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  • 1.
    Abbasi, S.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Particle emissions from rail vehicles: A review2012In: Civil-Comp Proceedings, ISSN 1759-3433, Vol. 98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emission of airborne particles is a side effect from rail transport. This paper reviews recent research on particle emissions from rail vehicles. Both exhaust and non-exhaust particle emissions are characterized by size, morphology, composition, and size distribution. Current legislation, knowledge of adverse health effects, and available and proposed solutions for emission reductions are also treated. There has been much focus on exhaust emissions, but only a few limited studies have investigated non-exhaust particle emissions, which contain a significant amount of metallic materials. A new method for measuring the airborne wear particle emission rate (AWPER) is proposed as a first step to guide new legislations and to focus further research on non-exhaust airborne emission, i.e., research on the generation mechanisms for particle emissions and their adverse health effects. 

  • 2.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Ekstrand-Hammarström, Barbara
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI),.
    Bergström, Ulrika
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI),.
    Bucht, Anders
    Deptartment of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, 901 89, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Jansson, Anders
    Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 106 91, Sweden.
    Biological response in lung cells by brake dust from a novel set-up to generate one sourcewear particles2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Jansson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A pin-on-disc study of the rate of airborne wear particle emissions from railway braking materials2012In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 284, p. 18-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigates the characteristics of particles generated from the wear of braking materials, and provides an applicable index for measuring and comparing wear particle emissions. A pin-on-disc tribometer equipped with particle measurement instruments was used. The number concentration, size, morphology, and mass concentration of generated particles were investigated and reported for particles 10 nm-32 mu m in diameter. The particles were also collected on filters and investigated using EDS and SEM. The effects of wear mechanisms on particle morphology and changes in particle concentration are discussed. A new index, the airborne wear particle emission rate (AWPER), is suggested that could be used in legislation to control non-exhaust emissions from transport modes, particularly rail transport.

  • 4.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Jansson, Anders
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Particle emissions from rail traffic: a literature review2013In: Critical reviews in environmental science and technology, ISSN 1064-3389, E-ISSN 1547-6537, Vol. 43, no 23, p. 2211-2244Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Particle emissions are a drawback of rail transport. This work is a comprehensive presentation of recent research into particle emissions from rail vehicles. Both exhaust and non-exhaust particle emissions are considered when examining particle characteristics such as  PM10, and PM2.5 concentration levels, size, morphology, composition, as well as adverse health effects, current legislation, and available and proposed solutions for reducing such emissions. High concentration levels in enclosed rail traffic environments are reported and some toxic effects of the particles. We find that only a few limited studies have examined the adverse health effects of non-exhaust particle emissions and that no relevant legislation exists. Thus further research in this area is warranted.

  • 5.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Larsson, Christina
    Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jansson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A field test study of airborne wear particles from a running regional train2012In: IMechE, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, ISSN 0954-4097, Vol. 226, no 1, p. 95-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inhalable airborne particles have inverse health affect. In railways, mechanical brakes, the wheel–rail contact, current collectors, ballast, sleepers, and masonry structures yield particulate matter. Field tests examined a Swedish track using a train instrumented with particle measurement devices, brake pad temperature sensors, and speed and brake sensors. The main objective of this field test was to study the characteristics of particles generated from disc brakes on a running train with an on-board measuring set-up.

    Two airborne particle sampling points were designated, one near a pad–rotor disc brake contact and a second under the frame, not near a mechanical brake or the wheel–rail contact; the numbers and size distributions of the particles detected were registered and evaluated under various conditions (e.g. activating/deactivating electrical brakes or negotiating curves). During braking, three speed/temperature-dependent particle peaks were identified in the fine region, representing particles 280 nm, 350 nm, and 600 nm in diameter. In the coarse region, a peak was discerned for particles 3–6 μm in diameter. Effects of brake pad temperature on particle size distribution were also investigated. Results indicate that the 280 nm peak increased with increasing temperature, and that electrical braking significantly reduced airborne particle numbers. FESEM images captured particles sizing down to 50 nm. The ICP-MS results indicated that Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Ca, and Mg were the main elements constituting the particles.

     

  • 6.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A study of friction modifiers on airborne wear particles from wheel-rail contact2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheel-rail contact and its wear process are crucial issues in maintenance and operating of rolling stocks. During wheel-rail contact, materials in mating faces are worn off and some of them transferred to airborne particles. Eventhough the wear process in wheel-rail contact are well-known, few studies have been conducted on the airborne particles from wheel-rail contact.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using different friction modifier on the amount of airbotne particles from wheel-rail contact in a laboratory simulation. In this regard, a series laboratory tests were used by using round head pin (R=25mm) and dead weight 40 N in a pin-on-disc machine. This set-up simulates a contact pressure around 750 MPa on the pin head.

    The amount of airborne particles and their characteristics were investigated in dry-contact, and non-dry contacts whereas a lubricant, Binol rail 510 and a friction modifier, tramsilence were used. According to the results, the effects of using Binol rail to reduce the amount of airborne particles were considerable.

