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  • 1. Brickstad, B.
    et al.
    Bergman, M.
    Andersson, P.
    Dahlberg, L.
    Sattari-Far, I.
    Nilsson, Fred L.
    Procedures used in Sweden for safety assessment of components with cracks2000In: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, ISSN 0308-0161, E-ISSN 1879-3541, Vol. 77, no 14-15, p. 877-881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper introduces a handbook for safety assessment of components with cracks. The handbook is intended for situations when defects are found during inspection of components and gives estimations of the risk of failure as well as the expected growth of the defect due to fatigue or stress corrosion during the evaluation interval. The handbook is easy to use and contains all necessary information needed. A Windows based PC-program is also available with a graphic module to present results in an efficient manner. Improvements are introduced for the handling of secondary stresses. In addition, a new safety evaluation system is included.

  • 2.
    Clausen, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Nilsson, Fred
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Generalizing the Safety Factor Approach2006In: Reliability Engineering & System Safety, ISSN 0951-8320, E-ISSN 1879-0836, Vol. 91, no 8, p. 964-973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety factors (uncertainty factors) are used to avoid failure in a wide variety of practices and disciplines, in particular engineering design and toxicology. Although these two areas have similar problems in their use of safety factors, there are no signs of previous communication between the two disciplines. The present contribution aims at initiating such communications by pointing out parallel practices and joint issues between the two disciplines. These include the distinction between probabilistic variability and epistemic uncertainty, the importance of distribution tails, and the problem of countervailing risks. In conclusion, it is proposed that future research in this area should be interdisciplinary and make use of experiences from the various areas in which safety factors are used.

  • 3.
    Faleskog, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Nilsson, Fred L.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Conditional failure probabilities in weakest link modelling2004In: International Journal of Fracture, ISSN 0376-9429, E-ISSN 1573-2673, Vol. 125, no 04-mar, p. 349-351Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Ljustell, Pär
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Nilsson, Fred L.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Effects of different load schemes on the fatigue crack growth rate2006In: Journal of Testing and Evaluation, ISSN 0090-3973, E-ISSN 1945-7553, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 333-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study was conducted on a nickel-based super alloy, Inconel 718, at an elevated temperature of +400 degrees C. The basic question was how to conduct the experiments in order to obtain fatigue crack growth data as free from load history effects as possible in the stage II region. This was investigated by use of four different load sequences. An important question was to investigate if the so called constant K-I,K-max-method provides an upper bound of the fatigue crack growth rate in the stage II region. The results indicate that the constant K-I,K-max-method gives an upper bound in fatigue crack growth rate in the current measuring range but also gives a statistically significant lower exponent of the crack growth equation. A more reliable method to establish the fatigue crack growth parameters is to propagate the crack under constant stress-intensity factor range. This should be done at two different stress-intensity factor ranges for a few millimetres at each range. Also, Delta K-reducing procedure should not be used, when performing fatigue crack growth testing in the stage II region, in order to minimize the risk of transient crack closure effects.

  • 5.
    Ljustell, Pär
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Nilsson, Fred L.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Variable amplitude crack growth in notched specimens2005In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 72, no 18, p. 2703-2720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictions of variable amplitude fatigue crack growth in notched tensile specimens at an elevated temperature and relative high loads were conducted. The predictions were based on constant amplitude fatigue data and mean crack growth rates were calculated. Crack closure levels were calculated by comparison of crack closure free experimental data obtained with the so called constant K1(max)-method and nominal data. Also, numerical simulations of the closure level throughout the specimens were performed. Although experimental data showed rather large a scatter it was concluded that variable amplitude crack growth rates can be predicted with reasonable agreement using constant amplitude fatigue data. Also, crack growth rates cannot be predicted by LEFM in the inelastic notch affected zone, even if absence of crack closure is assumed.

