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  • 1.
    Antonsson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Gullberg, Anders
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kaijser, Arne
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Laestadius, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Summerton, Jane
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Nu finns chansen att riva upp beslutet om förbifarten2014Inngår i: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, nr 2014-09-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 2.
    Antonsson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Gullberg, Anders
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kaijser, Arne
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Laestadius, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Summerton, Jane
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Elbilar och förnybara bränslen räcker inte.2014Inngår i: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 3. Arino, I.
    et al.
    Kleist, U.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Rigdahl, M.
    On the relation between surface texture and gloss of injection-molded pigmented plastics2005Inngår i: Polymer Engineering and Science, ISSN 0032-3888, E-ISSN 1548-2634, Vol. 45, nr 10, s. 1343-1356Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between the surface topography of injection-molded plastic objects with deliberately imposed textures and their gloss, measured by means of a conventional glossmeter at incident angles of 20 degrees, 60 degrees and 85 degrees, was investigated. A modification of the general scalar Kirchhoff approximation, which accounts for geometrical features of the glossmeter, is used to describe the experimental gloss values of the textured surfaces. The agreement between the measured and the calculated values for incidence angles of 20 degrees and 60 degrees confirms the usefulness of the approach, though several of the textured surfaces used here are too rough for the Kirchhoff theory to be strictly valid. A poorer agreement, however, was noted at higher incidence angles (85 degrees in this case). For very smooth surfaces (without any texture), the classical Bennett-Porteus theory could in many cases describe the gloss level with sufficient accuracy. The influence on the measured gloss of the polymer material (in terms of its refractive index) and the color of the injection-molded object is also discussed. Light beige specimens in three different polymeric materials (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/polycarbonate blend, and polypropylene) as well as three acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene products with different colors were used. The refractive index of the polymer had no major influence on the measured gloss. The gloss level increased slightly with increasing lightness of the specimens, which can be associated with an increased contribution from the bulk scattering. However, the surface texture governed most of the gloss variations.

  • 4.
    Daemi, Bita
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Ekberg, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Advanced image analysis verifies geometry performance of micro-milling systems2017Inngår i: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 56, nr 10, s. 2912-2921Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate dimensional measurement of micro-milled items is a challenge and machine specifications do not include operational parameters in the workshop. Therefore, a verification test that shows the machine's overall geometrical performance over its working area would help machine users in the assessment and adjustment of their equipment. In this study, we present an optical technique capable of finding micro-milled features at submicron uncertainty over working areas > 10 cm(2). The technique relies on an ultra-precision measurement microscope combined with advanced image analysis to get the center of gravity of milled cross-shaped features at subpixel levels. Special algorithms had to be developed to handle the disturbing influence of burr and milling marks. The results show repeatability, reproducibility, and axis straightness for three micro-milling facilities and also discovered an unknown 2 mu m amplitude undulation in one of them.

  • 5.
    Daemi, Bita
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Ekberg, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Lateral performance evaluation of laser micromachining by highprecision optical metrology and image analysis2017Inngår i: Precision engineering, ISSN 0141-6359, E-ISSN 1873-2372, ISSN 0141-6359Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today several techniques are available for micro-manufacturing. Yet, it is difficult to assess the precisionand lateral X,Y accuracy of these techniques. The available accuracy information is usually based on spec-ifications given by machine suppliers. This information is based on in-house laboratory tests performedby dedicated machine operators and within an adapted environment. In practice, the accuracy is likelyto vary due to environmental conditions, materials and operator skills. In order to check the specifica-tions in realistic environments the EUMINAfab infrastructure consortium initiated a set of independenthigh precision onsite verification tests on different laser micromachining installations. In addition toproviding performance verification, it gave the participating partners real capability information of theirequipment and possibilities to improve machining performance to a higher level. In this study a compre-hensive verification test was designed and carried out by using a high precision metrology method for 2Dmeasurements based on subpixel resolution image analysis. This methodology improved our knowledgeof the capabilities of three laser micromachining installations, and showed that specifications at singlemicron levels are hard to obtain.

  • 6.
    Daemi, Bita
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Ekberg, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Performance Evaluation of Micro Milling Installations2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Multi-Material Micro Manufacture / [ed] Azcárate, S.; Dimov S., Singapore: Research Publishing Services, 2013, s. 213-216Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Micro manufacturing has developed into many areas over the past decade. Several manufacturing technologies are available but the precision and accuracy of the techniques are still difficult to get access to. Typically the capability information of micro milling equipment is based on specifications given by the machine deliverers. The specified high accuracy is likely to be altered in practice because of environmental conditions and operator skills. So in practice the absolute performances of micro milling/machining equipment may be far off from their listed specifications. When forming the EUMINAfab infrastructure consortium it was decided that independent high precision verification testsshould be made on different installations to help the micro-manufacturers to get the real capability information of their equipment and be able to improve performance to a higher EUMINAfab level. In this study a comprehensive verification test was designed and carried out by using an ultra-precision metrology method for 2D measurements in order to establish more knowledge about the capabilities of micro milling equipment. The measurement results show the machine’s X,Y positioning accuracy, pseudo-repeatability, reproducibility and axis straightness of two different micro milling installations.

  • 7.
    Daemi, Bita
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Analysis of camera image repeatability using manual and automatic lenses2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Autofocus lenses are conveniently used for applications such as video metrology. In this study we investigate the stability of capturing images and show that for precision metrology applications the autofocus lenses are not as accurate as manual lenses. The investigation was done by analyzing series of seven repeated images captured from a highly accurate reference artifact using two different lenses; autofocus and manual, mounted on a same camera system.

  • 8.
    Daemi, Bita
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Optical measurement of waviness on specular surfaces by Fringe Reflection Technique, FRT2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, EUSPEN 2012, euspen , 2012, Vol. 1, s. 117-120Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for accurate measurements of long range low amplitude topographic structure of specular (glossy) surfaces has been increased in automotive and aircraft industries. Optical measurement techniques are the most successful techniques to measure different surface structures with high resolution and high accuracy and at high speed. However, for glossy, specular surfaces many commercial techniques based on surface scattering fail. Fringe Reflection Technique (FRT), mimicking the human observation process of specular surfaces, is then a robust and suitable solution for measuring these surfaces. In our research we are interested in measuring waviness in the micron range over cm long spatial wavelengths. The artefact investigated is a flat casted and painted composite surface. By using a simple and non-expensive FRT-setup, combined with image analysis algorithms high resolution data were obtained. The results match well with reference data obtained by a Coherix interferometer with height measures of some ten micrometers over waviness having a lateral structure of several cm.