  • 7.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Airborne wear particles from train traffic2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Experiences of measuring airborne wear particles from braking materials and the wheel - Rail contact2012In: 9th International Conference on Contact Mechanics and Wear of Rail/Wheel Systems, CM 2012, Southwest Jiaotong University , 2012, p. 608-609Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During braking both of the discs and pads of disc brakes are worn. Since disc brakes are not sealed, some of the generated wear particles can become airborne. The same condition also holds for block brakes utilized in rail vehicles. Furthermore, the wheel-rail contact is also subjected to wear processes during braking as well as during normal running. This contact also contributes to generation of airborne particles. Several studies have found an association between adverse health effects and the concentration of particles in the atmosphere, so it is of interest to improve our knowledge of the airborne wear particles. The present work includes results from full scale testing of rail vehicles. Particle size distribution, morphology and elemental contents are presented and discussed. Due to high back ground concentration levels in field tests, dedicated laboratory test set ups on a reduced scale were designed and utilized for airborne particle studies with zero background level. Promising correlation between field test and the lab set up is identified. Different ways of using this test set up for evaluating how the composition of the airborne particles is classified with respect to their health effects are discussed. Furthermore, different ways of using the proposed method to rank and to quantify airborne particle emission factors are presented.

  • 9.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Experiences of measuring airborne wear particles from braking materials and wheel-rail contact2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During braking both of the discs and pads of disc brakes are worn. Since disc brakes are not sealed, some of the generated wear particles can become airborne.  Wheel-rail is also subjected to wear process during braking as well as normal running. They also contribute to generate airborne particles. Several studies have found an association between adverse health effects and the concentration of particles in the atmosphere, so it is of interest to improve our knowledge of the airborne wear particles generated by disc brakes.

    The present work includes results from full scale testing of rail vehicles. Particle size distribution, morphology and elemental contents are presented and discussed for different combinations of disc and pad materials. Due to high back ground concentration levels in field tests, dedicated laboratory test set ups on a reduced scale were designed and utilized for airborne particle studies with zero background level.

    Promising correlation between field test and the lab set up is identified. Different ways of using this test set up for evaluating how the composition of the airborne particles is classified with respect to their health effects are discussed. Furthermore, different ways of using the proposed method to rank and to quantify airborne particle emission factors are presented.

  • 10.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Lack of applicable criteria in non-exhaust emission legislation: AWPER index a practical solution2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olander, Lars
    A field investigation of the size and morphology and chemical composition of airborne particles in rail transport2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olander, Lars
    Larsson, christina
    A field investigation of the size, morphology and chemical composition of airborne particles in rail transport2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The health effects of inhalable airborne particles are well documented. In the European Union the European Council mandates that the level of airborne particles with a diameter smaller than 10 µm (PM10) must not exceed an annual average of 40 µg/m3. Examples of possible sources from rail transport are mechanical brakes, wheel rail contact, current collectors, ballast, sleepers and masonry structures. In this regard, a series of field tests have been conducted on a regular Swedish track using a regional train instrumented with: particle measurement devices, temperature sensors in brake pads and sensors to measure the magnitude of train speed and a GPS.

    Two sampling points for airborne particles were designated in the train under frame. One of the sampling points was near a pad to rotor disc brake contact and a second global sampling point was chosen under the frame, but not near a mechanical brake or the wheel-rail contact. The first one was highly influenced by brake pad wear debris and the other one was influenced by all of the brake pads, wheel and rail wear debris as well as re-suspension. In each sampling points, three tubes were linked to three particle measurement devices. Two sets of Ptrak, Dustrak and Grimm devices were used. The Ptrak 8525 was an optical particle measurement device which could measure particle diameter in the size interval of 20 nm up to 1 micrometer. The Dustrak was used to measure particle mass concentration. The Grimm 1.109 was an aerosol spectrometer which counted number of particles from 0.25 micrometer to 32 micrometer in 31 intervals. These two Grimm devices were equipped with Millipore filters in the devices outlets to capture particles for further studies on morphology and matter of particles.

    The total number and size distribution of the particles for these two sampling points were registered and evaluated in different situations such as activating and deactivating electrical brake or train curve negotiating.

    During braking, three peaks of 250 nm, 350 nm and 600 nm in diameter, with the 350 nm peak dominating were identified in the fine particle region. In the coarse particle region, a peak of around 3-6 µm in diameter was discovered. The brake pad temperature effects on particle size distribution were also investigated and the results showed that the peak around 250 nm increased. Furthermore, the activation of electrical braking significantly reduced the number of airborne particles.

    A SEM was used to capture the images from collected particles on filters. Furthermore, an ICP-Ms method was used to investigate the elemental contents of the particulates on the filter.  In this case the main contribution belonged to Fe, Si, Al, Ca, Cu, Zn. The higher amount of some elements weights such as calcium, silicon, sodium and aluminum in the global sampling point filters revealed that ballast and concrete sleepers were the main sources for these particles although some of them originated from rail, wheel, brake disc and brake pad as well.

