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  • 1.
    Hedayati, Raheleh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Malm, Bengt Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Rusu, Ana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    A 500 degrees C 8-b Digital-to-Analog Converter in Silicon Carbide Bipolar Technology2016In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 63, no 9, p. 3445-3450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-temperature integrated circuits provide important sensing and controlling functionality in extreme environments. Silicon carbide bipolar technology can operate beyond 500 degrees C and has shown stable operation in both digital and analog circuit applications. This paper demonstrates an 8-b digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The DAC is realized in a current steering R-2R configuration. High-gain Darlington current switches are used to ensure ideal switching at 500 degrees C. The measured differential nonlinearity (DNL) and integral nonlinearity (INL) at 25 degrees C are 0.79 and 1.01 LSB, respectively, while at 500 degrees C, the DNL and INL are 4.7 and 2.5 LSB, respectively. In addition, the DAC achieves 53.6 and 40.6 dBc of spurious free dynamic range at 25 degrees C and 500 degrees C, respectively.

  • 2.
    Hedayati, Raheleh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Rodriguez, Saul
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Malm, Bengt Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Rusu, Ana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    A Monolithic, 500 degrees C Operational Amplifier in 4H-SiC Bipolar Technology2014In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 693-695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A monolithic bipolar operational amplifier (opamp) fabricated in 4H-SiC technology is presented. The opamp has been used in an inverting negative feedback amplifier configuration. Wide temperature operation of the amplifier is demonstrated from 25 degrees C to 500 degrees C. The measured closed loop gain is around 40 dB for all temperatures whereas the 3 dB bandwidth increases from 270 kHz at 25 degrees C to 410 kHz at 500 degrees C. The opamp achieves 1.46 V/mu s slew rate and 0.25% total harmonic distortion. This is the first report on high temperature operation of a fully integrated SiC bipolar opamp which demonstrates the feasibility of this technology for high temperature analog integrated circuits.

  • 3.
    Hedayati, Raheleh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Rusu, Ana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Wide Temperature Range Integrated Amplifier in Bipolar 4H-SiC Technology2016In: 2016 46TH EUROPEAN SOLID-STATE DEVICE RESEARCH CONFERENCE (ESSDERC), IEEE, 2016, p. 198-201Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a high temperature integrated amplifier implemented in bipolar 4H-SiC technology. A 40 dB negative feedback voltage amplifier has been designed using the structured design method to overcome the temperature variation of device parameters. The amplifier performance degrades as the temperature increases from room temperature up to 500 degrees C. The measured gain is reduced from 39 dB at room temperature to 34 dB at 500 degrees C, and the 3-dB bandwidth decreases from 195 kHz to 100 kHz. The measured power-supply-rejection-ratio (PSRR) is reduced from -78 dB to -62 dB, while the output voltage swing decreases from 8 V to 7 V.

  • 4.
    Hedayati, Raheleh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Rusu, Ana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Wide Temperature Range Integrated Bandgap Voltage References in 4H–SiC2016In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 146-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three fully integrated bandgap voltage references (BGVRs) have been demonstrated in a 4H-SiC bipolar technology. The circuits have been characterized over a wide temperature range from 25 degrees C to 500 degrees C. The three BGVRs are functional and exhibit 46 ppm/degrees C, 131 ppm/degrees C, and 120 ppm/degrees C output voltage variations from 25 degrees C up to 500 degrees C. This letter shows that SiC bipolar BGVRs are capable of providing stable voltage references over a wide temperature range.

  • 5.
    Hedayati, Raheleh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). KTH University.
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Shakir, Muhammad
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Salemi, Arash
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    High Temperature Bipolar Master-Slave Comparator and Frequency Divider in 4H-SiC Technology2017In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 897, p. 681-684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates a fully integrated master-slave emitter-coupled logic (ECL)comparator and a frequency divider implemented in 4H-SiC bipolar technology. The comparator consists of two latch stages, two level shifters and an output buffer stage. The circuits have been tested up to 500 °C. The single ended output swing of the comparator is -7.73 V at 25 °C and-7.63 V at 500 °C with a -15 V supply voltage. The comparator consumes 585 mW at 25 °C. The frequency divider consisting of two latches shows a relatively constant output voltage swing over the wide temperature range. The output voltage swing is 7.62 V at 25 °C and 7.32 V at 500 °C.