  • 9.
    Daemi, Bita
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Performance evaluation of a micro screen printing installation2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Micro- and nano-manufacturing is an expanding industry and many different manufacturing techniques are used, from advanced focused ion beam treatment to reasonably simple printing technologies. Common to all of them are the needs to verify the manufactured geometries and dimensions. This report presents the results of the second round of benchmarking activities within the EUMINAfab European Research Infrastructure, in order to establish more knowledge about the capabilities of a screen printing installation. To obtain a better understanding of the accuracy of the screen printing installation, a precise verification test is needed to measure the absolute performance of the machine. Predicted performance and capability information is based on specifications given for the machine installation by the machine deliverer. But, in practice the absolute performances of the installation is often off from the specification. When forming the EUMINAfab infrastructure consortium it was decided that independent high precision verification tests should be made on different installations to help the micro-manufacturers to get the real capability information of their equipment and be able to improve performance to a higher EUMINAfab level. In this study a comprehensive verification test was designed and carried out by using an ultra-precision metrology method in order to establish more knowledge about the capabilities of the screen printing equipment. The measurement results show the machine’s X,Y position accuracy, pseudo-repeatability and reproducibility. It is not as good as predicted.

  • 10.
    Daemi, Bita
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Performance Evaluation of Laser Micro-Machining Installations2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Multi-Material Micro Manufacture / [ed] Azcárate, S.; Dimov S., Singapore: Research Publishing Services, 2013, s. 114-117Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser micro-machining is a growing field for micro manufacturing in many different materials. To obtain a better understanding of the accuracy of laser micro-machining equipment, moreover machine’s specification, a precise verification test is needed to measure the absolute performance of the machine. Available capability information is usually based on specifications given for the machine installations by machine deliverers. But in practice the absolute performances of some of the micro laser machines are way far off from their specifications. When forming the EUMINAfab infrastructure consortium it was decided that independent high precision verification tests should be made on different installations to help the micro-manufacturers to get the real capability information of their equipment and be able to improve performance to a higher EUMINAfab level. In this study a comprehensive verification test was designed and carried out by using an ultra-precision metrology method in order to establish more knowledge about the capabilities of the laser micro-machining equipment. The measurement results show the machine’s X,Y position accuracy, pseudo-repeatability and reproducibility of three different laser micro-machining installations.

  • 11.
    Dimov, Stefan S.
    et al.
    Manufacturing Engineering Centre, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK.
    Bramley, Alan N.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering. Universitv of Bath. Bath BA2 7AY. UK.
    Eberhardt, Wolfgang
    Hahn-Schickard-lnstitutf for Microassembly Technology HSG-IMAT, Stuttgart,Germany.
    Engel, Ulf
    Chair of Manufacturing Technology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, D-91058, Erlangen, Germany.
    Fillon, Bertrand
    French Atomic Energy Commission, (CEA), Laboratory of Innovation for New Energy Technologies and Nanomaterials (LITEN), 38054 Grenoble, France.
    Johander, Per
    SWEREA IVF Industrial Research and Development Corporation, Argongatan 30, S431 53 Mölndal, Sweden.
    Jung, Erik
    Fraunhofer lnstitute for Reliability and Microintegration, IZM, Berlin Division, Germany.
    Kirby, Paul B.
    Nanotechnology Group, School of lndustrial and Manufacturing Science, Cranfield University, UK.
    Matthews, Christopher.W.
    Manufacturing Engineering Centre, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Richter, Martin
    Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration, IZM, Munich Division, Germany.
    Ritzhaupt-Kleissl, Hans-Joachim
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, lnstitute for Materials Research 111, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Schoth, Andreas
    IMTEK, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, EG-79110, Freiburg, Germany.
    Velten, Thomas
    Fraunhofer lnstitute for Biomedical Engineering, IBMT, 66386 St. Ingbert, Germany.
    Wenzel, Christian
    Fraunhofer lnstitute for Production Technology, IPT, Steinbachstrasse 17, 52074 Aachen, Germany.
    4M Network of Excellence: Progress Report 2004-20062007Inngår i: 4M 2007: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Multi-Material Micro Manufacture / [ed] Stefan Dimov, Wolfgang Menz and Yuli Toshev, Dunbeath: Whittles Publishing, 2007, s. xvii-xxxiKonferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The 4M Network of Excellence started on 1st October 2004. It is a consortium of 30 academic and research organisations that came together to form the network under the European Commission's 6th Framework Research Programme. The Network has developed a knowledge community in Micro- and Nano- Technology (MNT) for the batch-manufacture of microcomponents and devices in a variety of materials for future microsystems products, particularly in non-silicon materials. This paper gives an overview of the structure, operation and activity of the network since its inception, illustrating the network's progress towards its goals.

  • 12.
    Dimov, Stefan S.
    et al.
    Manufacturing Engineering Centre, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK.
    Matthews, Christopher.W.
    Manufacturing Engineering Centre, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK.
    Brousseau, Emmanuel
    Manufacturing Engineering Centre, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK.
    Bigot, Samuel
    Manufacturing Engineering Centre, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK.
    de Grave, Arnaud
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Fillon, Bertrand
    French Atomic Energy Commission, (CEA), Laboratory of Innovation for New Energy Technologies and Nanomaterials (LITEN), 38054 Grenoble, France.
    Weinzierl, Martin
    Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology, IPT, Steinbachstrasse 17, 52074 Aachen, Germany.
    Engel, Ulf
    Chair of Manufacturing Technology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, D-91058, Erlangen, Germany.
    Johander, Per
    SWEREA IVF Industrial Research and Development Corporation, Argongatan 30, S431 53 Mölndal, Sweden.
    Jung, Erik
    Fraunhofer lnstitute for Reliability and Microintegration, IZM, Berlin Division, Germany.
    Kirby, Paul B.
    Nanotechnology Group, School of lndustrial and Manufacturing Science, Cranfield University, UK.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Richter, Martin
    Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration, IZM, Munich Division, Germany.
    Schoth, Andreas
    IMTEK, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, EG-79110, Freiburg, Germany.
    4M Network of Excellence, Progress report 20092009Inngår i: 4M/ICOMM 2009: The Global Conference on Micro Manufacture / [ed] Volke Saile, Kornel Ehmann, Stefan Dimov, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief overview of the activities of the 4M Network of Excellence during the last nine months of its funded period. The 4M Divisions summarise their activity and outline their plans to continue to working together in future. Finally a summary of achievements during the whole lifetime of the Network is given