  • 13.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Zhu, Yi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Pin-on-disc study of the effects of railway friction modifiers on airborne wear particles from wheel-rail contact2013In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 60, p. 136-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of wheel–rail interaction is crucial to wheel and rail maintenance. In this interaction, some of theworn-off material is transformed into airborne particles. Although such wear is well understood, few studiestreat the particles generated. We investigated friction modifiers' effects on airborne particles characteristicsgenerated in wheel-rail contacts in laboratory conditions. Pin-on-disc machine testing with a round-head pinloaded by a dead weight load 40 N simulated maximum contact pressure over 550 MPa. Airborne particlecharacteristics were investigated in dry contacts and in ones lubricated with biodegradable rail grease andwater- and oil-based friction modifiers. The number of particles declined with the grease; the number ofultrafine particles increased with the water-based friction modifier, mainly due to water vaporization.

  • 14.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Particle emission from rail vehicles: A literature review2012In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, Sage Publications, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emission of airborne particles is a side effect from rail transport. This work reviews recent research on particle emissions from rail vehicles. Both exhaust and non-exhaust particle emissions are characterized by size, morphology, composition, and size distribution. Current legislation, knowledge of adverse health effects, and available and proposed solutions for emission reductions are also treated. There has been much focus on exhaust emissions, but only a few limited studies have investigated non-exhaust particle emissions, which contain a significant amount of metallic materials. A new method for measuring the airborne wear particle emission rate (AWPER) is proposed as a first step to guide new legislations and to focus further research on non-exhaust airborne emission, i.e., research on the generation mechanisms for particle emissions and their adverse health effects.

  • 15.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Technical note: Experiences of studying airborne wear particles from road and rail transport2013In: Aerosol and Air Quality Research, ISSN 1680-8584, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 1161-1169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Airborne particles and their adverse effects on air quality have been recognized by humans since ancient times. Current exhaust emission legislations increase the relative contribution of wear particles on the PM levels. Consequently, wearbased particle emissions from rail and road transport have raised concerns as ground transportation is developing quickly. Although scientific research on airborne wear-based particles started in 1909, there is almost no legislation that control the generation of wear-based particles. In addition, there is no accepted and approved standard measurement technique for monitoring and recording particle characteristics. The main objective of this study is to review recent experimental work in this field and to discuss their set-ups, the sampling methods, the results, and their limitations, and to propose measures for reducing these limitations.

  • 16.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. Department of Mechanical engineering, Golpayegan University of Technology.
    Teimourimanesh, Shahab
    Chalmers.
    Vernersson, Tore
    Chalmers.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Lunden, Roger
    Chalmers.
    Temperature and Thermoelastic Instability at Tread Braking Using Cast Iron Friction Material2013In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 314, no 1–2, p. 171-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Braking events in railway traffic often induce high frictional heating and thermoelastic instability (TEI) at the interfacing surfaces. In the present paper, two approaches are adopted to analyse the thermomechanical interaction in a pin-on-disc experimental study of railway braking materials. In a first part, the thermal problem is studied to find the heat partitioning between pin and disc motivated by the fact that wear mechanisms can be explained with a better understanding of the prevailing thermal conditions. The numerical model is calibrated using the experimental results. In a second part, the frictionally induced thermoelastic instabilities at the pin-disc contact are studied using a numerical method and comparing them with the phenomena observed in the experiments. The effects of temperature on material properties and on material wear are considered. It is found from the thermal analysis that the pin temperature and the heat flux to the pin increase with increasing disc temperatures up to a transition stage. This agrees with the behaviour found in the experiments. Furthermore, the thermoelastic analysis displays calculated pressure and the temperature distributions at the contact interface that are in agreement with the hot spot behaviour observed in the experiments.

  • 17.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Teimourimanesh, Shahab
    Chalmers.
    Vernersson, Tore
    Chalmers.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Lunden, Roger
    Chalmers.
    Temperature and thermo-elastic instability of tread braking friction materials2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Wahlström, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Larsson, Christina
    Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A study of airborne wear particles generated from organic railway brake pads and brake discs2011In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 273, no 1, p. 93-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brake pads on wheel-mounted disc brakes are often used in rail transport due to their good thermal properties and robustness. During braking, both the disc and the pads are worn. This wear process generates particles that may become airborne and thus affect human health. The long term purpose of ‘Airborne particles in Rail transport’ project is to gain knowledge on the wear mechanisms in order to find means of controlling the number and size distribution of airborne particles. In this regard, a series of full-scale field tests and laboratory tests with a pin-on-disc machine have been conducted. The morphology and the matter of particles, along with their size distribution and concentration, have been studied. The validity of results from the pin-on-disc simulation has been verified by the field test results. Results show an ultra-fine peak for particles with a diameter size around 100 nm in diameter, a dominant fine peak for particles with a size of around 350 nm in diameter, and a coarse peak with a size of 3-7 μm in diameter. Materials such as iron, copper, aluminium, chromium, cobalt, antimony, and zinc have been detected in the nano-sized particles.