  • 6.
    Kargarrazi, Saleh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Rusu, Ana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    A monolithic SiC drive circuit for SiC Power BJTs2015In: 2015 IEEE 27TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES & IC'S (ISPSD), IEEE , 2015, p. 285-288Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) is an excellent candidate for high temperature electronics applications, thanks to its wide bandgap. SiC power BJTs are commercially available nowadays, and it is demanding to drive them efficiently. This paper reports on the design, layout specifics, and measurements results of a SiC drive integrated circuit (IC) designed for driving SiC power BJTs. The circuit has been tested in different loading conditions (resistive and capacitive), at switching frequencies up to 500kHz, and together with a commercial power BJT. The SiC drive IC is shown to have a robust operation over the entire temperature range from 25 degrees C to 500 degrees C.

  • 7.
    Kargarrazi, Saleh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Saggini, Stefano
    Rusu, Ana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    500 degrees C Bipolar SiC Linear Voltage Regulator2015In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 62, no 6, p. 1953-1957Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we demonstrate a fully integrated linear voltage regulator in silicon carbide NPN bipolar transistor technology, operational from 25 degrees C up to 500 degrees C. For 15-mA load current, this regulator provides a stable output voltage with <2% variation in the temperature range 25 degrees C-500 degrees C. For both line and load regulations, degradation of 50% from 25 degrees C to 300 degrees C and improvement of 50% from 300 degrees C to 500 degrees C are observed. The transient response measurements of the regulator show robust behavior in the temperature range 25 degrees C-500 degrees C.

  • 8.
    Kargarrazi, Saleh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Design and characterization of 500°c schmitt trigger in 4H-SiC2015In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 821-823, p. 897-901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two versions of Schmitt trigger, an emitter-coupled and an operational amplifier (opamp)-based, are implemented in 4H-SiC bipolar technology and tested up to 500 °C. The former benefits the simplicity, smaller footprint, and fewer number of devices, whereas the latter provides better promise for high temperature applications, thanks to its more stable temperature characteristics. In addition, the measurements in the range 25 °C - 500 °C, shows that the opamp-based version provides negative and positive slew rates of 4.8 V/μs and 8.3 V/μs, ~8 and ~3 times higher than that of the emitter-coupled version, which are 1.7 V/μs and 1 V/μs.

  • 9.
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Silicon Carbide Bipolar Integrated Circuits for High Temperature Applications2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a semiconductor that provides significant advantages for high-power and high-temperature applications thanks to its wide bandgap, which is several times larger than silicon. The resulting high breakdown field, high thermal conductivity and high intrinsic temperature (well above 600 °C) allow high temperature operation of SiC devices and relaxed cooling requirements. In particular, SiC bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) are suitable for high temperature integrated circuits (ICs), due to the absence of a gate oxide.

    This work focuses on design, fabrication and characterization of the first 4H-SiC integrated circuits realized at KTH. It deals with basic bipolar ICs suitable for high temperature and low voltage applications. Operation up to 300 °C of low-voltage 4H-SiC NPN bipolar transistors and digital integrated circuits based on emitter coupled logic (ECL) has been demonstrated. In the temperature range 27 - 300 °C stable noise margins of about 1 V have been achieved for a 2-input OR-NOR gate operated on -15 V supply voltage, and an oscillation frequency of about 2 MHz has been observed for a 3-stage ring oscillator.

    The possibility of realizing PNP transistors and passive devices in the same process technology has also been investigated.

  • 10.
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Silicon Carbide BipolarTechnology for High Temperature Integrated Circuits2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The availability of integrated circuits (ICs) capable of 500 or 600° C operation can be extremely beneficial for many important applications, such as transportation and energy sector industry. It can in fact enable the realization of improved sensing and control of turbine engine combustion leading to better fuel efficiency and reduced pollution. In addition, the possibility of placing integrated circuits in engine hot-sections can significantly reduce the weight and improve the reliability of automobiles and aircrafts, eliminating extra wires and cooling systems.

    In order to develop such electronics semiconductors with superior high temperature characteristics compared to Si are required. Thanks to its wide bandgap,  almost three times that of Si, Silicon carbide (SiC) has been suggested for this purpose. Its low intrinsic carrier concentration, orders of magnitude lower than that of Si, makes SiC devices capable of operating at much higher temperatures than Si devices.