  • 13.
    Dimov, Stefan S.
    et al.
    Manufacturing Engineering Centre, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK.
    Matthews, Christopher.W.
    Manufacturing Engineering Centre, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK.
    Brousseau, Emmanuel
    Manufacturing Engineering Centre, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK.
    Bigot, Samuel
    Manufacturing Engineering Centre, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK.
    de Grave, Arnaud
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hansen, Hans N.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Bissacco, Giuliano
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Tosello, Guido
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Fillon, Bertrand
    French Atomic Energy Commission, (CEA), Laboratory of Innovation for New Energy Technologies and Nanomaterials (LITEN), 38054 Grenoble, France.
    Bolt, Pieter
    TNO Science and Industry, 5600 HE Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Engel, Ulf
    Chair of Manufacturing Technology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, D-91058, Erlangen, Germany.
    Johander, Per
    SWEREA IVF Industrial Research and Development Corporation, Argongatan 30, S431 53 Mölndal, Sweden.
    Jung, Erik
    Fraunhofer lnstitute for Reliability and Microintegration, IZM, Berlin Division, Germany.
    Kirby, Paul B.
    Nanotechnology Group, School of lndustrial and Manufacturing Science, Cranfield University, UK.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Richter, Martin
    Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration, IZM, Munich Division, Germany.
    Ritzhaupt-Kleissl, Hans-Joachim
    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, lnstitute for Materials Research 111, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Schoth, Andreas
    IMTEK, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, EG-79110, Freiburg, Germany.
    Wenzel, Christian
    Fraunhofer lnstitute for Production Technology, IPT, Steinbachstrasse 17, 52074 Aachen, Germany.
    Matovic, J.
    OISAS, Technical University, A 1040, Vienna, Austria.
    4M Network of Excellence, Progress Report 2006-20082008Inngår i: 4M 2008: Proceeding of the 4th International Conference on Multi-Material Micro Manufacture / [ed] S. Dimov and W. Menz, Dunbeath: Whittles Publishing, 2008, s. xv-xxxiKonferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This report follows on from last year's "Progress Report 2004-2006" and gives an update on the continuing activities, such as the 4M Network cross-divisional projects and annual conference, as well as a description of the new activities in its third and forth year, such as the first 4M Summer School and Book Series. Finally, as the end of the funded lifetime of the network approaches the steps being taken to set up a 4M Association, which aims to create the organizational infrastructure to support the 4M Knowledge Community established in the last five years, are described.

  • 14.
    Ekberg, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Daemi, Bita
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    3D precision measurements of meter sized surfaces using low cost illumination and camera techniques2017Inngår i: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 28, nr 4, artikkel-id 045403Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using dedicated stereo camera systems and structured light is a well-known method for measuring the 3D shape of large surfaces. However the problem is not trivial when high accuracy, in the range of few tens of microns, is needed. Many error sources need to be handled carefully in order to obtain high quality results. In this study, we present a measurement method based on low-cost camera and illumination solutions combined with high-precision image analysis and a new approach in camera calibration and 3D reconstruction. The setup consists of two ordinary digital cameras and a Gobo projector as a structured light source. A matrix of dots is projected onto the target area. The two cameras capture the images of the projected pattern on the object. The images are processed by advanced subpixel resolution algorithms prior to the application of the 3D reconstruction technique. The strength of the method lays in a different approach for calibration, 3D reconstruction, and high-precision image analysis algorithms. Using a 10 mm pitch pattern of the light dots, the method is capable of reconstructing the 3D shape of surfaces. The precision (1 sigma repeatability) in the measurements is < 10 mu m over a volume of 60 x 50 x 10 cm(3) at a hardware cost of similar to 2% of available advanced measurement techniques. The expanded uncertainty (95% confidence level) is estimated to be 83 mu m, with the largest uncertainty contribution coming from the absolute length of the metal ruler used as reference.

  • 15.
    Ekberg, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Mattson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    A new 2D-self-calibration method with large freedom and high-precision performance for imaging metrology devices2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, EUSPEN 2015, Elsevier, 2015, s. 159-160Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When calibrating 2D (or 3D) metrology systems you need to rely on a traceable artefact for the calibration. However if the system you intend to calibrate has smaller uncertainties than the uncertainty of the reference artefact, the uncertainty of the instrument will be dominated by the artefact and not by the instrument. The only way to reveal the performance of the instrument is then to use self-calibration, i.e. a calibration without any externally verified references, except a 1D traceable measurement between two points on an artefact. Already in 1997, Mikael Raugh developed the rigorous mathematics for self-calibration of a 2D metrology stage, based on a lattice structured artefact. The original method and subsequent later improvements have in common that the problem is solved by using some assumptions regarding the artefact used in the calibration; like that the locations of the marks in the lattice are approximately known. There are also other constrains in the mathematical solution that limits its practical use in the industry. In this paper the application of a new general self-calibration algorithm is presented giving a large freedom to the positioning of the artefact, and also less demands on the 2D-structure on it. Rather than being based on rigorous mathematics requiring very exact positioning of the artefact, our algorithm is using a numerical iterative technique to minimize all overall errors. The algorithm is an enhancement of the self-calibration method already published by P. Ekberg et al. The algorithm has successfully been tested by simulations and by using real data from a white light interference microscope, yielding X, Y precision of few nm. The algorithm has also been used for separating distortions in ordinary low cost camera based systems opening up possibilities for accurate measurements in images. In the latter case the images can be compensated for most errors, like barrel or pin-cushion distortions, as well as perspective effects due to the angle of the camera relative the object.

  • 16.
    Ekberg, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Traceable X,Y self-calibration at single nm level of an optical microscope used for coherence scanning interferometry2018Inngår i: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 29, nr 3, artikkel-id 035005Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Coherence scanning interferometry used in optical profilers are typically good for Z-calibration at nm-levels, but the X,Y accuracy is often left without further notice than typical resolution limits of the optics, i.e. of the order of similar to 1 mu m. For the calibration of metrology tools we rely on traceable artefacts, e.g. gauge blocks for traditional coordinate measurement machines, and lithographically mask made artefacts for microscope calibrations. In situations where the repeatability and accuracy of the measurement tool is much better than the uncertainty of the traceable artefact, we are bound to specify the uncertainty based on the calibration artefact rather than on the measurement tool. This is a big drawback as the specified uncertainty of a calibrated measurement may shrink the available manufacturing tolerance. To improve the uncertainty in X, Y we can use self-calibration. Then, we do not need to know anything more than that the artefact contains a pattern with some nominal grid. This also gives the opportunity to manufacture the artefact in-house, rather than buying a calibrated and expensive artefact. The self-calibration approach we present here is based on an iteration algorithm, rather than the traditional mathematical inversion, and it leads to much more relaxed constrains on the input measurements. In this paper we show how the X, Y errors, primarily optical distortions, within the field of view (FOV) of an optical coherence scanning interferometry microscope, can be reduced with a large factor. By self-calibration we achieve an X, Y consistency in the 175 x 175 mu m(2) FOV of similar to 2.3 nm (1 sigma) using the 50x objective. Besides the calibrated coordinate X, Y system of the microscope we also receive, as a bonus, the absolute positions of the pattern in the artefact with a combined uncertainty of 6 nm (1s) by relying on a traceable 1D linear measurement of a twin artefact at NIST.