  • 19.
    Aftab, Ahmad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Khan, Suleman
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A stiffness modeling methodology for simulation-driven design of haptic devices2014In: Engineering with Computers, ISSN 0177-0667, E-ISSN 1435-5663, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 125-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient development and engineering of high performing interactive devices, such as haptic robots for surgical training benefits from model-based and simulation-driven design. The complexity of the design space and the multi-domain and multi-physics character of the behavior of such a product ask for a systematic methodology for creating and validating compact and computationally efficient simulation models to be used in the design process. Modeling the quasi-static stiffness is an important first step before optimizing the mechanical structure, engineering the control system, and performing hardware in the loop tests. The stiffness depends not only on the stiffness of the links, but also on the contact stiffness in each joint. A fine-granular Finite element method (FEM) model, which is the most straightforward approach, cannot, due to the model size and simulation complexity, efficiently be used to address such tasks. In this work, a new methodology for creating an analytical and compact model of the quasi-static stiffness of a haptic device is proposed, which considers the stiffness of actuation systems, flexible links and passive joints. For the modeling of passive joints, a hertzian contact model is introduced for both spherical and universal joints, and a simply supported beam model for universal joints. The validation process is presented as a systematic guideline to evaluate the stiffness parameters both using parametric FEM modeling and physical experiments. Preloading has been used to consider the clearances and possible assembling errors during manufacturing. A modified JP Merlet kinematic structure is used to exemplify the modeling and validation methodology.

  • 20.
    Ahmad, Aftab
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    A comparative study of friction estimation and compensation using extended, iterated, hybrid, and unscented kalman filters2013In: Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference - 2013, ASME Press, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparency is a key performance evaluation criterion for haptic devices, which describes how realistically the haptic force/torque feedback is mimicked from a virtual environment or in case of master-slave haptic device. Transparency in haptic devices is affected by disturbance forces like friction between moving parts. An accurate estimate of friction forces for observer based compensation requires estimation techniques, which are computationally efficient and gives reduced error between measured and estimated friction. In this work different estimation techniques based on Kalman filter, such as Extended Kalman filter (EKF), Iterated Extended Kalman filter (IEKF), Hybrid extended Kalman filter (HEKF) and Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) are investigated with the purpose to find which estimation technique that gives the most efficient and realistic compensation using online estimation. The friction observer is based on a newly developed friction smooth generalized Maxwell slip model (S-GMS). Each studied estimation technique is demonstrated by numerical and experimental simulation of sinusoidal position tracking experiments. The performances of the system are quantified with the normalized root mean-square error (NRMSE) and the computation time. The results from comparative analyses suggest that friction estimation and compensation based on Iterated Extended Kalman filter both gives a reduced tracking error and computational advantages compared to EKF, HEKF, UKF, as well as with no friction compensation.

  • 21.
    Ahmad, Aftab
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    A deterministic and probabilistic approach for robust optimal design of a 6-DOF haptic device2014In: Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference--2013: Volume 3 B, 2013, ASME Press, 2014, p. V03BT03A032-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work suggests a two-stage approach for robust optimal design of 6-DOF haptic devices based on a sequence of deterministic and probabilistic analyses with a multi-objective genetic algorithm and the Monte-Carlo method. The presented model-based design robust optimization approach consider simultaneously the kinematic, dynamic, and kinetostatic characteristics of the device in both a constant and a dexterous workspace in order to find a set of optimal design parameter values for structural configuration and dimensioning. Design evaluation is carried out based on local and global indices, like workspace volume, quasi-static torque requirements for the actuators, kinematic isotropy, dynamic isotropy, stiffness isotropy, and natural frequencies of the device. These indices were defined based on focused kinematic, dynamic, and stiffness models. A novel procedure to evaluate local indices at a singularity-free point in the dexterous workspace is presented. The deterministic optimization approach neglects the effects from variations of design variables, e.g. due to tolerances. A Monte-Carlo simulation was carried out to obtain the response variation of the design indices when independent design parameters are simultaneously regarded as uncertain variables. It has been observed that numerical evaluation of performance indices depends of the type of workspace used during optimization. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed procedure, the performance indices were evaluated and compared in constant orientation and in dexterous workspace.

  • 22.
    Ahmad, Aftab
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    A model-based and simulation driven design approach for haptic devices2013In: Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference--2013, ASME Press, 2013, p. V02BT02A014-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The output from a design process of high precision and reliable haptic devices for surgical training like bones and teeth is a complex design. The complexity is largely due to the multi-criteria and conflicting character of the functional requirements. These requirements include high stiffness, large workspace, high manipulability, small inertia, low friction, and high transparency. The requirements are a basis for generating design concepts. The concept evaluation relies to a large extent on a systematic usage of kinematic, dynamic, stiffness, and friction models. The design process can benefit from a model-based and simulation driven approach, where one starts from an abstract top-level model that is extended via stepwise refinements and design space exploration into a complete realization of the system. Such an approach is presented and evaluated through a test case where a haptic device, based on a Stewart platform, has been designed and realized. It can be concluded, based on simulation and experimental results that the performance of this optimally designed haptic device satisfies the stated user requirements. This indicates that the methodology can support the development of an optimal haptic device. However, more test cases are needed to further verify the presented methodology.

