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  • 1.
    Heinig, Stefanie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Ilves, Kalle
    KTH.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    On Energy Storage Requirements in Alternate Arm Converters and Modular Multilevel Converters2016In: 2016 18TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON POWER ELECTRONICS AND APPLICATIONS (EPE'16 ECCE EUROPE), IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a comparison of the energy storage requirements is performed for the modular multilevel converter (MMC) with half-bridge and full-bridge submodules as well as for the alternate arm converter (AAC). Concerning the AAC, the operational mode with overlap period is taken into account and an analytical relation between the overlap angle and the modulation index is presented. This ensures that the net energy exchange for the converter arms is zero over each half cycle.

  • 2.
    Heinig, Stefanie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Jacobs, Keijo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Ilves, Kalle
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Bessegato, Luca
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Bakas, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Implications of Capacitor Voltage Imbalance on the Operation of the Semi-Full-Bridge Submodule2019In: IEEE transactions on power electronics, ISSN 0885-8993, E-ISSN 1941-0107, Vol. 34, no 10, p. 9520-9535, article id 8598807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future meshed high-voltage direct current grids require modular multilevel converters with extended functionality. One of the most interesting new submodule topologies is the semi-full-bridge because it enables efficient handling of DC-side short circuits while having reduced power losses compared to an implementation with full-bridge submodules. However, the semi-full-bridge submodule requires the parallel connection of capacitors during normal operation which can cause a high redistribution current in case the voltages of the two submodule capacitors are not equal. The maximum voltage difference and resulting redistribution current have been studied analytically, by means of simulations and in a full-scale standalone submodule laboratory setup. The most critical parameter is the capacitance mismatch between the two capacitors. The experimental results from the full-scale prototype show that the redistribution current peaks at 500A if the voltage difference is 10V before paralleling and increases to 2500A if the difference is 40V. However, neglecting very unlikely cases, the maximum voltage difference predicted by simulations is not higher than 20-30V for the considered case. Among other measures, a balancing controller is proposed which reduces the voltage difference safely if a certain maximum value is surpassed. The operating principle of the controller is described in detail and verified experimentally on a down-scaled submodule within a modular multilevel converter prototype. It can be concluded that excessively high redistribution currents can be prevented. Consequently, they are no obstacle for using the semi-full-bridge submodule in future HVDC converters.

  • 3.
    Heinig, Stefanie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Jacobs, Keijo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Ilves, Kalle
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. ABB Corporate Research.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Implications of Capacitor Voltage Imbalance on the Operation of the Semi-Full-Bridge Submodule2017In: 2017 19th European Conference on Power Electronics andApplications (EPE'17 ECCE Europe), Warsaw, Poland, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation of the voltage imbalance of the two capacitors of the semi-full-bridge submodule is performed. Since the capacitances are not exactly the same, there may be a difference between the capacitor voltages. The resulting current-spike when they are connected in parallel has been analyzed in a full-scale laboratory experiment.

  • 4.
    Heinig, Stefanie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Jacobs, Keijo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Ilves, Kalle
    ABB Corp Res, Forskargrand 7, SE-72178 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Reduction of Switching Frequency for the Semi-Full-Bridge Submodule Using Alternative Bypass States2018In: 2018 20TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON POWER ELECTRONICS AND APPLICATIONS (EPE'18 ECCE EUROPE), IEEE , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As regards modular multilevel converter submodules, a different number of switches may be involved in the transitions between voltage levels depending on the submodule type and choice of switching states. In this paper, an investigation of the average switching frequency associated with different choices of bypass states is performed for the semi-full-bridge submodule. Theoretical considerations and simulation results show that the average switching frequency per device can be halved by using the proposed alternative bypass state. Moreover, the switching losses can be reduced by up to 60%. Finally, a comparative study with the full-bridge submodule has been conducted.

  • 5.
    Sadik, Diane-Perle
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Heinig, Stefanie
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Jacobs, Keijo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Johannesson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. ABB Corp Res, Sweden.
    Lim, Jan-Kwon
    Nawaz, Muhammad
    Dijkhuizen, Frans
    Bakowski, Mietek
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Investigation of the Surge Current Capability of the Body Diode of SiC MOSFETs for HVDC Applications2016In: 2016 18TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON POWER ELECTRONICS AND APPLICATIONS (EPE'16 ECCE EUROPE), IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surge current capability of the body-diode of SiC MOSFETs is experimentally analyzed in order to investigate the possibility of using SiC MOSFETs for HVDC applications. SiC MOSFET discrete devices and modules have been tested with surge currents up to 10 times the rated current and for durations up to 2 ms. Although the presence of stacking faults cannot be excluded, the experiments reveal that the failure may occur due to the latch-up of the parasitic n-p-n transistor located in the SiC MOSFET.

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