  • 6. Mansson, T.
    et al.
    Nilsson, Fred L.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Fatigue life estimation of cast components2001In: International Journal of Cast Metals Research, ISSN 1364-0461, E-ISSN 1743-1336, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 373-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An engineering method based on fracture mechanics is suggested for life predictions of components of nodular cast iron. The method should be applicable to any structure containing defects which can cause crack initiation. Component testing was performed and the observed results were compared with model predictions. Fatigue crack growth data were obtained by testing on CT specimens even for load ratios R < 0. By accounting for crack closure the R-effect on the growth rates can also be effectively eliminated for this type of material.

  • 7. Mansson, T.
    et al.
    Nilsson, Fred L.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Nodule influence on fatigue crack growth thresholds in nodular cast iron2000In: International Journal of Cast Metals Research, ISSN 1364-0461, E-ISSN 1743-1336, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 319-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of microstructure i.e. nodules (voids) on the fatigue threshold value in nodular cast iron is numerically investigated. It is qualitatively shown that the fatigue threshold value is unaffected by the individual nodules and that the threshold value is proportional to the bulk Young's modulus. Furthermore it is shown that nodules (voids) do not influence the crack tip conditions (stress-intensity factor and crack tip opening displacement) if the voids do not lie very close to the tip for physically long cracks. It is concluded that linear elastic fracture mechanics is valid for these types of materials and no influence of the nodules need be taken into count for fatigue calculations when dealing with long cracks.

  • 8. Mansson, T.
    et al.
    Skantz, J.
    Nilsson, Fred L.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    High temperature fatigue crack growth in two metals under constant and variable amplitude loading2002In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 24, no 11, p. 1159-1168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results are presented for fatigue crack growth at elevated temperatures during both constant amplitude and variable amplitude loading. A careful experimental investigation is presented to show that the concept of the effective stress-intensity factor range DeltaK(I)(eff) can be used to eliminate the load ratio effect on fatigue data and produce one single set of crack growth data. The fatigue crack propagation data corrected for crack closure is then used for comparison of mean crack propagation rates for variable amplitude loads with simple time histories. It is concluded that measured crack closure can not fully explain the discrepancies between measured and predicted propagation rates. A reduction factor fitted to the experimental data could be used to successfully correlate the results.

  • 9.
    Månsson, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Öberg, Hans
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Nilsson, Fred L.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Closure effects on fatigue crack growth rates at constant and variable amplitude loading2004In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 71, no 10-sep, p. 1273-1288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate measurements of fatigue propagation rates after single and during repetitive overloads were performed. It was shown that plastic deformations in the crack tip region and in the crack wake cause crack closure that is of major importance for crack growth rates. The consequences of this for methods to determine certain material properties are discussed. An improved method to measure closure free propagation rate data was utilised. The possibilities and shortcomings of compliance methods to determine crack closure levels are pointed out. The relevance of using DeltaK(I,eff) = K-I,K-max - K-I,K-lim, where K-I,K-lim possibly could be interpreted as the crack closure level was investigated and is discussed. A method to predict average crack propagation rates at block loadings consisting of well-defined load cycles of different amplitudes and R-factors was suggested. Three-dimensional effects after overloads were observed. These observations confirmed that the crack closure behaviour also depends on geometry of the specimen.

  • 10.
    Nilsson, Fred L.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    A tentative method for determination of cohesive zone properties in soft materials2005In: International Journal of Fracture, ISSN 0376-9429, E-ISSN 1573-2673, Vol. 136, no 04-jan, p. 133-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is outlined for the determination of cohesive zone properties in soft materials. The goal of the study was to extend earlier work assuming linear kinematics and linear elasticity to include non-linear kinematics and finite elasticity Explicit results for cohesive traction determination are given and discussed. A comparison is made between expressing the cohesive law in a Lagrangian or an Eulerian description, respectively Some implications of either choice are discussed. Two suitable geometries for experimental use are analysed as examples of the method.