  • 23.
    Ahmad, Aftab
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    An approach to stiffness analysis methodology for haptic devices2011In: 2011 3rd International Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT), IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, , p. 8p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work a new methodology is proposed to model the static stiffness of a haptic device. This methodology can be used for other parallel, serial and hybrid manipulators. The stiffness model considers the stiffness of; actuation system; flexible links and passive joints. For the modeling of the passive joints a Hertzian contact model is introduced for both spherical and universal joints and a simply supported beam model for universal joints. For validation of the stiffness model a modified JP Merlet kinematic structure has been used as a test case. A parametric Ansys FEM model was developed for this test case and used to validate the resulting stiffness model. The findings in this paper can provide an additional index to use for multi-objective structural optimization to find an optimum compromise between a lightweight design and the stiffness performance for high precision motion within a larger workspace.

  • 24.
    Ahmad, Aftab
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    An Optimization Approach Toward a Robust Design of Six Degrees of Freedom Haptic Devices2015In: Journal of mechanical design (1990), ISSN 1050-0472, E-ISSN 1528-9001, Vol. 137, no 4, article id 042301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents an optimization approach for the robust design of six degrees of freedom (DOF) haptic devices. Our objective is to find the optimal values for a set of design parameters that maximize the kinematic, dynamic, and kinetostatic performances of a 6-DOF haptic device while minimizing its sensitivity to variations in manufacturing tolerances. Because performance indices differ in magnitude, the formulation of an objective function for multicriteria performance requirements is complex. A new approach based on Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) was used to find the extreme values (minimum and maximum) of the performance indices to enable normalization of these indices. The optimization approach presented here is formulated as a methodology in which a hybrid design-optimization approach, combining genetic algorithm (GA) and MCS, is first used. This new approach can find the numerical values of the design parameters that are both optimal and robust (i.e., less sensitive to variation and thus to uncertainties in the design parameters). In the following step, with design optimization, a set of optimum tolerances is determined that minimizes manufacturing cost and also satisfies the allowed variations in the performance indices. The presented approach can thus enable the designer to evaluate trade-offs between allowed performance variations and tolerances cost.

  • 25.
    Ahmad, Aftab
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Kjell, Andersson
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    A model-based and simulation-driven methodology for design of haptic devices2014In: Mechatronics (Oxford), ISSN 0957-4158, E-ISSN 1873-4006, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 805-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High precision and reliable haptic devices are highly complex products. The complexity that has to be carefully treated in the design process is largely due to the multi-criteria and conflicting character of the functional and performance requirements. These requirements include high stiffness, large work-space, high manipulability, small inertia, low friction, high transparency, as well as cost constraints. The requirements are a basis for creating and assessing design concepts. Concept evaluation relies to a large extent on a systematic usage of kinematic, dynamic, stiffness, friction, and control models. The design process can benefit from a model-based and simulation-driven approach, where one starts from an abstract top-level model that is extended via stepwise refinements and design space exploration into a detailed and integrated systems model that can be physically realized. Such an approach is presented, put in context of the V-model, and evaluated through a test case where a haptic device, based on a Stewart platform, is designed and realized. It can be concluded, based on simulation and experimental results that the performance of this deterministically optimized haptic device satisfies the stated user requirements. Experiences from this case indicate that the methodology is capable of supporting effective and efficient development of high performing haptic devices. However, more test cases are needed to further validate the presented methodology.

  • 26.
    Ahmad, Aftab
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Kjell, Andersson
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    An optimization approach towards a robust design of 6-DOF haptic devicesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Ahmad, Aftab
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Kjell, Andersson
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Model-based control strategy for 6-DOF haptic devicesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Ahmad, Aftab
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Kjell, Andersson
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Boegli, Max
    Evaluation of friction models for haptic devices2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work different friction models are evaluated to determine how well these models are suited for performance simulation and control of a 6-DOF haptic device. The studied models include, Dahl model, LuGre model, Generalized Maxwell slip model (GMS), smooth Generalized Maxwell slip model (S-GMS) and Differential Algebraic Multistate (DAM) friction model. These models are evaluated both numerically and experimentally with an existing 6-DOF haptic device that is based on a Stewart platform. In order to evaluate how well these models compensate friction, a model-based feedback friction compensation strategy along with a PID controller were used for position fracking accuracy The accuracies of the friction compensation models are examined separately for both low-velocity and high-velocity motions of the system. To evaluate these models, we use criteria based on fidelity to predict realistic friction phenomena, easiness to implement, computational efficiency and easiness to estimate the model parameters. Experimental results show that friction compensated with GMS, S-GMS and DAA4 models give better accuracy in terms of standard deviation, Root Mean Squared Error, and maximum error between a reference and measured trajectory. Based on the criteria of fidelity, ease of implementation and ease to estimate model parameters, the S-GMS model, which represents a smooth transition between sliding and pre-sliding regime through an analytical set of differential equations, is suggested.

