that a model using 10 markers represents a good trade-off between simplicity and accuracy, but users must take into account requirements of their specific applications.

  • 11.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Eriksson, Martin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Nilsson, Johnny
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Gullstrand, Lennart
    The Swedish Sport Confederation.
    The antero-posterior movement of the sacrum as an indicator of the antero-posterior movement of center of mass in running2011In: Proceedings of ECSS 16th Congress, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Lind, Britta
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge.
    Eriksson, Martin
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge.
    Roumina, S.
    Nowak, J.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge.
    Longitudinal isovolumic displacement of the left ventricular myocardium assessed by tissue velocity echocardiography in healthy individuals2006In: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, ISSN 0894-7317, E-ISSN 1097-6795, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 255-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid myocardial isovolumic motions are reportedly involved in the left ventricular reshaping process and may contribute to total systolic myocardial shortening. in this study, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of longitudinal myocardial isovolumic displacement was performed in 49 healthy individuals (23 men and 26 women) in age groups 21 to 49 and 50 to 76 years using tissue velocity echocardiography. The obtained isovolumic contraction and relaxation displacement curves were biphasic and displayed a significant regional heterogeneity most probably reflecting active presystolic and post-systolic reshaping of left ventricular cavity. Besides some sex difference in younger individuals, there was an age-dependent lengthening of the isovolumic relaxation time and their motion components. Even if being of short duration, the longitudinal myocardial isovolumic displacement may accounted for as much as 14% of the total longitudinal myocardial shortening, a fact which should be taken into consideration when assessing left ventricular systolic function.

  • 13.
    Loy, Gareth
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Eriksson, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Sullivan, Josephine
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Carlsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Monocular 3D reconstruction of human motion in long action sequences2004In: COMPUTER VISION: ECCV 2004, PT 4, BERLIN: SPRINGER , 2004, Vol. 2034, p. 442-455Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel algorithm is presented for the 3D reconstruction of human action in long (> 30 second) monocular image sequences. A sequence is represented by a small set of automatically found representative keyframes. The skeletal joint positions are manually located in each keyframe and mapped to all other frames in the sequence. For each keyframe a 3D key pose is created, and interpolation between these 3D body poses, together with the incorporation of limb length and symmetry constraints, provides a smooth initial approximation of the 3D motion. This is then fitted to the image data to generate a realistic 3D reconstruction. The degree of manual input required is controlled by the diversity of the sequence's content. Sports' footage is ideally suited to this approach as it frequently contains a limited number of repeated actions. Our method is demonstrated on a long (36 second) sequence of a woman playing tennis filmed with a non-stationary camera. This sequence required manual initialisation on < 1.5% of the frames, and demonstrates that the system can deal with very rapid motion, severe self-occlusions, motion blur and clutter occurring over several concurrent frames. The monocular 3D reconstruction is verified by synthesising a view from the perspective of a 'ground truth' reference camera, and the result is seen to provide a qualitatively accurate 3D reconstruction of the motion.

  • 14.
    Sturm, Dennis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Yousaf, Khurram
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Eriksson, Martin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    A Kayak Training System for Force Measurement on-water2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kayaking is a very competitive sport and represented in the Olympic context with two disciplines: slalom and flatwater. The main forces that propel the boat are paddle and foot stretcher force (Mann & Kearney, 1980). Anecdotal evidence collected from coaches involved in the research suggests varying theories on the best profile and synchronisation of paddle and foot stretcher force. It should be extremely helpful for athletes, coaches and researchers to measure these forces in real-time on-water with an unobtrusive, wireless sensor system such as is presented here. Thereby athletes are provided the possibility to perform their training with knowledge of performance (KP), which leads to superior training effects compared to knowledge of results (KR) only. The authors have not been able to identify any previous studies examining paddle and foot stretcher forces simultaneously although previous work has suggested doing so (Michael et al. 2009, Petrone et al., 1998).

  • 15.
    Sturm, Dennis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Yousaf, Khurram
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Eriksson, Martin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    A wireless, unobtrusive Kayak Sensor Network enabling Feedback Solutions2010In: 2010 International Conference on Body Sensor Networks, BSN 2010, 2010, p. 159-163Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Canoeing is a very competitive sport involving a non-trivial pattern of motion. A group of athletes and coaches approached the authors for aid in quantifying what until today only is qualitative, personal and thereby subjective data. The objective of this work is to present a measurement tool that records paddle and foot stretcher force in a flatwater kayak training situation, i.e. when training on the water. The system facilitatesa wireless (Bluetooth) star network link with three sensor nodes and one central unit. Validation data was obtained from a kayak ergometer that is equipped with analysis software. The stroke power obtained from this ergometer system is compared to the force data measured by the presented wireless sensor nodes. We have not been able to find any similar systems that would provide better data for performance analysis.

  • 16.
    Sturm, Dennis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Yousaf, Khurram
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Eriksson, Martin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Tornberg, Åsa B.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Validation of a novel wireless Force Measurement System for Kayak Paddle ShaftsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Sturm, Dennis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Yousaf, Khurram
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Eriksson, Martin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Håkansson, Paul
    Lund University.
    Segerström, Åsa
    Lund University.
    Measuring Kayak Paddle Performance with Wireless Strain Sensors on the Shaft: A Validation Study2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Wåhslén, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Orhan, Ibrahim
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Lindh, Thomas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Eriksson, Martin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS) (Closed 20130701).
    A novel approach to multi-sensor data synchronisation using mobile phones2013In: International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems, ISSN 1754-8632, E-ISSN 1754-8640, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 289-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new algorithm for application layer synchronisation of data from multiple sensors arriving to a mobile phone's Bluetooth interface. A system that provides feedback signals to an athlete is one example where it is crucial to synchronise data from several wireless sensors. This paper also discusses synchronisation problems caused by unpredictable Bluetooth transmission performance. 

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