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  • 1. Bugge, Audun Nystad
    et al.
    Sauge, Sebastien
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Ghazali, Aina Mardhiyah M.
    Skaar, Johannes
    Lydersen, Lars
    Makarov, Vadim
    Laser Damage Helps the Eavesdropper in Quantum Cryptography2014In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 112, no 7, p. 070503-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a class of attacks on quantum key distribution (QKD) systems where an eavesdropper actively engineers new loopholes by using damaging laser illumination to permanently change properties of system components. This can turn a perfect QKD system into a completely insecure system. A proof-of-principle experiment performed on an avalanche photodiode-based detector shows that laser damage can be used to create loopholes. After similar to 1 W illumination, the detectors' dark count rate reduces 2-5 times, permanently improving single-photon counting performance. After similar to 1.5 W, the detectors switch permanently into the linear photodetection mode and become completely insecure for QKD applications.

  • 2. Kim, Yong-Su
    et al.
    Jeong, Youn-Chang
    Sauge, Sebastien
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Makarov, Vadim
    Kim, Yoon-Ho
    Ultra-low noise single-photon detector based on Si avalanche photodiode2011In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 82, no 9, p. 093110-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report operation and characterization of a lab-assembled single-photon detector based on commercial silicon avalanche photodiodes (PerkinElmer C30902SH, C30921SH). Dark count rate as low as 5Hz was achieved by cooling the photodiodes down to -80 degrees C. While afterpulsing increased as the photodiode temperature was decreased, total afterpulse probability did not become significant due to detector's relatively long deadtime in a passively-quenched scheme. We measured photon detection efficiency >50% at 806 nm.

  • 3. Loo, F. Y.
    et al.
    Brusch, A.
    Sauge, Sebastien
    Allegrini, M.
    Arimondo, E.
    Andersen, N.
    Thomsen, J. W.
    Investigations of a two-level atom in a magneto-optical trap using magnesium2004In: Journal of Optics B-Quantum and Semiclassical Optics, ISSN 1464-4266, E-ISSN 1741-3575, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 81-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnesium atoms are cooled in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) using the 3s(2 1)S(0) --> 3s3p P-1(1) resonance transition. Magnesium is a simple atom which offers a unique possibility for comparison to the Doppler theory of laser cooling. We measure trap parameters as a function of laser-intensity, -detuning and magnetic field gradient. We find the main features well accounted for by Doppler theory, but temperature measurements gave significant higher values than predicted by the Doppler theory. We also observe radiation pressure effects within the MOT that limit the maximum achievable density. Comparing our results to predictions by models in the literature shows a good agreement. Recently we have improved our set-up and now trap about 150 x 10(6) atoms.

  • 4. Malossi, N.
    et al.
    Damkjaer, S.
    Hansen, P. L.
    Jacobsen, L. B.
    Kindt, L.
    Sauge, Sebastien
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics.
    Thomsen, J. W.
    Cruz, F. C.
    Allegrini, M.
    Arimondo, E.
    Two-photon cooling of magnesium atoms2005In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 72, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A two-photon mechanism for cooling atoms below the Doppler temperature is analyzed. We consider the magnesium ladder system (3s(2))S-1(0)->(3s3p)P-1(1) at 285.2 nm followed by the (3s3p)P-1(1)->(3s3d)D-1(2) transition at 880.7 nm. For the ladder system quantum coherence effects may become important. Combined with the basic two-level Doppler cooling process this allows for reduction of the atomic sample temperature by more than a factor of 10 over a broad frequency range. First experimental evidence for the two-photon cooling process is presented and compared to model calculations. Agreement between theory and experiment is excellent. In addition, by properly choosing the Rabi frequencies of the two optical transitions a velocity independent atomic dark state is observed.