  • 29.
    Andersson, Kjell
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Hagnestål, Anders
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    A flexible chain proposal for winch based point absorbers2018In: Proceedings of the ASME 2018 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference IDETC/CIE 2018: August 26-29, 2018, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ocean wave power is a promising renewable energy source for future energy production. It has however been difficult to find a cost-effective solution to convert the wave energy into electricity. The harsh marine environment and the fact that wave power is delivered with high forces at low speeds makes design of durable mechanical structures and efficient energy conversion challenging. The dimensioning forces strongly depend on the wave power concept, the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) implementation and the actual Power TakeOff (PTO) system. A WEC using a winch as a Power Take-Off system, i.e. a Winch Based Point Absorber (WBPA), could potentially accomplish a low Levelized Cost Of Energy (LCOE) if akey component - a low-cost, durable and efficient winch that can deal with high loads - can be developed. A key problem for achieving a durable winch is to find a force transmitting solution that can deal with these high loads and handle up to 80 million cycles. In this article we propose a design solution for a force transmitting chain in a WBPA system where elastomeric bearings are used as a means to achieve the relative motion between the links in the chain. With this solution no sliding is present and the angular motion is achieved as a deformation in the elastomeric bearing when the chain is winded on a drum. The link was designed primarily to minimize the number of joints in the chain: Thereby the maximum allowed relative angle between the links when rolled up over the drum should be as large as possible within practical limits. The angle is to be handled by the elastomeric bearing. A detailed strength analysis of the link has been performed as well as topology optimization to increase the strength to weight ratio. A test rig for a first proof of concept testing has been developed and the first preliminary test results indicate that this concept with using elastomeric bearings can be a potential solution for a durable chain and should be analyzed further for fatigue conditions and under water operations. 

  • 30.
    Andersson, Kjell
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Hagnestål, Anders
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Design of a flexible chain for winch based point absorbers2018In: Proceedings of NordDesign: Design in the Era of Digitalization, NordDesign 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Andersson, Kjell
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Reality-driven virtual wheel loader operation2005In: Proceedings of Virtual Concept 2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Björklund, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    A study of the influence of gear surface roughness and immersion depth on gear efficiency and temperature2014In: Proceedings of the 16th Nordic Symposium on Tribology - NORDTRIB 2014, 2014, p. A 1-A 6Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Baez, Federico
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Ismoilov, Abbos
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Löfgren, Björn
    Skogforsk.
    Multi-objective performance optimization of pendulum-arm suspensions for forestry machines2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Bergseth, Ellen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Henriksson, Mats
    Scania CV.
    Broukhiyan, Parsa
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Sugutur, Lohith
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Nordin, Erland
    Scania CV.
    EFFECTS OF THRUST WASHER BEARING SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS ON PLANETARY GEAR TRAIN WEAR2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Bergseth, Ellen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Henriksson, Mats
    Scania CV .
    Dizdar, Senad
    Höganäs AB.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Effects of thrust washer bearing surface characteristics on planetary gear train wear2019In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 432-433, article id 202933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thrust washers in spur planetary gears are placed between the planet wheel and planet carrier and act as spacers and wear pads. Metal to metal sliding contact between the planet wheel – washer – carrier causes frictional power losses that, combined with starved lubrication, may cause high contact temperatures and thermo-mechanical effects that potentially trigger thermo-elastic instabilities and excessive local wear. The planetary gear system would benefit from a low-friction interface between the washer and the planet wheel. Five washers with different surface treatments were tested in a full-scale gear rig. These tests were also replicated as closely as possible in a pin-on-disc tribometer. The following types of finishing material treatments were studied: a chemical nickel coating plus polymer on a nitro-carburised surface, a combination of nitro-carburization and solid lubricant layers, electroless deposited chemical nickel coating plus polymer, nitro-carburizing, and manganese phosphating. The frictional results indicate that tribometer tests can be used to compare and classify new washer materials. Lab scale tests show that a new experimental self-lubricating tribomaterial that was applied with laser cladding has a promising potential to increase planetary gear train robustness and service life, especially if the surface is fine grinded.

  • 36. Borjesson, F.
    et al.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Fast hybrid genetic clustering algorithm for Design Structure Matrix2014In: ASME 2013 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, IDETC/CIE 2013: Volume 5, 2013, ASME Press, 2014, p. V005T06A015-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Module formation is the step in which a product's architecture is established in such a way that complex interactions are intra-modular and inter-modular interactions are more simple. If a matrix representation exists, such as a Design Structure Matrix, this involves clustering system entities into groups with strong intra-dependencies. For simple products, clustering may be done manually, but for complex products, computer tools are required. Existing clustering algorithms are either slow, or unable to guarantee a globally optimal solution. To enable iterative work and to make cluster analysis useful also in the detailing steps, efficient and effective computer algorithms are required. This paper presents an efficient and effective Genetic clustering algorithm, with the Minimum Description Length measure. To significantly reduce the time required for the algorithm to find a good clustering result, a knowledge aware heuristic element is included in the GA process. The efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithm is verified with four case studies.