  • 11.
    Nilsson, Fred L.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Dynamic stress-intensity factors for an orthotropic infinite strip with a semi-infinite crack2000In: International Journal of Fracture, ISSN 0376-9429, E-ISSN 1573-2673, Vol. 104, no 3, p. L17-L21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A clamped infinite strip of an orthotropic material and containing a semi-infinite crack is considered,. The strip is loaded by time-dependent translations of the boundaries and the dynamic stress-intensity factor is obtained using a path independent integral. The solution is found to be of the same form as for the corresponding isotropic case.

  • 12.
    Nilsson, Fred L.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Large displacement aspects on fracture testing with double cantilever beam specimens2006In: International Journal of Fracture, ISSN 0376-9429, E-ISSN 1573-2673, Vol. 139, no 2, p. 305-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The double cantilever beam specimen for fracture testing was investigated for large displacement conditions. J-expressions were derived for arbitrary loading of the beam-ends. As special cases two different loadings, transverse force and bending moment were studied. Explicit relations for use in experimental situations were derived.

  • 13.
    Nilsson, Fred L.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Risk-based approach to plant life management2003In: Nuclear Engineering and Design, ISSN 0029-5493, E-ISSN 1872-759X, Vol. 221, no 03-jan, p. 293-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing interest in risk-based management is driven by the need of developing strategies that lead to an optimal safety versus cost balance. The general philosophy behind risk-based management is briefly described here and discussed. It is formally shown that the core damage frequency can be factored into a system (PSA) part and component failure frequency part. Some of the procedures, currently applied in risk-based inspection, are discussed. The basic elements for failure frequency calculations are presented and discussed. A quantitative risk-based inspection study performed for the Oskarshamn 1 unit is briefly presented as an example of how risk-based procedures can be applied.

  • 14.
    Nilsson, Fred L.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Hansson, T.
    Mansson, T.
    Growth of surface cracks under constant and variable amplitude loading2004In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 71, no 12, p. 1725-1735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue crack growth experiments were performed on surface cracked tensile specimens of Inconel 718 at 400 degreesC. The loading was carried out at constant as well as at variable amplitude. The experimental results for the mean growth rate were compared with predictions based on data obtained from testing of compact tension specimens. Both nominal data as well as data corrected from measured crack closure were used in the predictions. The corrected data provided much better predictions than the nominal ones indicating that the level of crack closure during the testing of the surface cracked specimens was much lower than in compact tension specimens.

  • 15. Nilsson, K. -F
    et al.
    Dillström, P.
    Andersson, C. -G
    Nilsson, Fred
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Andersson, M.
    Minnebo, P.
    Björkegren, L. -E
    Erixon, B.
    A probabilistic methodology to determine failure probabilities and acceptance criteria for the KBS-3 inserts under ice-age load conditions2006In: Proc. 11th Int. High Lvl, Radioactive Waste Managem. Conf. IHLRWM, 2006, p. 207-214Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish KBS-3 copper-cast iron canister for geological disposal is in an advanced stage. This reports deals with the cast iron insert that provides the mechanical strength of the canister and outlines an approach to assess the failure probabilities at large isostatic pressure (44 MPa) for manufactured canisters and how to derive acceptance criteria. The work includes a statistical test programme using three inserts for the tensile, compression and fracture properties. Specimens used for material characterization were also investigated by micro-structural analysis to determine the microstructure and to classify and size defects. It was found that the material scatter and low ductility was caused by many defect types, but with slag defects in the form of oxidation films as the most important one. These data were then used to compute defect distributions and as direct input to FE-calculations of KBS-3 canisters. A large number of FE-analyses were performed at the maximum design load (44 MPa) covering distributions of material parameters and geometrical features of the canisters. The computed probabilities for fracture and plastic collapse were very low even for material data with poor ductility. Two large scale isostatic compression tests of KBS-3 mock-ups to assess safety margins are also described. The failure occurred at loads above 130 MPa in both cases, indicating a safety margin of at least a factor three against the maximum design load.