    In this thesis solutions for 600° C SiC bipolar ICs have been investigated in depth at device physics, circuit and process integration level. Successful operation of devices and circuits  has been proven from -40 up to 600° C.

    The developed technology features NPN and lateral PNP transistors, two levels of interconnects and one extra metal level acting as over-layer metallization for device contacts. The improved SiC etching and passivation procedures have provided NPN transistors with high current gain of approximately 200. Furthermore, non-monotonous current gain temperature dependences have been observed for NPN and PNP transistors. The current gain of NPN transistors increases with temperature at high enough temperatures above 300° C  depending on the base doping concentration. The current gain of lateral PNP transistors has, instead, shown a maximum of approximately 37 around 0° C.

    Finally, high-temperature operation of 2-input ECL-based OR-NOR gates and  3- and 11-stage ring oscillators has been demonstrated. For the OR-NOR gates stable noise margins of approximately 1 or 1.5 V, depending on the gate design, have been observed up to 600° C with a delay-power consumption product of approximately 100 nJ in the range -40 to 500° C.  Ring oscillators with different designs, including more than 100 devices, have been  successfully tested in the range 27 to 300° C. Non-monotonous and almost constant temperature dependences have been observed for the oscillation frequency of 3- and 11-stage ring oscillator, respectively. In addition, room temperature propagation delays of a single inverter stage have been estimated to be approximately 100 and 40 ns for 3- and 11-stage ring oscillators, respectively. 

  • 11.
    Lanni, Luigia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Ghandi, Reza
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Domeij, Martin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Malm, B. Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Bipolar Integrated OR-NOR Gate in 4H-SiC2011In: Proceedings of International Conference on Silicon Carbibe and Related Materials 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Lanni, Luigia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Ghandi, Reza
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Domeij, Martin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Malm, B. Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Measurements and simulations of lateral PNP transistors in a SiC NPN BJT technology for high temperature integrated circuits2011In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 679-680, p. 758-761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a 4H-SiC lateral PNP transistor fabricated in a high voltage NPN technology has been simulated and characterized. The possibility of fabricating a lateral PNP with a current gain larger than 1 has been investigated. Device and circuit level solutions have been performed.

  • 13.
    Lanni, Luigia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Ghandi, Reza
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Malm, B. Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Design and Characterization of High-Temperature ECL-Based Bipolar Integrated Circuits in 4H-SiC2012In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 1076-1083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operation up to 300 degrees C of low-voltage 4H-SiC n-p-n bipolar transistors and digital integrated circuits based on emitter-coupled logic is demonstrated. Stable noise margins of about 1 V are reported for a two-input OR-NOR gate operated on - 15 V supply voltage from 27 degrees C up to 300 degrees C. In the same temperature range, an oscillation frequency of about 2 MHz is also reported for a three-stage ring oscillator.

  • 14.
    Lanni, Luigia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Ghandi, Reza
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Malm, B. Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Bipolar integrated OR-NOR gate in 4H-SiC2012In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 717-720, p. 1257-1260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An integrated bipolar OR-NOR gate based on emitter coupled logic (ECL) is demonstrated in 4H-SiC. Operated from 27 up to 300 °C on -15 V supply voltage the logic gate exhibits stable noise margins (NMs) of about 1 V in the entire temperature range, and high and low output voltage levels that move towards positive voltages when the temperature increases: from -3 up to -2.7 V and from -5.4 up to -5.1 V respectively. In the same temperature range transistor current gain (β) goes from 46 down to 21.

  • 15.
    Lanni, Luigia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Malm, B. Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    A 4H-SiC Bipolar Technology for High-Temperature Integrated Circuits2013In: Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging, ISSN 1551-4897, E-ISSN 1555-8037, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 155-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 4H-SiC bipolar technology suitable for hightemperature integrated circuits is tested with two interconnect systems based on aluminum and platinum. Successful operation of low-voltage bipolar transistors and digital integrated circuits based on emitter coupled logic (ECL) is reported from 27°C up to 500°C for both the metallization systems. When operated on -15 V supply voltage, aluminum and platinum interconnect OR-NOR gates showed stable noise margins of about 1 V and asymmetric propagation delays of about 200 and 700 ns in the whole temperature range for both OR and NOR output. The performance of aluminum and platinum interconnects was evaluated by performing accelerated electromigration tests at 300°C with current density of about 1 MA/cm² on contact chains consisting of 10 integrated resistors. Although in both cases the contact chains failed after less than one hour, different failure mechanisms were observed for the two metallization systems: electromigration for the aluminum system and poor step coverage and via filling for the platinum system.