  • 37. Börjesson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Fancher, Robert
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    On a methodology for component selection in modular branding: An industrial pilot study2014In: Concurrent Engineering - Research and Applications, ISSN 1063-293X, E-ISSN 1531-2003, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 93-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performing modularization of a product family with multiple brands is a complex task that must integrate and balance a wide range of contradicting and ambiguous aspects, such as product performance, customer expectations, supplier alliances, and corporate business strategies. Furthermore, decisions on balancing these aspects that also change with time have to deal with a high degree of uncertainty. No general methodology for modular branding has currently been published. A methodology with that aim is proposed and prototyped in a real but anonymized industrial case. The presented task is to select standard original equipment manufacturer engines for six brands of self-propelled walk-behind lawn mowers. Selection is based on a set of calculated utility scores and known costs. The utility of an engine with a certain performance level and set of features is specific to each brand. This article presents a first step in developing a general methodology for modular branding and the organizational learnings of using the proposed methodology in an industrial setting.

  • 38.
    Börjesson, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.). odular Management USA, Inc., Bloomington, MN, United States .
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Modularization of novel machines: motives, means and opportunities2010In: Proceedings of NordDesign 2010, the 8th International NordDesign Conference: Chalmers University of Technology,Gothenburg, Sweden, August 25-27, 2010, 2010, p. 435-444Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modularization approaches are often used to restructure mature products with known technical content, but not to assist new development of products with a high innovation content or soft interactive requirements. This paper investigates if various clustering techniques can be used to identify module candidates in matrix representations of evolving product properties, including interactive properties, and component architectures. The proposed approach is tested on the hybrid drive train of a novel forwarder. Forwarders are used in the forestry industry to transport logs from the felling area to a landing area close to a road accessible by trucks. Continuous efficiency improvements, new emission requirements, and the need to configure machine for different applications stresses the need for a modular product architecture.

  • 39.
    Folkeson, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    A conference on engineering design is a complex product2004In: Design 2004: Proceedings of the 8th International Design Conference, Vols 1-3 / [ed] Marjanovic, D, 2004, p. 1355-1362Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of the challenges in organising and developing an international engineering conference under severe time and cost constraints are similar to those involved developing a complex technical artefact. The large number of authors and reviewers who are active in the process and the just-in-time character of their deliveries further complicate the task. This paper describes and analyses the experience of developing a recent international conference on engineering design from a product development perspective. Key factors for developing a successful conference are analysed. The main purpose is to provide future conference organisers with recommendations to help promote successful and rewarding conferences.

  • 40. Folkesson, A
    et al.
    Gralén, KNorell Bergendahl, MargaretaKTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.Sellgren, Ulf LKTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Research for practice: Innovation in products, processes and organizations2003Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 41. Folkesson, A
    et al.
    Gralén, KNorell Bergendahl, MargaretaKTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.Sellgren, Ulf LKTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Research for practice: Innovation in products, processes and organizations.2003Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Hagnestål, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Durable winch-based point absorbers2017In: Proceedings of the 12th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference 27th Aug - 1st Sept 2017, Cork, Ireland, European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wave power could give a significant contribution to a

    future sustainable energy system if the Levelized Cost Of Energy

    can be reduced to a competitive level. Winch-based point

    absorbers could potentially accomplish this if a key component –

    a low-cost, durable and efficient winch that can deal with high

    loads – can be developed. In this article the possibilities of winchbased

    point absorbers and the challenges that need to be

    overcome are described. Further, the possibilities to design such

    winches are explored and several different design approaches are

    evaluated and compared. At present, we believe that such a

    winch solution can be found although more research is needed to

    develop a full concept, and the most promising solutions so far

    involve inverted tooth chains, flat UHMwPE fiber (Dyneema)

    bands and flat carbon fibre structures.

  • 43.
    Häggström, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Nyman, Pär
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Björklund, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Predicting friction in synchronizer systems2016In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 97, p. 89-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coefficient of friction in synchronizers is important from both a performance and a functional point of view. The synchronization process is highly transient, and the parameters affecting the coefficient of friction have strong mutual dependences, making analysis highly complex. A new friction model for a lubricated molybdenum-steel contact has been developed based on integrating results from physical rig tests and FEM simulations. A simplified thermal model has also been developed, with the purpose to quickly assess the coefficient of friction based on transient force and synchronizer dimensions. The results show good correlation with measured data except at very low sliding speed.