  • 16. Nilsson, Karl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Dillström, Peter
    Andersson, Claes-Göran
    Nilsson, Fred
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Andersson, Mats
    Minnebo, Philip
    Björkegren, Lars-Erik
    Erixon, Bo
    A probabilistic methodology to determine failure probabilities and acceptance criteria for the KBS-3 inserts under ice-age load conditions2008In: Nuclear Technology, ISSN 0029-5450, E-ISSN 1943-7471, Vol. 163, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish KBS-3 copper-cast iron canister for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel is in an advanced stage. This paper deals with the cast iron insert that provides the mechanical strength of the canister and outlines an approach to assess the failure probabilities for manufactured canisters at large isostatic pressure (44 MPa) that could occur during future glaciations and first steps to derive acceptance criteria to ensure that failure probabilities are extremely small. The work includes a statistical test program using three inserts to determine the tensile, compression, and fracture properties. Specimens used for material characterization were also investigated by microstructural analysis to determine the microstructure and to classify and size defects. It was found that the material scatter and low ductility were caused by many defect types, but slag defects in the form of oxidation films were the most important ones. These data were then used to compute defect distributions for the probabilistic failure analysis of the KBS-3 canisters. A large number of finite element-analyses of canisters were performed at the maximum design load (44 MPa) covering distributions of material parameters and geometrical features of the canisters. The computed probabilities for fracture and plastic collapse were very low even for material data with low ductility. Two large-scale isostatic compression tests of KBS-3 mock-ups to verify safety margins are also described. The failure occurred at loads above 130 MPa in both cases, indicating a safety margin of at least a factor 3 against the maximum design load. As a result of the project, new acceptance criteria are being proposed for insert geometry and material properties, and the manufacturing process for inserts has been modified to ensure that these criteria are always fulfilled.

  • 17. Teimourimanesh, S.
    et al.
    Nilsson, Fred L.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Effects of Cycles below the Fatigue Limit on the Life of a High Strength Steel2009In: Journal of Testing and Evaluation, ISSN 0090-3973, E-ISSN 1945-7553, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 201-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this work was to study the hypothesis of the possible influence of stress ranges below the fatigue limit on the fatigue life of the material. The experiments were conducted (ill high strength steel (Uddeholm Impax Supreme (R), a CrNiMo steel) with tension-tension periodic blocks under stress control. The Fatigue limit of the steel for tension-tension was determined by the staircase method. The programmed loading contained one repeated sequence of two ranges of stress cycles, above and below the fatigue limit. One-sided t-testing showed that it cannot be concluded that there is a significant influence of the range of stress below the fatigue limit on the fatigue life of the material, although a slight beneficial effect was indicated.

  • 18.
    Trädegård, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Nilsson, Fred
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Östlund, Sören
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    FEM-remeshing technique applied to crack growth problems1998In: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, ISSN 0045-7825, E-ISSN 1879-2138, Vol. 160, no 1-2, p. 115-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The remeshing option of the commercial FE-code ABAQUS is used to study crack propagation in elastic-plastic materials. Propagation is accomplished with a combination of remeshing and nodal relaxation. The results are compared with analyses using nodal release only. Substantial crack growth is achieved with less computer time and higher accuracy than in conventional FE analysis.

  • 19.
    Trädegård, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Nilsson, Fred
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Östlund, Sören
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    J-Q characterization of propagating cracks1998In: International Journal of Fracture, ISSN 0376-9429, E-ISSN 1573-2673, Vol. 94, no 4, p. 357-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation is performed to determine to what extent the state at a growing crack tip vicinity can be characterised by J and Q calculated from FE analyses of successively stationary crack tip positions. FE models in two-dimensionals of single edge notch bend and double edge cracked panel specimens with several different crack lengths are used to cover a range of load and constraint levels. The stress and strain fields are compared between different specimens keeping J- and Q-values equal. A remeshing technique in the commercial FE-code ABAQUS is used to enhance the efficiency of the analysis. The results show that the J-Q-theory provides reasonably accurate crack tip characterization also for growing cracks. This leads to the conclusion that FE analyses of successive stationary cracks rather than full FE propagation analyses are sufficient. The limit of validity for propagation is similar to the validation limit for the stationary case, although somewhat more restrictive.

