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  • 1. Alobaidli, Hanan
    et al.
    Nasir, Qassim
    Iqbal, Asif
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Guimaraes, Mario
    Challenges of Cloud Log Forensics2017In: Proceedings of the SouthEast Conference, ACM , 2017, p. 227-230Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The forensics 1 investigation of cloud computing is faced by many obstacles originating from the complex integration of technologies used to build the cloud and its sheer size. In this research we aim to provide an insight into cloud computing log forensics, as logs are an important source of forensic evidence in the cloud. This is followed with conclusions regarding the issues faced by researchers in log forensics in cloud computing that will aid the research process.

  • 2. Babar, Iqbal
    et al.
    Iqbal, Asif
    Zayed University.
    Al Obaidli, Hanan
    A novel method of iDevice (iPhone, iPad, iPod) forensics without jailbreaking2012In: Innovations in Information Technology (IIT), 2012 International Conference on, IEEE , 2012, p. 238-243Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With boom in mobility technology sector, a new generation of computing devices such as iPhone/iPad/iPod have emerged and immersed itself in the lives of millions and millions of people. With its widespread its fair to say that the use of these devices has created a new source of digital evidence and a need for a fast and trusted method to image and analyze the data has emerged. In this paper we will discuss a novel method that we have developed to create an image of the iDevice (iPhone, iPad, iPod) in a secure and fast manner within 30 minutes or less without jailbreaking compared to the fastest current method which takes up to 20 hours.

  • 3.
    Iqbal, Asif
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    [Extended Abstract] Digital Forensic Readiness in Critical Infrastructures: Exploring substation automation in the power sector2017Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing use of intelligent devices in the Critical Infrastructures has enabled a lot more functionality within several domains that of course has several advantages. But the same automation also brings challenges when it comes to malicious use, either internally or externally. One such challenge is to attribute an attack and ascertain what was the starting point of an attack, who did what, when and why? All these questions can only be answered if the overall underlying infrastructure supports answering such questions. The purpose of this study is to see if in the current setups we are provided within an environment support forensic readiness in the power sector or not. In order to facilitate such a study our scope of work revolves around substation automation and devices called intelligent electronic devices (IEDs).

  • 4.
    Iqbal, Asif
    et al.
    Athena Labs, Dubai; Zayed University, Dubai.
    Al Obaidli, Hanan
    Marrington, Andrew
    Jones, Andy
    Windows Surface RT tablet forensics2014In: Digital Investigation. The International Journal of Digital Forensics and Incident Response, ISSN 1742-2876, E-ISSN 1873-202X, Vol. 11, p. S87-S93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small scale digital device forensics is particularly critical as a result of the mobility of these devices, leading to closer proximity to crimes as they occur when compared to computers. The Windows Surface tablet is one such device, combining tablet mobility with familiar Microsoft Windows productivity tools. This research considers the acquisition and forensic analysis of the Windows Surface RT tablet. We discuss the artifacts of both the Windows RT operating system and third-party applications. The contribution of this research is to provide a road map for the digital forensic examination of Windows Surface RT tablets.

  • 5.
    Iqbal, Asif
    et al.
    Athena Labs., United Arab Emirates; Zayed University, United Arab Emirates.
    Al Obaidli, Hanan
    Said, Huwida
    Guimaraes, Mario
    The Study of the Interrelation between Law Programs and Digital Forensics in UAE Academia2013In: InfoSecCD '13 Proceedings of the 2013 on InfoSecCD '13: Information Security Curriculum Development Conference, ACM , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of digital forensics is growing in the Middle East which is shown by the establishment of technical digital forensic programs in various universities. Even though these programs are important for the development and advancement of the field they are overlooking the legal aspect of e-crimes and digital forensics in UAE. This paper discusses available law programs and its relations to e-crimes and digital forensics, analyzing the implications caused by the lack of proper e-crimes and digital forensics educational materials in UAE law programs. Even though there are efforts made to overcome this gap between the legal and the technical aspect of digital forensics by creating individual courses it still lacks a strong educational law program preparing the judicial system to face these crimes in a more effective manner. This paper also discusses the possible improvement on the curricula of law programs.