  • 44.
    Häggström, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Björklund, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Evaluation of synchronizer loading parameters and their ability to predict failure2018In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, E-ISSN 2041-305X, Vol. 232, no 9, p. 1093-1104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molybdenum coated gearbox synchronizers are tested in a mu-comp test rig under varying loading conditions until failure. Four different parameters used to describe the thermomechanical load are evaluated just before failure to compare their ability to predict failure. The parameters evaluated are the synchronized kinetic energy, the synchronization power, and the focal as well as the average surface temperature increase. The focal surface temperature increase as well as the average surface temperature increase is found to predict failure with relatively good accuracy. It is shown that there exists a threshold which divides the synchronizer into either a very long or a very short service life. Additionally, a method to determine the average surface temperature in the gearbox management system is proposed.

  • 45.
    Häggström, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Björklund, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Optimization of synchronizer cone angle with regards tomanufacturing tolerances of cone roundness and cone angleManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects from manufacturing tolerances on the maximum focal temperature has been investigated by transient thermomechanical simulations. Both relative cone angle and cone out-of-roundness for molybdenum and carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) synchronizers were evaluated. It was shown that cone out-of-roundness significantly increase the focal contact temperature for that specific cone, but has little impact on the opposing cone. Two populations of measured synchronizers were evaluated, and it was shown that the maximum focal surface temperature can be decreased in almost all tolerance cases by introducing a relative angle between the cones.

  • 46.
    Häggström, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.). Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Björklund, Stefan
    Robust pre-synchronization in heavy truck transmissions2014In: International Gear Conference 2014: 26th–28th August 2014, Lyon, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2014, p. 914-923Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transmission performance directly influences vehicle behaviour, energy efficiency, and perceived quality. A modern transmission is an aggregate of interacting sub-systems, e. g. gears, bearings, synchronisers and other shifting elements. New transmission trends ask for increased shift performance with higher loads for the synchronising components. Synchroniser development has traditionally required exhaustive physical testing and few analytical methods exist. A numerical method for assessing pre-synchronisation performance, using a multi-physics FEM software, is presented. Simulations show that grooves in the synchroniser surface have a positive effect on pre-synchronisation, and that the presence of grooves seems to be more important than the groove design.

  • 47.
    Häggström, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Björklund, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    The effect of manufacturing tolerances on the thermomechanical load of gearbox synchronizers2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transmission performance is crucial for heavy trucks and connected vehicles in general and for platooning of trucks in particular. Gearbox synchronizers are highly loaded conical friction brakes used during gear shifts. Service life and, thus, the gear shifting reliability, of the synchronizer depend on the local thermomechanical loading of the contact surface. To achieve a robust and cost-efficient system, more knowledge is needed of how manufacturing tolerances affect the local thermomechanical loading and therefore service life and reliability of a synchronizer. The effects from angle deviations between the mating cones and cone out-of-roundness on focal maximum temperature during a synchronization sequence have been studied with transient thermomechanical simulations. It is shown that thermomechanical effects will significantly magnify the nominal effects on synchronization performance caused by shape deviations given by the specified manufacturing tolerances.

  • 48.
    Häggström, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Björklund, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Thermomechanical performance of CFRP synchronizer friction linersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the ability of a thermomechanical simulation model for CFRP lined synchronizers to predict synchronization performance and reliability, temperature dependent material data for the specific CFRP lining is needed. The compressive modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, specific heat and thermal conductivity are determined experimentally. The effect of each material property on the focal surface temperature is analyzed, and it is shown that the compressive modulus has the largest influence for all analyzed load cases. Physical tests show that surface hot spots begin to appear at a simulated focal surface temperature of 200 °C, while performance degradation occurs at a simulated focal surface temperature of 230 °C-250 °C.

  • 49.
    Häggström, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Stenström, Wiktor
    FS Dynamics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Björklund, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    A Verified and Validated Model for Simulation-Driven Design of Heavy Duty Truck Synchronizers2015In: ASME Proceedings | ASME 2015 Power Transmission and Gearing Conference, ASME Press, 2015, Vol. 10, article id V010T11A045Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The strong market trend toward lower fuel consumption for heavy road transports requires more frequent gear shifting and increased gear shift performance, i.e. shorter shift time. Increased shift performance means higher loads for the synchronizer which brings component and shifting process optimization more into focus.

    Traditionally, synchronizer development has relied on physical testing of complete synchronizers in general gearbox test rigs or in specialized synchronization test rigs leaving much of the causes of the observed effects unclear. This paper presents a generalized FE-based thermomechanical simulation model to be used for model-based synchronizer analysis and design. The model is targeted for studies of how different external loads and the values of different synchronizer design parameters affect the temperature transient in the friction lining. Recommendations of how major modeling complications should be treated are presented. The developed simulation model is verified and validated with a combination of analytical means and transient temperature measurements of bulk and surface temperatures. The applicability of the presented model, as well as its limitations, are discussed and exemplified with different design cases.

  • 50.
    Häggström, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Stenström, Wiktor
    FS Dynamics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Björklund, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Parameter study of the thermomechanical performance of heavy duty synchronizers2015In: 15th International VDI Congress, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
123 1 - 50 of 103
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