  • 17.
    Ekberg, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik. Micronic Laser Systems, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stiblert, Lars
    Micronic Laser Systems, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    A Large-area ultra-precision 2D geometrical measurement technique based on statistical random phase detection2012Inngår i: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 23, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing of high-quality chrome masks used in the display industry for the manufacturing of liquid crystals, organic light emission diodes and other display devices would not be possible without high-precision large-area metrology. In contrast to the semiconductor industry where 6' masks are most common, the quartz glass masks for the manufacturing of large area TVs can have sizes of up to 1.6 x 1.8 m(2). Besides the large area, there are demands of sub-micrometer accuracy in 'registration', i.e. absolute dimensional measurements and nanometer requirements for 'overlay', i.e. repeatability. The technique for making such precise measurements on large masks is one of the most challenging tasks in dimensional metrology today. This paper presents a new approach to two-dimensional (2D) ultra-precision measurements based on random sampling. The technique was recently presented for ultra-precise one-dimensional (1D) measurement. The 1D method relies on timing the scanning of a focused laser beam 200 mu m in the Y-direction from an interferometrically determined reference position. This microsweep is controlled by an acousto-optical deflector. By letting the microsweep scan from random X-positions, we can build XY-recordings through a time-to-space conversion that gives very precise maps of the feature edges of the masks. The method differs a lot from ordinary image processing methods using CCD or CMOS sensors for capturing images in the spatial domain. We use events grabbed by a single detector in the time domain in both the X-and Y-directions. After a simple scaling, we get precise and repeatable spatial information. Thanks to the extremely linear microsweep and its precise power control, spatial and intensity distortions, common in ordinary image processing systems using 2D optics and 2D sensors, can be practically eliminated. Our 2D method has proved to give a standard deviation in repeatability of less than 4 nm (1 sigma) in both the X-and Y-directions over an area of approximately 0.8 x 0.8 m(2). Only feature edges are recorded, so all irrelevant information in areas containing constant intensity are filtered out already by the hardware. This relaxes the demands and complexity of the data channel dramatically compared to conventional imaging systems.

  • 18.
    Ekberg, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Stiblert, Lars
    Micronic Laser Systems, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    A new general approach for solving the self-calibration problem on large area 2D ultra-precision coordinate measurement machines2014Inngår i: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 055001-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing of flat panel displays requires a number of photomasks for the placement of pixel patterns and supporting transistor arrays. For large area photomasks, dedicated ultra-precision writers have been developed for the production of these chromium patterns on glass or quartz plates. The dimensional tolerances in X and Y for absolute pattern placement on these plates, with areas measured in square meters, are in the range of 200-300 nm (3 sigma). To verify these photomasks, 2D ultra-precision coordinate measurement machines are used having even tighter tolerance requirements. This paper will present how the world standard metrology tool used for verifying large masks, the Micronic Mydata MMS15000, is calibrated without any other references than the wavelength of the interferometers in an extremely well-controlled temperature environment. This process is called self-calibration and is the only way to calibrate the metrology tool, as no square-meter-sized large area 2D traceable artifact is available. The only parameter that cannot be found using self-calibration is the absolute length scale. To make the MMS15000 traceable, a 1D reference rod, calibrated at a national metrology lab, is used. The reference plates used in the calibration of the MMS15000 may have sizes up to 1 m(2) and a weight of 50 kg. Therefore, standard methods for self-calibration on a small scale with exact placements cannot be used in the large area case. A new, more general method had to be developed for the purpose of calibrating the MMS15000. Using this method, it is possible to calibrate the measurement tool down to an uncertainty level of <90 nm (3 sigma) over an area of (0.8 x 0.8) m(2). The method used, which is based on the concept of iteration, does not introduce any more noise than the random noise introduced by the measurements, resulting in the lowest possible noise level that can be achieved by any self-calibration method.

  • 19.
    Ekberg, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Stiblert, Lars
    Micronic Laser Systems, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Ultra-precision geometrical measurement technique based on a statistical random phase clock combined with acoustic-optical deflection2010Inngår i: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 21, nr 12, s. 125103-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mask writers and large area measurements systems are key systems for production of large liquid crystal displays (LCD) and image devices. With position tolerances in the sub-mu m range over square meter sized masks, the metrology challenges are indeed demanding. Most systems used for this type of measurement rely on a microscope camera imaging system, provided with a charge coupled device, a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor or a time delay and integration sensor to transform the optical image to a digital gray-level image. From this image, processing algorithms are used to extract information such as location of edges. The drawback of this technique is the vast amount of data captured but never used. This paper presents a new approach for ultra-high-precision lateral measurement at nm-levels of chrome/glass patterns separated by centimeters, so called registration marks, on masks used for the LCD manufacturing. Registration specifications demand a positioning accuracy <200 nm and critical dimensions, i.e. chrome line widths, which need to be accurate in the 80 nm range. This accuracy has to be achieved on glass masks of 2.4 x 1.6 m(2) size. Our new measurement method is based on nm-precise lateral scanning of a focused laser beam combined with statistical random phase sampling of the reflected signal. The precise scanning is based on an extremely accurate time measuring device controlling an acousto optic deflector crystal. The method has been successfully applied in measuring the 4 mu m pitch of reference gratings at standard deviations sigma of 0.5 nm and registration marks separated by several cm at standard deviations of 23 nm.

