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  • 1.
    Ayele, Getnet Tadesse
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. IMT Atlantique, Department of Energy Systems and Environment, GEPEA, UBL, F-44307 Nantes, France.
    Haurant, Pierrick
    IMT Atlantique.
    Laumert, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Lacarrière, Bruno
    IMT Atlantique.
    An extended energy hub approach for load flow analysis of highly coupled district energy networks: Illustration with electricity and heating2018In: Applied Energy, Vol. 212, p. 850-867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy systems at district/urban level are getting more complex and diversified from time to time. Different energy carriers are coupled each other to meet various types of energy demands. The conventional way of analyzing energy networks independently does not reflect the true nature of the coupled networks. One of such a promising coupled multi-carrier energy system (MCES) is the combination of district heating and electricity networks. The coupling between these two networks is increasing due to the integration of co– and poly-generation technologies at the distribution networks. Recent literatures tried to address a load flow analysis for lightly coupled networks by formulating case-specific load flow models. This paper presents a more general and flexible tool developed using Matlab® which can be used to conduct the load flow analysis of highly coupled electricity and heating networks. An energy hub concept is extended further to formulate a general model in which local generations and detailed network parameters of MCES can be taken into account. Coupled heating and electricity networks are modeled in detail for illustration. The flexibility and generality of the model are then tested by considering case studies with different network topologies (tree and meshed). A comparison is also made with a model used in recent literature. The results show that the proposed model is more accurate. The main contribution of this paper can be summarized by the following five points: (1) Coupling matrices are used to relate network power flow equations of different energy carriers; (2) Hybrid hydraulic head and pipe flow equations are used to develop the hydraulic model which can be applied for both types of tree and meshed heating networks with the possibility of pumping units; (3) A general thermal model that relates steady state temperature drops and mass flow rates, even during change of flow direction, is developed for the heating network; (4) The electricity network is modeled with the possibility of tap changing transformers; (5) The overall system of equations are solved as a single problem using Newton-Raphson iterative method.

  • 2.
    Ayele, Getnet Tadesse
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. CNRS, UMR 6144, GEPEA, IMT Atlantique, F-44307 Nantes, France..
    Mabrouk, Mohamed Tahar
    CNRS, UMR 6144, GEPEA, IMT Atlantique, F-44307 Nantes, France..
    Haurant, Pierrick
    CNRS, UMR 6144, GEPEA, IMT Atlantique, F-44307 Nantes, France..
    Laumert, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Energy Technol, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lacarriere, Bruno
    CNRS, UMR 6144, GEPEA, IMT Atlantique, F-44307 Nantes, France..
    Optimal placement and sizing of heat pumps and heat only boilers in a coupled electricity and heating networks2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 182, p. 122-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-energy systems are reported to have a better environmental and economic performance relative to the conventional, single-carrier, energy systems. Electrification of district heating networks using heat pumps and combined heat and power technologies is one such example. Due to lack of suitable modelling tools, however, the sizing and optimal placement of heat pumps is always done only from the heating network point of view which sometimes compromises the electricity network. This paper proposes an integrated optimization algorithm to overcome such limitation. A load flow model based on an extended energy hub approach is combined with a nested particle swarm optimization algorithm. A waste to energy combined heat and power plant, heat pumps (HPs), heat only boiler (HOB), solar photovoltaic, wind turbines and imports from the neighborhood grids are considered in the case studies. The results show that optimal placement and sizing of HPs and a HOB using the proposed methodology avoids an unacceptable voltage profiles and overloading of the electricity distribution network, which could arise while optimizing only from the heating network point of view. It also shows that up to 41.2% of the electric loss and 5% of the overall operating cost could be saved.

  • 3.
    Ayele, Getnet Tadesse
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. IMT Atlantique, Department of Energy Systems and Environment.
    Mabrouk, Mohamed Tahar
    IMT Atlantique, Department of Energy Systems and Environment.
    Haurant, Pierrick
    IMT Atlantique, Department of Energy Systems and Environment.
    Laumert, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Lacarrière, Bruno
    IMT Atlantique, Department of Energy Systems and Environment.
    Pseudo-dynamic simulation on a district energy system made of coupling technologies2018In: Proceedings of ECOS 2018 - the 31st International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems June 17-22, 2018, Guimarães, PORTUGAL, University of Minho , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of an effort towards the future smart energy system, integration of different distributed generation technologies is proposed in literature. These technologies include heat pumps, gas boilers, combined heat and power (CHP) plants, solar photo-voltaic (PV) and so on. Some of these technologies couple different energy carriers in which case the independent analysis of each network could lead to unrealistic results. Optimization of heat pumps and CHP plants in coupled electricity and heating network, for example, needs consideration of both networks’ parameters in order to get results that are optimal in both networks. The first step in such optimization process is to have a load flow model (as an equality constraint) for the two coupled networks. Even though many researchers tried to address optimization of energy mixes at a district level, they did not consider the details of network parameters. Too little has been done to investigate the effect of different distributed generation technologies on the operational parameters of different energy networks. This paper deals with a pseudo-dynamic simulation of a district energy system that consists of coupled electricity and heating networks. The details of transmission line and pipe parameters together with the coupling devices are modelled using an extended energy hub approach. A network of six energy hubs with different distributed generation technologies such as heat pump, gas boiler, CHP and Solar PV is considered in the simulation. Time series data for demands and generations at different hubs are used on hourly basis. The CHP and heat pumps are scheduled to operate in certain period of the year while the PV output follows the annual solar radiation. Annual pseudo-dynamic load flow simulation is done to see how the operational parameters and power losses in the network vary with hourly changes in demands, generations and loading of coupling technologies.

  • 4.
    Ayele, Getnet Tadesse
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Mabrouk, Mohamed Tahar
    IMT Atlantique - DSEE - Département Systèmes énergétiques et environnement.
    Haurant, Pierrick
    IMT Atlantique - DSEE - Département Systèmes énergétiques et environnement.
    Laumert, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Lacarrière, Bruno
    IMT Atlantique - DSEE - Département Systèmes énergétiques et environnement.
    Santarelli, Massimo
    Polito - Politecnico di Torino.
    Exergy analysis and thermo-economic optimization of a district heating network with solar- photovoltaic and heat pumps2019In: Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems / [ed] Wojciech Stanek, Paweł Gładysz, Sebastian Werle, Wojciech Adamczyk, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrification of district heating networks, especially using heat pumps, is widely recommended in literature. Installing heat pumps affects both electricity and heating networks. Due to lack of suitable modelling tools, size optimization of heat pumps in the heating network with the full consideration of the electric distribution network is not well addressed in literature. This paper presents an optimization of a district heating network consisting of solar photovoltaic and heat pumps with the consideration of the detail parameters of heating and electric distribution networks. An extended energy hub approach is used to model the energy system. Exergy and energy analyses are applied to identify and isolate lossy branches in a meshed heating network. Both methods resulted into the same reduced topology. Particle swarm optimization is then applied on the reduced topology in order to find out the most economical temperature profiles and size of distributed heat pumps. The thermo-economic results are found to be highly influenced by the heat demand distribution, the power loss in both electric and heat distribution network, the cost of generation, the temperature limits and the coupling effect of the heat pumps.

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