  • 20.
    Trädegård, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Nilsson, Fred
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Östlund, Sören
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    J-Q characterization of propagating cracks by FEM-remeshing1997In: Computational Mechanics, ISSN 0178-7675, E-ISSN 1432-0924, Vol. 20, no 1-2, p. 181-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation is performed as to the extent J and Q calculated for successively stationary crack positions can be used to characterize the state at a growing crack in a corresponding geometry. FE models of single-edge notch bend and double-edge cracked panel specimens are used to cover a variation of constraint levels. The stress and strain fields are compared between different specimens at equal J-values and Q-values, respectively. A remeshing technique is used to enhance the efficiency of the analysis. The commercial FE-code ABAQUS is used and substantial crack growth is achieved with less computer time and better accuracy than in conventional FE analysis.

  • 21. van Eeten, Paul
    et al.
    Nilsson, Fred L.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Constant and variable amplitude cyclic plasticity in 316L stainless steel2006In: Journal of Testing and Evaluation, ISSN 0090-3973, E-ISSN 1945-7553, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 298-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    in this paper, cyclic plastic behavior of 316L stainless steel has been investigated through uniaxial experiments. An clasto-plastic material model is proposed that builds on a Chaboche based model that is readily available in commercial FE-software. The model has been calibrated for 316L through cyclic symmetric strain experiments for a strain range up to 4 %. Experiments show that strain loading history and strain range have a significant impact on the behavior of the material. The plasticity model available in FE-codes only depends on the maximum equivalent plastic strain though. More complex material models require a significant number of parameters to be calibrated and require extensive experiments to provide the required calibration data. For most applications this calibration effort is too extensive. To include both phenomena of strain history and strain range dependency, at least in a basic manner, a user subroutine was created that aids the material model in describing these dependencies.

  • 22.
    Östlund, Sören
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Nilsson, Fred
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Cohesive modelling of process regions for cracks in linear elastic structures-fundamental aspects1993In: Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, ISSN 8756-758X, E-ISSN 1460-2695, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 215-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process region at the tip of a crack in a linear elastic structure has been modelled by a cohesive zone. Growth of the front end of the cohesive zone is governed by a critical stress intensity factor criterion, and advance of the original traction free crack is determined by a critical crack opening at the rear end of the cohesive zone.

    Damage resistance curves relating the applied stress intensity factor to the growth of the cohesive zone have been calculated for an idealized structure containing two characteristic dimensions. Instability resulting in failure of the structure is found to occur either by unstable growth of the front end of the cohesive zone, without a fully developed cohesive zone, or by unstable growth of the original flaw, when the crack opening displacement at the rear end of the cohesive zone reaches a critical value.

    The influence of the size of the structure compared to the length of the cohesive zone is investigated, and conditions for the limits of validity of the small scale yielding assumption are discussed. Comparisons are made between the maximum load and the length of the cohesive zone at instability resulting from the present analysis, and the values predicted by linear elastic fracture mechanics.

  • 23.
    Östlund, Sören
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Nilsson, Fred
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Cohesive zone modelling of damage at the tip of cracks in slender beam structures1993In: Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, ISSN 8756-758X, E-ISSN 1460-2695, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 663-676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of simple beam theory for cohesive zone modelling of the damage response at the crack tip in linear elastic isotropic double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens has been investigated. Damage resistance curves (DR-curves) relating the applied stress intensity factor to the growth of the cohesive zones for beam theory modelling has been compared with two-dimensional elasticity calculations for different material parameters and specimen dimensions. A substantial difference is observed between DR-curves for the two types of models. As expected this difference vanishes for decreasing beam heights. For large beam heights the DR-curves calculated by two-dimensional elasticity are approaching small-scale yielding DR-curves, i.e. DR-curves for an edge crack in an infinite plate. The beam height for which beam theory is applicable could be up to 10-3 times the height for which small scale bridging DR-curves are applicable.

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