  • 20.
    Ekberg, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Stiblert, Lars
    Micronic Laser Systems, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Z-correction, a method for achieving ultraprecise self-calibration on large area coordinate measurement machines for photomasks2014Inngår i: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 055002-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High-quality photomasks are a prerequisite for the production of flat panel TVs, tablets and other kinds of high-resolution displays. During the past years, the resolution demand has become more and more accelerated, and today, the high-definition standard HD, 1920 x 1080 pixels(2), is well established, and already the next-generation so-called ultra-high-definition UHD or 4K display is entering the market. Highly advanced mask writers are used to produce the photomasks needed for the production of such displays. The dimensional tolerance in X and Y on absolute pattern placement on these photomasks, with sizes of square meters, has been in the range of 200-300 nm (3 sigma), but is now on the way to be <150 nm (3 sigma). To verify these photomasks, 2D ultra-precision coordinate measurement machines are used with even tighter tolerance requirements. The metrology tool MMS15000 is today the world standard tool used for the verification of large area photomasks. This paper will present a method called Z-correction that has been developed for the purpose of improving the absolute X, Y placement accuracy of features on the photomask in the writing process. However, Z-correction is also a prerequisite for achieving X and Y uncertainty levels <90 nm (3 sigma) in the self-calibration process of the MMS15000 stage area of 1.4 x 1.5 m(2). When talking of uncertainty specifications below 200 nm (3 sigma) of such a large area, the calibration object used, here an 8-16 mmthick quartz plate of size approximately a square meter, cannot be treated as a rigid body. The reason for this is that the absolute shape of the plate will be affected by gravity and will therefore not be the same at different places on the measurement machine stage when it is used in the self-calibration process. This mechanical deformation will stretch or compress the top surface (i.e. the image side) of the plate where the pattern resides, and therefore spatially deform the mask pattern in the X- and Y-directions. Errors due to this deformation can easily be several hundred nanometers. When Z-correction is used in the writer, it is also possible to relax the flatness demand of the photomask backside, leading to reduced manufacturing costs of the plates.

  • 21.
    Ekberg, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Su, Rong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Chang, Ernest W.
    Yun, Seok Hyun
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Fast and accurate metrology of multi-layered ceramic materials by an automated boundary detection algorithm developed for optical coherence tomography data2014Inngår i: Optical Society of America. Journal A: Optics, Image Science, and Vision, ISSN 1084-7529, E-ISSN 1520-8532, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 217-226Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is useful for materials defect analysis and inspection with the additional possibility of quantitative dimensional metrology. Here, we present an automated image-processing algorithm for OCT analysis of roll-to-roll multilayers in 3D manufacturing of advanced ceramics. It has the advantage of avoiding filtering and preset modeling, and will, thus, introduce a simplification. The algorithm is validated for its capability of measuring the thickness of ceramic layers, extracting the boundaries of embedded features with irregular shapes, and detecting the geometric deformations. The accuracy of the algorithm is very high, and the reliability is better than 1 mu m when evaluating with the OCT images using the same gauge block step height reference. The method may be suitable for industrial applications to the rapid inspection of manufactured samples with high accuracy and robustness.

  • 22.
    Ferri, Carlo
    et al.
    Manufacturing Engineering Centre, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK.
    Brousseau, Emmanuel
    Manufacturing Engineering Centre, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK.
    Dimov, Stefan S.
    Manufacturing Engineering Centre, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Repeatability analysis of two methods for height measurements in the micrometer range2006Inngår i: 4M 2006 Second International Conference on Multi-Material Micro Manufacture / [ed] Wolfgang Menz, Stefan Dimov and Bertrand Fillon, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2006, s. 165-168Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A precision study of two height measuring methods is carried out. The first method is based on a White Light Interferometer (WLI) and the second on a Co-ordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) equipped with an optical probe. The height measurements considered are in the range [150; 250] μm. Point and interval estimates of repeatability are reported in the paper. This study presents experimental evidence that, under repeatability conditions, the precision of the WLI method is about five times higher than that of the optical CMM method. Furthermore, the precision of WLI is constant over the investigated height range whereas a dependency of the CMM precision on the nominal dimensions is identified. For both methods a linear relationship is detected between the random error and the sequence in which the measurements are taken.

  • 23. Granberg, H.
    et al.
    Jensen, J.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Industriell produktion.
    Forward scattering of fiber-containing surfaces studied by 3-D reflectance distribution simulations and measurements2003Inngår i: Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, ISSN 0091-3286, E-ISSN 1560-2303, Vol. 42, nr 8, s. 2384-2390Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have shown that the angular distribution of diffuse reflectance, obtained from bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements, differs strongly between paper sheets with and without fibers present in the top surface layer. For fiber-containing surfaces, in contrast to pigment-coated paper surfaces, there is a distinct forward scattering at angles much larger than the specular reflection angle. In the search for an explanation of this phenomenon, we have made calculations of reflectance distributions of a simulated paper web, containing randomly distributed hollow fibers. We did this on the assumption that fibers present in paper are considerably larger than the wavelength of visible light, and that the surface microroughness of the fibers can be treated as a diffraction broadening superposed on the ray calculated reflectance distribution. We investigate whether the structural shape and distribution of wood fibers can explain some of the observed forward-scattering phenomenon. We also compare these Monte-Carlo ray tracing calculations qualitatively with experimental BRDF measurements of the diffuse reflectance from a fiber-containing surface. From the calculations we found that the reflection at the inner fiber wall of the hollow fibers constituting the topmost layer plays a major role in forming a forward-scattering reflectance distribution. We also found that the Monte-Carlo-calculated bulk scattering distribution, i.e., the distribution of reflected light after a large number of reflections within the web structure, tended to be elongated perpendicular to the sheet plane of the fiber web, rather than being uniform.

  • 24. Granberg, H.
    et al.
    Rundlof, M.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Industriell produktion.
    Influence of surface-induced nonuniform reflectance on the diffuse reflectance factor. Part I: Model predictions2003Inngår i: Journal of Pulp and Paper Science (JPPS), ISSN 0826-6220, Vol. 29, nr 8, s. 247-253Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kubelka Munk (KM) model is used frequently as a tool to design paper to reach a desired opacity and whiteness. The input data in this modelling, the scattering and absorption coefficients, are commonly derived from diffuse reflectance factor measurements. The quality of the coefficient values is dependent on the structure of the samples and the backings from which they were obtained. In this paper we focus on modelling the influence of nonflectance factors obtained using the d/0degrees standardized uniform reflectance induced by the surface structure, and how it affects the diffuse reflectants factors obtained using the d/0degrees standardized measurement geometry. From the analysis, we conclude that the structure of the surface facing the detector may have a significant effect on the instrument readings depending on whether the sample is glossy or reflects diffusely from the surface. Based on this surface reflectance, we analyze various situations of relevance for the papermaker and show that common-practice application of the KM model to reflectance factor measurements may lead to serious misinterpretations.