  • 5.
    Sauge, Sebastien
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Antiprotonic helium atomcules2012In: From Quantum Chemistry To Astrophysics: A Tribute To Pierre Valiron, EDP Sciences, 2012, p. 03002-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About 3% of antiprotons (p̄) stopped in helium are long-lived with microsecond lifetimes, against picoseconds in all other materials. This unusual longevity has been ascribed to the trapping of p̄ on metastable bound states in p̄He+ helium atom-molecules thus named atomcules. Apart from their unique dual structure investigated by laser spec-troscopy - a near-circular quasi-classical Rydberg atom with l ∼ n - 1 ∼ 37 or a special diatomic molecule with a negatively charged p̄ nucleus in high rotational state with J = l - the chemical physics aspects of their interaction with other atoms or molecules constitute an interesting topic for molecular physics. While atomcules may resist to million collisions in helium, molecular contaminants such as H2 are likely to destroy them in a single one, down to very low temperatures. In the Born-Oppenheimer framework, we interpret the molecular interaction obtained by ab initio quantum chemical calculations in terms of classical reactive channels, with activation barriers accounting for the experiments carried out in He and H2. From classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the thermalization stage strongly quenches initial populations, thus reduced to a recovered 3 % trapping fraction. This work illustrates the pertinence of chemical physics concepts to the study of exotic processes involving antimatter. New insights into the physico-chemistry of cold interstellar radicals are anticipated.

  • 6.
    Sauge, Sebastien
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Lydersen, Lars
    Anisimov, Andrey
    Skaar, Johannes
    Makarov, Vadim
    Controlling an actively-quenched single photon detector with bright light2011In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 19, no 23, p. 23590-23600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We control using bright light an actively-quenched avalanche single-photon detector. Actively-quenched detectors are commonly used for quantum key distribution (QKD) in the visible and near-infrared range. This study shows that these detectors are controllable by the same attack used to hack passively-quenched and gated detectors. This demonstrates the generality of our attack and its possible applicability to eavsdropping the full secret key of all QKD systems using avalanche photodiodes (APDs). Moreover, the commercial detector model we tested (Perkin-Elmer SPCM-AQR) exhibits two new blinding mechanisms in addition to the previously observed thermal blinding of the APD, namely: malfunctioning of the bias voltage control circuit, and overload of the DC/DC converter biasing the APD. These two new technical loopholes found just in one detector model suggest that this problem must be solved in general, by incorporating generally imperfect detectors into the security proof for QKD.

  • 7.
    Sauge, Sebastien
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Makarov, V.
    Anisimov, A.
    Quantum hacking: How eve can exploit component imperfections to control yet another of bob's single-photon qubit detectors2009In: CLEO/Europe - EQEC 2009 - European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and the European Quantum Electronics Conference, 2009, p. 5192723-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Sauge, Sebastien
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Swillo, Marcin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    A single-crystal source of path/polarization entanglement at non-degenerate wavelengths2010In: Optics and Spectroscopy, ISSN 0030-400X, E-ISSN 1562-6911, Vol. 108, no 2, p. 165-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a bright, narrowband, compact, quasi-phase-matched single-crystal source generating path-polarization-entangled photon pairs at 810 nm and 1550 nm at a maximum rate of 3 x 10(6) s(-1) THz(-1) mW(-1) after coupling to single-mode fiber, and with two-photon interference visibility above 90%. While the source can already be used to implement quantum communication protocols such as quantum key distribution, this work is also instrumental for narrowband applications such as entanglement transfer from photonic to atomic qubits, or entanglement of photons from independent sources.

  • 9.
    Sauge, Sebastien
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Swillo, Marcin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Albert-Seifried, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Waldebäck, Johan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Tengner, Maria
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Ljunggren, Daniel
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Karlsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Xavier, G. B.
    Narrowband polarization-entangled photon pairs distributed over a WDM link for qubit networks2007In: CLEO/Europe IQEC 2007: 17-22 June 2007, Munich, Germany, 2007, p. 4387014-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Sauge, Sebastien
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Swillo, Marcin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Albert-Seifried, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Xavier, Guilherme
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Waldebäck, Johan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Tengner, Maria
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Ljunggren, Daniel
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Karlsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Narrowband polarization-entangled photon pairs distributed over a WDM link for qubit networks2007In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 15, no 11, p. 6926-6933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a bright, narrowband, portable, quasi-phase- matched two-crystal source generating polarization- entangled photon pairs at 809 nm and 1555 nm at a maximum rate of 1.2 x 10(6) s(-1) THz(-1) mW(-1) after coupling to single- mode fiber. The quantum channel at 1555 nm and the synchronization signal gating the single photon detector are multiplexed in the same optical fiber of length 27 km by means of wavelength division multiplexers (WDM) having 100 GHz (0.8 nm) spacing between channels. This implementation makes quantum communication applications compatible with current high-speed optical networks.