  • 6.
    Iqbal, Asif
    et al.
    Athena Labs.
    Alobaidli, Hanan
    Almarzooqi, Ahmed
    Jones, Andy
    LINE IM app Forensic Analysis2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Instant Messaging (IM) application is one of the most widely used communication methods in the world. It is used by a wide range of age groups and backgrounds. Its extensive use in everyday life provides unique opportunities but means that it can also be used to commit crime such as cyber bullying or by becoming a medium for criminals’ communication. It can, however, also be used by forensic investigators to profile the users behavior. This makes it essential for forensics researchers to study artifacts left by such applications. This paper studies the artifacts left by one such popular application -LINE. The aim of this paper is to provide a road map for forensic investigators when dealing with LINE IM application artifacts. The artifacts are discussed in two parts: the first examines regular chatting mode and the second, private chatting.

  • 7.
    Iqbal, Asif
    et al.
    Athena Labs, United States.
    Alobaidli, Hanan
    Guimaraes, Mario
    Popov, Oliver
    Sandboxing: aid in digital forensic research2015In: Sandboxing: aid in digital forensic research, ACM Press, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding digital forensic artifacts in the ever changing and complex digital world can be a daunting task for any digital forensic investigator. Familiar tools, such as Sandboxie and Symantec Workspace virtualization used as an aid in forensic investigations may significantly decrease the learning curve. The value of sandboxing for digital forensic investigations is demonstrated here through the research via the appropriate comparative analysis.

  • 8.
    Iqbal, Asif
    et al.
    Athena Labs, Dubai.
    Alobaidli, Hanan
    Marrington, Andrew
    Baggili, Ibrahim
    Amazon Kindle Fire HD Forensics2014In: Digital Forensics and Cyber Crime: Fifth International Conference, ICDF2C 2013, Moscow, Russia, September 26-27, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, 2014, no Cham, p. 39-50Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research presents two developed approaches for the forensic acquisition of an Amazon Kindle Fire HD. It describes the forensic acquisition and analysis of the Amazon Kindle Fire HD device. Two developed methods of acquisition are presented; one requiring a special cable to reflash the boot partition of the device with a forensic acquisition environment (Method A), and the other exploiting a vulnerability in the device’s Android operating system (Method B). A case study is then presented showing the various digital evidence that can be extracted from the device. The results indicate that Method A is more favorable because it utilizes a general methodology that does not exploit a vulnerability that could potentially be patched by Amazon in future software updates.

  • 9.
    Iqbal, Asif
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Network and Systems engineering.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Network and Systems engineering.
    Alobaidli, Hanan
    Athena Labs.
    Digital Forensic Readiness in Critical Infrastructures: A case of substation automation in the power sector2018In: Digital Forensics and Cyber Crime: 9th International Conference, ICDF2C 2017, Prague, Czech Republic, October 9-11, 2017, Proceedings, Springer Publishing Company, 2018, Vol. 216, p. 117-129Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proliferation of intelligent devices has provisioned more functionality in Critical Infrastructures. But the same automation also brings challenges when it comes to malicious activity, either internally or externally. One such challenge is the attribution of an attack and to ascertain who did what, when and how? Answers to these questions can only be found if the overall underlying infrastructure supports answering such queries. This study sheds light on the power sector specifically on smart grids to learn whether current setups support digital forensic investigations or no. We also address several challenges that arise in the process and a detailed look at the literature on the subject. To facilitate such a study our scope of work revolves around substation automation and devices called intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) in smart grids. 