  • 25. Granberg, H.
    et al.
    Rundlof, M.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Industriell produktion.
    Influence of surface-inducled nonuniform reflectance on the diffuse reflectance factor. Part II: Experimental verification on coated substrates2003Inngår i: Journal of Pulp and Paper Science (JPPS), ISSN 0826-6220, Vol. 29, nr 8, s. 254-259Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many authors have found that the Kubelka-Munk (KM) scattering coefficient, s(c), of a coating applied to a substrate decreases with increasing coat weight. This decrease is usually explained by a structural/porosity change with coating thickness or a penetration of the coating into the paper In this paper we propose an alternative explanation to the observed decrease in sc, namely the misinterpreted diffuse reflectance factors for non-Lambertian reflecting substrates and coatings. This explanation was recently proposed by the authors; the second part presented here provides experimental support for the presence of a nonuniform reflectance distribution and its influence on KM fitted data. Three different coated systems are considered, using a transparent film, abase paper and a synteape film as substrate. The effect of the surface reflectance of the substrate and of the coated substrate can explain the apparent decrease in sc as an artifact when measuring a sample with an instrument having a d/0degrees geometry.

  • 26.
    Gustafsson, Jonny
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Lindfors, Christoffer
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Kjellberg, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Large format 3D interaction table2005Inngår i: Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XII, BELLINGHAM: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2005, Vol. 5664, s. 589-595Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    his paper presents some aspects and applications of the Interaction Table, which is a tool for interactive communication around a virtual 3D model between a small number of people. Some issues with large format displays of this kind are discussed, as well as their image quality, especially the contrast. The demands of some engineering applications are also described.

  • 27.
    Hyll, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    Innventia AB.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    A method for measurement of the directional emittance of paper in the infrared wavelength range2012Inngår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 958-967Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for measuring the directional emittance of paper and board samples was developed. The available literature showed that the influence of temperature and observation angle on the emittance of dry and moist paper had not been investigated in detail. Methods adapted for such investigations were not available. In the developed method, the emittance of a sample is determined by comparing its infrared radiation with the radiation emitted from a reference surface with known emittance. In order to investigate the influence of the wavelength range, two cameras, operating in the mid-wavelength and long-wavelength infrared range, respectively, were used. The method allows for the adjustment of the directional emission angle in a range from 0° down to 80°, and variation of the sample temperature between 30°C and 100°C. A study was performed to evaluate the method. Here, the directional emittance of handsheets made from thermo-mechanical pulp was measured at different wavelength ranges, sample temperatures and emission angles. The obtained emittance values and trends were in agreement with previous experimental work and theoretical predictions. The emittance of the samples was also measured using Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Given the methodological differences between the two measurement approaches, the results were in good agreement.

  • 28.
    Hyll, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    Innventia AB.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Directional emittance of dry and moist paper2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Hyll, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    Innventia AB.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Directional emittance of dry and moist paper2014Inngår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 294-303Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The directional emittance of dry and moist paper and board samples was measured in two wavelength ranges; the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) range and the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) range. The influence of pulp type, pulp drying, pulp refining, fibre orientation, additives, coating, and observation angle on the emittance of dry paper was examined. The influence of sample moisture and observation angle on the emittance of moist samples was also investigated. The emittance in the LWIR range was higher than the MWIR emittance. The emittance varied with pulp type, especially for TMP, which had a significantly lower emittance compared to the samples made of chemical pulp. The impact of different properties, such as pulp type, refining or coating, was much smaller in the LWIR range than in the MWIR range. Observation angle was found to significantly impact the emittance at angles larger than 60 degrees from the normal direction in the MWIR range, and angles larger than 70 degrees in the LWIR range. The emittance increased with increasing moisture ratio. This increase was most pronounced at low absolute moisture ratios, where an addition of an already small amount of water could impart a large change in emittance. It was found that the emittance and sample moisture could be correlated well using a linear combination of the emittance of dry paper and pure water.

  • 30.
    Hyll, Kari
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion. RISE Bioekon AB, Sweden.
    Farahani, Farnaz
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Comparison of optical instruments for fines and filler characterisation2017Inngår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 97-109Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A laser diffractometer and three image-based instruments with spatial resolutions between 0.33 and 10 mu m/pixel were compared through measurements on calibration spheres and fine fractions comprising pulp fines of various types, neat PCC filler, and a mixture of fines and fillers. The laser diffractometer was highly sensitive to the keyed in refractive index of the samples, which was calculated based on volume-based mixing rules. A high-resolution flow cytometer and a high-resolution fibre analyser were found to be complimentary for measurements on neat fines and fines/filler mixtures, and superior to the laser diffractometer. When measuring on fillers, the laser diffractometer performed as well as the high-resolution flow cytometer, which was capable of resolving single filler particles. The sizes of the calibration spheres were overestimated by the image-based instruments, and the measurement uncertainty was high. The uncertainty was mainly attributed to the unrestricted particle motion, and the low accuracy to the dissimilar optical properties of the calibration material, compared to fines. Thus, calibration materials with shape and optical properties more similar to fines should be developed.

  • 31.
    Kari, Hyll
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik. Innventia AB.
    Farahani, Farnaz
    Innventia AB, Sweden .
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Optical methods for fines and filler size characterization: Evaluation and comparison2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp fines and mineral fillers in the fine fraction of a papermaking stock influence process conditions and sheet properties. The influence is largely dependent on the size and shape of the particles. Quantitative characterization of the size and shape of fines and fillers would aid in process control and prediction of product properties.  Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate and compare optical instruments which can be used to quantitatively characterize the fine fraction of a papermaking stock. The compared instruments were the Mastersizer2000 from Malvern, based on diffraction scattering of a laser beam, the ImageStream from Amnis, and the Fiber Tester and Fiber Tester Plus from ABB Lorentzen & Wettre. The last three instruments are all based on imaging of the particles and have spatial resolutions ranging from 0.33 µm to about 10 µm per pixel.

    All instruments overestimated the size of calibration spheres with known sizes. In several cases, calibration particles that were smaller than the spatial resolution of the instrument were detected. In these cases, the relative measurement error was large, likely due to positioning and quantization errors. It is also suggested that the oversizing was partly due to dissimilar optical properties of the calibration particles, compared to the typical sample, and that better calibration materials for fines need to be developed.

    For the image-based instruments, the relative share of fines and filler particles increased with as the size of the measured particles decreased. Thus, with higher spatial resolution, more particles were detected. However, the shape of the particle size distribution depended on the resolution and the field-of-view. The ImageStream resolved single PCC particles, which has not previously been done using flow microscopy. Due to its limited field-of-view, the ImageStream could not measure the largest fines, which were detected by the Fiber Tester and Fiber Tester Plus. While the Fiber Tester Plus did not resolve single PCC particles, it detected, due to its higher resolution, a higher share of smaller particles than the Fiber Tester. Overall, the ImageStream and the Fiber Tester Plus were found to be complementary.

    The diffraction-based method struggled to measure small fines. It is proposed that small fines diffracted light insufficiently to be detected by the instrument. The obtained result was also highly sensitive to the choice of refractive index; a fact that some of the previous users apparently were not aware of.