  • 11.
    Sauge, Sebastien
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Swillo, Marcin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Albert-Seifried, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Xavier, Guilherme
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Waldebäck, Johan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Tengner, Maria
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Ljunggren, Daniel
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Wang, Qin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Karlsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Quantum communication in optical networks: an overview and selected recent results2007In: ICTON 2007: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, Vol 1 / [ed] Marciniak, M, 2007, p. 30-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss recent work in quantum communication, and in some details present a bright, narrowband, portable, quasi-phase-matched two-crystal source generating polarization-entangled photon pairs at 809 nm and 1555 nm. We also show how the single-photon quantum channel at 1555 nm and a classical synchronization signal gating the single photon detector at the receiving side can be multiplexed in the same optical fiber of length 27 km by means of wavelength division multiplexers (WDM) having 100 GHz (0.8 nm) spacing between channels. This illustrates bow single-photon quantum communication applications is compatible with current high-speed optical networks.

  • 12.
    Sauge, Sebastien
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Swillo, Marcin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Tengner, Maria
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Karlsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    A single-crystal source of path-polarization entangled photons at non-degenerate wavelengths2008In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 16, no 13, p. 9701-9707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a bright, narrowband, compact, quasi-phase-matched single-crystal source generating path-polarization-entangled photon pairs at 810 nm and 1550 nm at a maximum rate of 3 x 10(6) s(-1) THz(-1) mW(-1) after coupling to single-mode fiber, and with two-photon interference visibility above 90%. While the source can already be used to implement quantum communication protocols such as quantum key distribution, this work is also instrumental for narrowband applications such as entanglement transfer from photonic to atomic qubits, or entanglement of photons from independent sources.

  • 13.
    Sauge, Sebastien
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Swillo, Marcin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Xavier, Guilherme
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Tengner, Maria
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Karlsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Single crystal source of polarization entangled photons at non-degenerate wavelengths2008In: 2008 Conference On Lasers And Electro-Optics & Quantum Electronics And Laser Science Conference: Vols 1-9, 2008, p. 2996-2997Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a bright, narrowband, compact single-crystal source of polarization entangled photon pairs at non-degenerate wavelength. This work is instrumental for quantum key distribution and entanglement transfer from photonic to atomic qubits.

  • 14. Sauge, Sebastien
    et al.
    Valiron, P.
    Collisional survival of antiprotonic helium atoms2001In: Chemical Physics, ISSN 0301-0104, E-ISSN 1873-4421, Vol. 265, no 1, p. 47-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the collisional survival of antiprotonic (p) over bar He+ atomcules in pure helium from a detailed ab initio analysis of their intermolecular interaction. After averaging over classical (p) over bar orbits, we attribute the collisional stability of thermalized atomcules to the existence of a high activation barrier due to Pauli repulsion. Our model predicts the reduction of the barrier for outer (p) over bar orbits, thus accounting for the quenching of high n states by He atoms. We also investigate the thermalization stage of newly formed atomcules from a classical trajectory Monte Carlo approach. Our results support the destruction of the states with n greater than or equal to 41, as well as the strong depopulation of all n < 41 layers, with a quenching rate of 50% at least. Assuming a statistical distribution of newly formed atomcules with respect to their initial angular momentum, we account for the 3% observed trapping fraction of metastable states. <(c)> 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 15. Sauge, Sebastien
    et al.
    Valiron, P.
    Quenching of cold antiprotonic helium atoms by collisions with H-2 molecules2002In: Chemical Physics, ISSN 0301-0104, E-ISSN 1873-4421, Vol. 283, no 3, p. 433-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the collisional quenching of cold metastable antiprotonic atomcules [(p) over bar He+], by HZ molecules in view of the recent state-resolved measurements at CERN. Firstly, we determine ab initio the 6-D intermolecular interaction between the four (anti)nuclei at the CCSD(T)/CP level. After averaging the interaction over the fast (p) over bar orbits, we exhibit reactive channels and activation barriers below few 100 muE(h). Hence, we account qualitatively for the order of magnitude and (n,l) dependence of the quenching cross-sections measured at 30 K, after estimating tunneling probabilities. We also account for the lower quenching efficiency by deuterium. However improving this overall agreement would require the determination of numerous finer contributions. We monitor the saturation of electronic correlation with larger basis sets; we estimate the importance of dynamical relaxation effects; and we stress the role of quantum vibrational and rotational delocalization for the light (p, (p) over bar) nuclei. The latter vibrational corrections lower the barriers, while the rotational H-2 averaging defavours isotropic para-H-2 (J = 0). As a result, we mainly attribute the quenching at 30 K to ortho-H-2 (J = 1). Additional experiments at other temperatures and with para-H-2 would further constrain this orthopara quenching selectivity, and provide an ideal four-body benchmark for further chemical physics investigations (including tunneling effects, collision-induced Auger decay, etc).