  • 10.
    Iqbal, Asif
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Network and Systems engineering.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Network and Systems engineering.
    Alobaidli, Hanan
    Athena Labs.
    Exploratory studies into forensic logs for criminal investigation using case studies in industrial control systems in the power sector2017In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data), Boston, USA: IEEE, 2017, p. 3657-3661Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a set of work-in-progress exploratory studies dealing with the log analysis and correlation of very specialized setups in industrial control systems implemented in the context of power systems. These cases consider the behavior of logs and their ability or inability to shed light on the incriminating nature of a criminal investigation. Our research is novel and unique in the sense that no such previous study exists detailing the forensic investigation on ICS within power sector.

  • 11.
    Iqbal, Asif
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
    Mahmood, Farhan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
    An Experimental Forensic Test bed: Attack-based Digital Forensic Analysis of WAMPAC Applications2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global trend is to go digital, in other words go 'smart'. Like the rest of the world getting smarter, so is the power sector hence the term smart power grids and substations. Such capability comes at a price, in this case increasing risk of potential cyber threats to substations. With all such potential risks, it is important that we are able to trace back and attribute any potential threats to its root. In this paper, we're exploring substations to find potential evidences in case a forensic investigation becomes a necessity. Moreover, a forensic experimental test bed is proposed for digital forensic analysis. Finally, a mapping of attack-based forensic evidences is presented.

  • 12.
    Iqbal, Asif
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems Engineering.
    Mahmood, Farhan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems Engineering.
    Digital Forensic Analysis of Industrial Control Systems Using Sandboxing: A Case of WAMPAC Applications in the Power Systems2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 13, article id 2598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today's connected world, there is a tendency of connectivity even in the sectors which conventionally have been not so connected in the past, such as power systems substations. Substations have seen considerable digitalization of the grid hence, providing much more available insights than before. This has all been possible due to connectivity, digitalization and automation of the power grids. Interestingly, this also means that anybody can access such critical infrastructures from a remote location and gone are the days of physical barriers. The power of connectivity and control makes it a much more challenging task to protect critical industrial control systems. This capability comes at a price, in this case, increasing the risk of potential cyber threats to substations. With all such potential risks, it is important that they can be traced back and attributed to any potential threats to their roots. It is extremely important for a forensic investigation to get credible evidence of any cyber-attack as required by the Daubert standard. Hence, to be able to identify and capture digital artifacts as a result of different attacks, in this paper, the authors have implemented and improvised a forensic testbed by implementing a sandboxing technique in the context of real time-hardware-in-the-loop setup. Newer experiments have been added by emulating the cyber-attacks on WAMPAC applications, and collecting and analyzing captured artifacts. Further, using sandboxing for the first time in such a setup has proven helpful.

  • 13.
    Iqbal, Asif
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems Engineering.
    Mahmood, Farhan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Shalaginov, Andrii
    Department of Information Security & Communication Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems Engineering.
    Identification of Attack-based Digital Forensic Evidences for WAMPAC Systems2018In: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE International Conference on Big Data, Big Data 2018, Seattle, Washington, USA: IEEE conference proceedings, 2018, p. 3078-3086, article id 8622550Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power systems domain has generally been very conservative in terms of conducting digital forensic investigations, especially so since the advent of smart grids. This lack of research due to a multitude of challenges has resulted in absence of knowledge base and resources to facilitate such an investigation. Digitalization in the form of smart grids is upon us but in case of cyber-attacks, attribution to such attacks is challenging and difficult if not impossible. In this research, we have identified digital forensic artifacts resulting from a cyber-attack on Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) systems, which will help an investigator attribute an attack using the identified evidences. The research also shows the usage of sandboxing for digital forensics along with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) setup. This is first of its kind effort to identify and acquire all the digital forensic evidences for WAMPAC systems which will ultimately help in building a body of knowledge and taxonomy for power system forensics.