    In summary, image-based methods were found to perform better than the diffraction-based method when measuring on fines and mixtures of fines and fillers, while the highest resolution image-based instrument and the diffraction-based method were best when measuring on pure fillers.

  • 32.
    Kirillin, Mikhail
    et al.
    Institute of Applied Physics RAS.
    Su, Rong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Sergeeva, Ekaterina
    Laboratory of Biophotonics, Institute of Applied Physics RAS.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Myllylä, Risto
    Monte Carlo simulation in optical coherence tomography for quality inspection of materials2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality inspection of materials is one of modern applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) featuring non-invasiveness and high speed required for in-production control of such materials as paper and alumina ceramics. Some of materials to be controlled are characterized by high scattering which can introduce distortions to the obtained OCT images, therefore additional interpretation can be required in order to evaluate material quality. In order to understand formation of OCT images of highly scattering materials samples and evaluate OCT potential for their quality inspection Monte Carlo simulations could be employed. This paper discusses application of Monte Carlo technique for simulation of OCT inspection of paper and alumina ceramics samples. Implementation of Monte Carlo simulation allows to evaluate the effect of OCT setup parameters and material properties on formation of the OCT-images. Multilayer models of paper and alumina ceramics structures are involved in the study.

  • 33.
    Li, Yujiang
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Datorsystem för konstruktion och tillverkning.
    Su, Rong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Hedlind, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Datorsystem för konstruktion och tillverkning.
    Ekberg, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Kjellberg, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Datorsystem för konstruktion och tillverkning.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Model based in-process monitoring with optical coherence tomography2012Inngår i: Procedia CIRP: 1st CIRP Global Web Conference: Interdisciplinary Research in Production Engineering (CIRPE2012),, Elsevier, 2012, s. 70-73Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands on in-process 3D monitoring in ceramic micromanufacturing industry require a high-precision, non-destructive, rapid and automated inspection technique for measuring the thickness of component layer, determining the shape and dimensions of the embedded 3D structures, and detecting the de-bonding, cracks, warping and deformation. One of the promising metrology techniques is optical coherence tomography (OCT). With the dedicated image processing algorithm and the industrial product data exchange standard, the model-based integration of OCT as a new metrology tool is demonstrated. As a generic standard for any product or manufacturing information, ISO 10303 STEP AP242 is employed for the measured data model. Unambiguous data representation is achieved by integrating additional modelling constraints. The proposed framework allows fully using the technical advantages of OCT to in-process 3D monitoring.

  • 34. Lindqvist, R. P.
    et al.
    Karlsson, K. -J
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    A Theoretical and Practical Approach to Geometrical Part Assurance2016Inngår i: Procedia CIRP, Elsevier, 2016, s. 351-355Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Metrology is the science of measurements; production engineering metrology is the science of applied metrology in production and in product realization. In this paper the automotive, construction equipment and aerospace industry are particularly addressed. One theoretical and practical approach to geometrical part quality assurance focusing on manufacturing processes and systematic work and use of objective, value adding production engineering metrology is proposed. This paper aims to describe a practical approach on how to carry out geometrical assurance of parts produced in manufacturing processes using traditional production methods. One example using machining, i.e. turning, of a part is used to explain this approach.

  • 35.
    Lindqvist, Richard
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Horst, John
    National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, USA.
    Brown, Robert
    Mitutoyo America Corporation, USA.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Equipp - Exchange of quality measurement process plans2010Inngår i: 10th International Symposium on Measurement and Quality Control 2010, ISMQC 2010, 2010, s. 212-215Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality is a pillar for success in every enterprise, and the absolute prerequisite for quality is measurement, but if measurement is actually going to improve quality, a process plan for performing the measurement must be properly defined. Increasingly, measurement process planning is performed semi-automatically in software, and since every software vendor has their own format for measurement process plans, this situation leads to interoperability costs. The eQuiPP (exchange of Quality Measurement Process Plans) specification is proposed as a standard which will reduce interoperability costs. The actual cost resulting from the lack of standardization is most likely enormous even though this cost is difficult to quantify. Standards like eQuiPP, properly defined and implemented, eliminate costs such as: • Information translation • Information quality degradation • Reduced perception of quality • Lack of freedom to choose best-in-class • Restraints on corporate or technical agility • Higher fees due to reduced competition • Reduced product and process innovation • Increased training and license fees • Unnecessary software development • Information access fees (e.g., PMI with CAD) • Information integrity and validation testing • Product delays and lost opportunities • High dependence on vendor viability • Excess support staff and equipment The primary scope of this new proposed standard is currently limited to an XML (eXtensible Markup Language) Schema quality measurement plan export format (XSD, extensible schema definition) for variable and attribute inspection plan processing.

  • 36.
    Lindqvist, Richard
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Karlsson, Karl-Johan
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Hedman, Stefan
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Geometry assurance and quality control planning by QAM2010Inngår i: 10th International Symposium on Measurement and Quality Control 2010, ISMQC 2010, 2010, s. 196-199Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to present research results within the field of GMCP (Geometrical and dimensional Measurement and Controllability Planning) applied for complex products. GMCP is a prerequisite activity in modern manufacturing of complex products and components. It is attaining high interest and priority among the manufacturing industry management and this is due to the increased demands and focus on environmental sustainability, cost reduction, quality work and the aim towards zero defects in manufacturing. The necessity of a systematic, holistic and integrated engineering QAM (Quality Assurance Matrix) methodology tool is being presented and discussed. The QAM tool and model was originally an idea derived from Volvo CE in Eskilstuna and was initiated through an ISO 9000 quality revision requirement. The current ongoing SIMET (Swedish Industrial Metrology Forum) research has further developed the ideas and underlying theory with new principles and rules embedded in the model and matrix. The current solution has been developed and implemented in a Microsoft Excel application. However, the long term sustainable and rational solution will preferably be implemented in a database design environment.