  • 16. Sauge, Sebastien
    et al.
    Valiron, P.
    Mayer, I.
    Dissociative recombination of antiprotonic atomcules (p)over-bar-He+ with positronium: towards antihydrogen synthesis?2001In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 334, no 06-apr, p. 330-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the reactive association of metastable antiprotonic helium 'atomcules' ([(p) over bar He+](nt)) with positronium(Ps). In the framework of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, we further discuss the evolution and stability of the intermediate complex (alpha, (p) over bar, e(+), 2e(-)) using a classical trajectory approach for treating the nuclei (alpha, (p) over bar) We predict two possible channels for the atomcule-Ps reaction depending upon the atomcule principal quantum number n : II greater than or equal to 38 states dissociate to (H) over bar, whereas, it < 38 states form a new class of metastable atomcules, which could be confirmed by laser spectroscopy. The present work illustrates the pertinence of simple chemical physics concepts to the study of exotic processes involving antimatter.

  • 17.
    Tengner, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Ljunggren, Daniel
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Sauge, Sebastien
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Waldeback, Johan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Karlsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Single-photon correlations for secure communication2006In: Advanced Free-Space Optical Communication Techniques/Applications II and Photonic Components Architectures for Microwave Systems and Displays / [ed] Sjoqvist, LJ; Wilson, RA; Merlet, TJ, BELLINGHAM, WA: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2006, Vol. 6399, p. U124-U132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present two types of photon sources designed for secure quantum communication, e.g. for quantum cryptog raphy. Both types are based on the creation of photon pairs by spontaneous parametric downconversion in nonlinear crystals. The first is a heralded single photon source and the second is a source of polarization-entangled photon pairs. For the heralded single photon source the detection of one of the photons of a downconversion pair is used as a trigger to announce the presence of the other: the single photon. The source is characterized by a highly sub-Poisson photon number statistics making it very suitable for use in quantum cryptography protocols using single photonic qubits to create correlated information between a sender and a receiver. The entanglement source instead uses the inherent non-classical correlations between entangled qubits. We also present a hybrid-encoding where the sender uses polarization to encode information while the receiver uses time-bins. Both sources create photons with highly non-degenerate wavelengths of 810 nm and 1550 nm, taking advantage of the efficient detectors at near-infrared and the low transmission loss of optical fibers at telecommunication wavelengths.

  • 18.
    Wang, Qin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Chen, W.
    Xavier, Guilherme
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Swillo, Marcin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Sauge, Sebastien
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Tengner, Maria
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Zhang, T.
    Han, Z. F.
    Guo, G. C.
    Karlsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Robust decoy-state quantum key distribution with heralded single photon source2008In: 2008 Conference On Lasers And Electro-Optics & Quantum Electronics And Laser Science Conference: Vols 1-9, 2008, p. 3589-3590Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have experimentally demonstrated a decoy-state quantum key distribution scheme (QKD) with a heralded single-photon source based on parametric down-conversion. What we used is a one-way BB84 protocol with a four-state and one-detector phase-coding scheme.

  • 19.
    Wang, Qin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Chen, Wei
    Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, Hefei, China.
    Xavier, Guilherme
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Swillo, Marcin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Zhang, Tao
    Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, Hefei, China.
    Sauge, Sebastien
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Tengner, Maria
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Han, Zheng-Fu
    Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, Hefei, China.
    Guo, Guang-Can
    Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, Hefei, China.
    Karlsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Experimental Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution with a Sub-Poissionian Heralded Single-Photon Source2008In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 100, no 9, p. 090501-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have experimentally demonstrated a decoy-state quantum key distribution scheme (QKD) with a heralded single-photon source based on parametric down-conversion. We used a one-way Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol with a four states and one-detector phase-coding scheme, which is immune to recently proposed time-shift attacks, photon-number splitting attacks, and can also be proven to be secure against Trojan horse attacks and any other standard individual or coherent attacks. In principle, the setup can tolerate the highest losses or it can give the highest secure key generation rate under fixed losses compared with other practical schemes. This makes it a quite promising candidate for future quantum key distribution systems.

1 - 19 of 19
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