  • 14.
    Iqbal, Asif
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES). Zayed University, United Arab Emirates.
    Marrington, Andrew
    Baggili, Ibrahim
    Forensic artifacts of the ChatON Instant Messaging application2013In: Systematic Approaches to Digital Forensic Engineering (SADFE), 2013 Eighth International Workshop on, IEEE , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1996 ICQ, one of the well-known instant Messaging (IM) applications was introduced to the desktop environment [1]. Other instant messaging applications surfaced as well such as AOL Instant Messenger (AIM), Skype, MSN Messenger, Google Talk, and Yahoo! Messenger [1]. These applications gained popularity as a result of features such as the synchronous nature of communication, awareness of the presence of the person with whom the user wants to correspond, and the user's ability to select the contacts to add to their own contact list [3]. With the increased popularity of IM applications in personal and professional usage, it was just a matter of time until they were utilized to perform cyber crimes such as phishing, social engineering, threatening, cyber bullying, hate speech and crimes, child exploitation, sexual harassment, and illegal sales and distribution of software [2].

  • 15.
    Iqbal, Asif
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems Engineering.
    Shalaginov, Andrii
    Department of Information Security & Communication Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Mahmood, Farhan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Intelligent analysis of digital evidences in large-scale logs in power systems attributed to the attacks2018In: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE International Conference on Big Data, Big Data 2018, 2018, p. 3087-3092Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart grid improves and revolutionizes the way how energy is generated, distributed and consumed. Despite utilization of such technologies for better life of end-users and communities, there might be outlier events happening that will introduce disturbance to the smart grids. To mitigate impact from such events in power grid, particularly in Wide Area Monitoring Protection and Control (WAMPAC) has been introduced for mitigation and prevention of large disruption and extreme events. Large network of interconnected devices is being monitored through WAMPAC sub-system to avoid major events with negative impact through analysis of system-wide contextual information. The assessment of the state is being made based on the data from Phasor Measurement Unit (PMUs) collected and processed in the Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC). There is an enormous amount of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication that the system has to analyze. However, blackout prediction and mitigation is done using measurements data and does not necessarily focus on more high level adversarial events. This paper proposes an ongoing research into timely detection of adversarial attack on the power grid.  During the experimental phase, authentication attack scenario was successfully executed on power substation setup. Further, framework for intelligent identification of digital evidences related to attack was suggested unveiling possibility for crime investigations preparedness.

  • 16. Iqbal, Babar
    et al.
    Iqbal, Asif
    Athena Labs; Zayed University, Dubai.
    Guimaraes, Mario
    Amazon Kindle Fire from a Digital Forensics Perspective2012In: Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery (CyberC), 2012 International Conference on, IEEE , 2012, p. 323-329Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the move toward mobile computing being the trend of this technology era it is clear that our way of life and how we deal with objects in it is changing. This swift shift from large desktop computers to inexpensive, low power applications that are easily carried in our pockets or placed next to a cup of coffee on the living room table clearly changed the way we interact with media and contact friends, colleagues and family members. This also created advancement in the field of digital forensics as with every device coming to the market, studies have been conducted to investigate the possible evidence that can be found on them. As we realize that with the comfort these devices do provide as a result of their mobility they are also providing a wealth of information about the users themselves for the same reason, hence they are really valuable source of evidence in an investigation. In this paper we will discuss one of these mobile devices which is Amazon kindle Fire. Being a new player in the mobile computing sector there haven't been enough studies of it in the field of digital forensics regarding it. In this paper we will discuss an imaging process to acquire the data from the device then we will provide an analysis of these data and their possible sources of evidence.

  • 17. Yousef Al Obaidli, Hanan
    et al.
    Iqbal, Asif
    Business360, Dubai.
    Digital forensics education in UAE2011In: Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (ICITST), 2011 International Conference for, IEEE , 2011, p. 766-770Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the aspects of Digital Forensics education in UAE. It states the percentage of Digital Forensics programs available in UAE and the quality of these programs. It also discusses the need for such programs not only from the technical aspect but from the law aspect as well, that is because of the increasing cyber threats in the area.

1 - 17 of 17
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