  • 16.
    Lanni, Luigia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Malm, B. Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Improved surface passivation by enhanced N2O annealing for high gain 4H-SiC BJTsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Lanni, Luigia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Malm, B. Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    SiC Etching and Sacrificial Oxidation Effects on the Performance of 4H-SiC BJTs2014In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 778-780, p. 1005-1008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance of 4H-SiC BJTs fabricated on a single 100mm wafer with different SiC etching and sacrificial oxidation procedures is compared in terms of peak current gain in relation to base intrinsic sheet resistance. The best performance was achieved when device mesas were defined by inductively coupled plasma etching and a dry sacrificial oxide was grown at 1100 °C.

  • 18.
    Lanni, Luigia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Malm, Bengt Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    High-temperature characterization of 4H-SiC darlington transistors for low voltage applications2013In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 740-742, p. 966-969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    4H-SiC bipolar Darlington transistors (D-BJTs) for low voltage applications have been fabricated, simulated and characterized up to 300 °C, where they exhibit a current gain of 460. The influence on D-BJT current gain of relative current capability of driver and output BJTs has been investigated, and the collector resistance has been identified as the main limitation for the D-BJTs.

  • 19.
    Lanni, Luigia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Malm, Bengt Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    500 degrees C Bipolar Integrated OR/NOR Gate in 4H-SiC2013In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 34, no 9, p. 1091-1093Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful operation of low-voltage 4H-SiC n-p-n bipolar transistors and digital integrated circuits based on emitter coupled logic is reported from -40 degrees C to 500 degrees C. Nonmonotonous temperature dependence (previously predicted by simulations but now measured) was observed for the transistor current gain; in the range -40 degrees C - 300 degrees C it decreased when the temperature increased, while it increased in the range 300 degrees C-500 degrees C. Stable noise margins of similar to 1 V were measured for a 2-input OR/NOR gate operated on -15 V supply voltage from 0 degrees C to 500 degrees C for both OR and NOR output.

  • 20.
    Lanni, Luigia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Malm, Bengt Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    ECL-based SiC logic circuits for extreme temperatures2015In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 821-823, p. 910-913Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Lanni, Luigia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Malm, Bengt Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Influence of Passivation Oxide Thickness and Device Layout on the Current Gain of SiC BJTs2015In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 11-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of passivation oxide thickness and layout on the current gain of SiC bipolar junction transistors is reported. Different thicknesses of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) silicon dioxide in the range 50-150 nm were deposited prior to the same annealing process in N2O, and their effect on the transistor gain was investigated for different device layouts. For a fixed device layout, similar to 60% higher gains were observed for oxide thicknesses ranging between 100 and 150 nm with current gains of similar to 200 at room temperature and >100 at 300 degrees C. For each tested thickness of deposited oxide, device layout providing lower collector resistance achieved slightly higher gains.

  • 22.
    Lanni, Luigia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Malm, Bengt Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Lateral p-n-p Transistors and Complementary SiC Bipolar Technology2014In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 428-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lateral p-n-p transistors and a complementary bipolar technology have been demonstrated for analog integrated circuits. Besides vertical n-p-n's, this technology provides lateral p-n-p's at the cost of one additional lithographic and dry etching step. Both devices share the same epitaxial layers and feature topside contacts to all terminals. The influence on p-n-p current gain of contact topology (circular versus rectangular), effective base width, base/emitter doping ratio, and temperature was studied in detail. In the range -40 degrees C to 300 degrees C, the current gain of the p-n-p transistor shows a maximum of similar to 37 around 0 degrees C and decreases to similar to 8 at 300 degrees C, whereas in the same range, the gain of n-p-n transistors exhibits a negative temperature coefficient.

  • 23.
    Smedfors, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Characterization of Ohmic Ni/Ti/Al and Ni Contacts to 4H-SiC from-40 degrees C to 500 degrees C2014In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 778-780, p. 681-684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extreme temperature measurements of Ni/Ti/Al contacts to p-type SiC (N-a = 1.10(18)cm(-3)), with a specific contact resistivity rho(c) = 6.75.10(-4) Omega cm(2) at 25 degrees C, showed a five time increase of the specific contact resistivity at -40 degrees C (rho(c) = 3.16.10(-3) Omega cm(2)), and a reduction by almost a factor 10 at 500 degrees C (rho(c) = 7.49.10(-5) Omega cm(2)). The same response of rho(c) to temperature was seen for contacts on lower doped epitaxial layer. Also N-type nickel contacts improved with higher operational temperature but with a considerably smaller variation over the same temperature interval. No degradation of the performance was seen to either the Ni/Ti/Al or the Ni contacts due to the high temperature measurements.

  • 24.
    Suvanam, Sethu Saveda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Kuroki, Shin-Ichiro
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH.
    Hadayati, Raheleh
    Ohshima, Takeshi
    Makino, Takahiro
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    High Gamma Ray Tolerance for 4H-SiC Bipolar Circuits2016In: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, ISSN 0018-9499, E-ISSN 1558-1578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high gamma radiation hardness of 4H-SiC circuits is performed. The OR NOR circuits are based on emitter coupled logic (ECL), using integrated bipolar NPN transistors. Gain degradation in individual bipolar junction transistors (BJT) is minimal up to a dose of 38 Mrad (SiO2), but for the dose of 332 Mrad (SiO2) a degradation of 52% is observed. The SiC BJTs show higher radiation hardness than existing Si-technology and high stability under temperature stress. It is proposed that the oxide charge-dominated recombination is the key base current recombination mechanism contributing to gain degradation. An improvement in the gain is seen after annealing at 400 °C for 1800 s due to the possible annealing of some of the oxide defects contributing to the oxide charge.

  • 25.
    Suvanam, Sethu Saveda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Malm, B Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Effects of 3 MeV protons on 4H-SiC bipolar devices and integrated OR-NOR gates2013In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Radiation and its Effects on Components and Systems, RADECS, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, radiation effects of 3 MeV protons on 4H-SiC bipolar devices and integrated OR-NOR gates have been investigated. The chips were irradiated from a fluence of 1×108 cm-2 till 1×1013 cm-2. Up until a fluence of 1×1011 cm-2 both the bipolar devices and the logic gates were found to be stable, but for higher fluence they begin to degrade as a function of irradiation fluence. Using Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation degradation of the transistor current gain have been found to be more dominated by surface traps than bulk defects. Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) simulations on the logic circuits show that the gain degradation is the key contribution to the unstable performance of the circuits from the fluence of 1×1012 cm-2 and above.

  • 26.
    Suvanam, Sethu Saveda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Malm, B. Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Total Dose Effects on 4H-SiC Bipolar Junction Transistors2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Suvanam, Sethu Saveda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Malm, Bengt Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Effects of 3-MeV Protons on 4H-SiC Bipolar Devices and Integrated OR-NOR Gates2014In: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, ISSN 0018-9499, E-ISSN 1558-1578, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 1772-1776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiation effects of 3-MeV protons on 4H-SiC bipolar devices and integrated OR-NOR gates have been investigated. The chips were irradiated from a fluence of 1 x 10(8) cm(-2) until 1 x 10(13) cm(-2). Up until a fluence of 1 x 10(11) cm-2, both the bipolar devices and the logic gates were found to be stable, but for higher fluence, they begin to degrade as a function of irradiation fluence. Using TCAD simulations, degradation of the transistor current gain has been found to be more dominated by surface states than bulk defects generated by the proton irradiation. Simulations of logic circuits using SPICE show that the gain degradation is the key contribution to the unstable performance of the circuits from the fluence of 1 x 10(12) cm(-2) and above.

  • 28.
    Tian, Ye
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Rusu, Ana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    A 500 °C monolithic SiC BJT latched comparator2016In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 858, p. 921-924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a monolithic 4H-SiC BJT latched emitter-coupled logic (ECL) comparator for high temperature analog-to-digital conversion. The comparator consists of a low-gain pre-amplifier, a track and latch stage and an output buffer. For low-speed input signals, the comparator input offset voltage is 3.9 mV at 27 ºC and monotonically increases up to 9.1 mV at 500ºC. The single-ended output swing is 5.5 V at 27 ºC and 3.9 V at 500 ºC. The minimum comparison time is around 1 μs from 27 ºC to 500 ºC. The whole comparator dissipates 464 mW in average over the considered temperature range with a 15 V power supply. It consumes 2.25 × 0.84 mm2 chip area (with the bond pads included).

  • 29.
    Tian, Ye
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Rusu, Ana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Silicon Carbide fully differential amplifier characterized up to 500 °C2016In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 2242-2247, article id 7451254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a monolithic fully differential amplifier implemented in a low-voltage 4H-silicon carbide bipolar junction transistor technology. The circuit has been designed, considering the variation of device parameters over a large temperature range. A base-current compensation technique has been applied to overcome the low input resistance of the amplifier. The bare chip of the amplifier has been measured from 27 °C to 500 °C using a hot-chuck probe station. Its openloop gain is 58 dB at 27 °C, and monotonically decreases to 37 dB at 500 °C. Its closed-loop gain reduction is ∼5 dB over the investigated temperature range. The gain-bandwidth product drops from 2.8 MHz at 27 °C to 1.3 MHz at 500 °C with 470 pF off-chip compensation capacitors. A low total-harmonicdistortion of −58.4 dB at 27 °C and −46.9 dB at 500 °C is achieved due to the fully differential implementation. A low input offset voltage of 0.5 mV at 27 °C and 6.9 mV at 500 °C is achieved without calibration. The relative high linearity and the low offset demonstrate the potential of this technology to be further investigated for the front-end sensor circuits in high-temperature applications.

  • 30.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Hedayati, Raheleh
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Kargarrazi, Saleh
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Malm, B. Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Mardani, S.
    Norström, H.
    Rusu, Ana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Suvanam, Sethu Saveda
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Tian, Ye
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Bipolar integrated circuits in SiC for extreme environment operation2017In: Semiconductor Science and Technology, ISSN 0268-1242, E-ISSN 1361-6641, Vol. 32, no 3, article id 034002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon carbide (SiC) integrated circuits have been suggested for extreme environment operation. The challenge of a new technology is to develop process flow, circuit models and circuit designs for a wide temperature range. A bipolar technology was chosen to avoid the gate dielectric weakness and low mobility drawback of SiC MOSFETs. Higher operation temperatures and better radiation hardness have been demonstrated for bipolar integrated circuits. Both digital and analog circuits have been demonstrated in the range from room temperature to 500 °C. Future steps are to demonstrate some mixed signal circuits of greater complexity. There are remaining challenges in contacting, metallization, packaging and reliability.

  • 31.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Ghandi, Reza
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Malm, B. Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Future high temperature applications for SiC integrated circuits2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Ghandi, Reza
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Malm, B. Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Future high temperature applications for SiC integrated circuits2012In: Physica Status Solidi. C, Current topics in solid state physics, ISSN 1610-1634, E-ISSN 1610-1642, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 1647-1650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main advantage of SiC is its high critical field for breakdown. This leads to much lower on-resistance for high voltage devices compared to silicon, but at a higher price that has to be offset by system gains. However, it is not straightforward to exploit this advantage, which is clear from the many different device types that are presently being commercialized. There are other advantages of SiC yet to be fully investigated: the possibility of high temperature operating electronics and radiation hard devices. If integrated circuits in SiC are also available, the system advantage is larger. Here temperature ranges higher than that of SOI should be aimed at, and some of these new application areas will be described. An overview of IC research will be ended with a description of our selected technology operated at 300 °C.

  • 33.
    Östling, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Ghandi, Reza
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Buono, Benedetto
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Lanni, Luigia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Malm, B.Gunnar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    SiC Bipolar Devices for High Power and Integrated Drivers2011In: Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting (BCTM), 2011 IEEE, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, , p. 4p. 227-234Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor devices for high power applications are now commercially available as discrete devices. The first SiC device to reach the market was the unipolar Schottky diode. Active switching devices such as bipolar junction transistors (BJTs), field effect transistors (JFETs and MOSFETs) are now being offered in the voltage range up to 1.2 kV. SiC material quality and epitaxy processes have greatly improved and degradation free 100 mm wafers are readily available, which has removed one obstacle for the introduction of bipolar devices. The SiC wafer roadmap looks very favorable as volume production takes off. Other advantages of SiC are the possibility of high temperature operation (>; 300 °C) and in radiation hard environments, which could offer considerable system advantages. Thanks to the mature SiC process technology, low-power integrated circuits are now also viable. Such circuits could find use in integrated drivers operating at elevated temperatures.

1 - 33 of 33
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