  • 37.
    Lindqvist, Richard
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Lundgren, Magnus
    Hedman, Stefan
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Peter
    Vångell, Tomas
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    An information-model approach for systematic and holistic geometrical inspection and control planning (GICP)2009Inngår i: Journal of the CMSC, ISSN 2328-6067, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 20-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 38.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Experiences and challenges in Multi Material Micro Metrology2007Inngår i: The second International Conference on Micro-Manufacturing, ICOMM-2007 / [ed] T.Kurfess and J. Ziegert, Clemson: Clemson University Digital Press, 2007, s. ICOMM2007-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Microsystems Technology manufacturing is expanding into other materials than the silicon. Polymers, metals and ceramics manufactured with micron feature sizes put new demands on metrology systems and a better education of instrument operators. In particular 3D-structured polymers require special care with regard to measurement forces for contacting probes of e.g. coordinate measuring machines. Ceramics tend to scatter light from the bulk, which can introduce off-sets from the true surface position in e.g. optical triangulation systems. Engineered metals tend to have comparatively rough surfaces compared to silicon and this imposes problems when a dimension of a micro feature is to be measured, as the roughness may introduce large local variations in measured size of a particular item. One of the most critical problems is associated with the high aspect ratio features present in micro systems manufacturing. This paper will high-light some examples of etrology problems found within the European 4M Multi Material Micro Manufacturing Network, discuss them, show new surprising results of optical profiling on high aspect ratio features and discuss possible solutions to get around some of the obstacles.

  • 39.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Metrology of 3D microstructures: a demanding task with surprising results2007Inngår i: / [ed] Manfred Geiger, Ulf Engel, Erlangen: University of Erlangen-Nuremberg , 2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 40.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Metrology of micro-components – a real challenge for the future2006Inngår i: Proceedings of the 5th International Seminar on Intelligent Computation in Manufacturing Engineering (CIRP ISME ’06) / [ed] R. Teti, CIRP , 2006, s. 547-552Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Micro manufacturing is steadily advancing from research labs to spin off companies. Products formerly manufactured by thin film technology using semiconductor processes are being replaced by more efficient full 3D micro manufacturing techniques. Materials have expanded to polymers, metals and ceramics. From being wafer based structures of tens of microns in width and a thickness of up to a micron, feature sizes are now a few microns wide and hundreds of microns deep. This puts very high demands on the geometrical dimensional and roughness measurement tools of the future. This paper gives a review of current metrology tools available for dimensional and surface characterization, and their limitations. It will also present the requirements of future instruments and discuss potential techniques to solve these issues.

  • 41.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Centra, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Modelling dust processing and the evolution of grain sizes in the ISM using the method of moments2016Inngår i: Planetary and Space Science, ISSN 0032-0633, E-ISSN 1873-5088Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Interstellar dust grains do not have a single well-defined origin. Stars are demonstrably dust producers, but also efficient destroyers of cosmic dust. Dust destruction in the ISM is believed to be the result of SN shocks hitting the ambient ISM gas (and dust) and lead to an increased rate of ion sputtering, which reduces the dust mass. Grains located in cold molecular clouds can on the other hand grow by condensation, thus providing a replenishment mechanism or even a dominant channel of dust formation. In dense environments grains may coagulate and form large composite grains and aggregates and if grains collide with large enough energies they may be shattered, forming a range of smaller debris grains. The present paper presents a statistical modelling approach using the method of moments, which is computationally very inexpensive and may therefore be an attractive option when combining dust processing with, e.g., detailed simulations of interstellar gas dynamics. A solar-neighbourhood-like toy model of interstellar dust evolution is presented as an example. © 2016.

  • 42.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    The Challenge of Dimensional Metrology on High Aspect Ratio Micro Structures2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The 4M-Multi Material Micro Manufacture Network of Excellence initiative is concentrating its efforts on non-silicon materials, i.e. metals, polymers and ceramics. For metrology of micro-components this material choice has a big impact on the possibility of making accurate measurements, although vision based metrology problems are already very obvious in high aspect ratio MEMS manufacturing[3]. This paper will report some specific findings related to the measurement of high aspect ratio microstructures of polymers and metals.

  • 43.
    Mattsson, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Bolt, Pieter
    TNO Science and Industry, 5600 HE Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Azcarate, Sabino
    Tekniker Technological Center, 20600 Eibar, Spain.
    Brousseau, Emmanuel
    Manufacturing Engineering Centre, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK.
    Fillon, Bertrand
    French Atomic Energy Commission, (CEA), Laboratory of Innovation for New Energy Technologies and Nanomaterials (LITEN), 38054 Grenoble, France.
    Fowler, C.
    Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Technology – Central Microstructure Facility, Harewell Science and lnnovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 OQX, UK.
    Gelink, E.
    TNO Science and Industry, 5600 HE Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Griffiths, C.
    Manufacturing Engineering Centre, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK.
    Kahn Malek, Chantal
    FEMTO-ST Institute, CNRS UMR 6174, LPMO Department, 25044 Besancon Cedex, France.
    Marson, S.
    School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Beds, MK43 OAL, UK.
    Retolaza, Aritz
    Tekniker Technological Center, 20600 Eibar, Spain.
    Schneider, A.
    Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Technology – Central Microstructure Facility, Harewell Science and lnnovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 OQX, UK.
    Schoth, Andreas
    IMTEK, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, EG-79110, Freiburg, Germany.
    Témun, Attila
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Tiquet, P.
    French Atomic Energy Commission, (CEA), Laboratory of Innovation for New Energy Technologies and Nanomaterials (LITEN), 38054 Grenoble, France.
    Tosello, Guido
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    How reliable are surface roughness measurements of micro-features?: Experiences of a Round Robin test within nine 4M laboratories2008Inngår i: 4M 2008: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Multi-Material Micro Manufacture / [ed] S. Dimov and W. Menz, Dunbeath: Whittles Publishing, 2008, s. 139-142Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface roughness of tiny micro machined features is not easy to verify. The statistical variation of the surface itself can be the limiting factor that hampers tolerance verification. In this paper we have studied this effect and we also test the performance of 10 different surface profilers over a very well specified surface area. For this area 6 profilers yielded the same result within a standard deviation window of ±6%. For other areas, on top of narrow bars and in narrow and deep channels, a much larger spread in the Round Robin results were found.

  • 44.
    Mattsson, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Schulze, Volker
    Institut für Produktionstechnik und Institut für Werkstoffkunde, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany .
    Schneider, Johannes
    Institut für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany .
    Quality assurance and metrology2009Inngår i: Ceramic Processing in Microtechnology / [ed] H-J Ritzhaupt-Kleissl, P. Johander, Dunbeath: Whittles Publishing, 2009, s. 305-325Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The cost effective large scale production of reliable micro systems for mechanical and tribological applications requires a customized quality assurance. Equipment and procedures established for the characterization of materials and components on the macro scale very often cannot be successfully applied on the micro scale. Therefore in recent years customized techniques were developed for dimensional control, surface topography and roughness characterization as well as for microstructural analysis, mechanical and tribological testing. This chapter overviews the state-of-the-art of research and technological developments on these fields and thereby responds on the necessary fundamentals of metrology, the constraints of the used equipment and technologies as well as the particular problems arising from characterization of micro components made of ceramic materials.

  • 45. Munkhammar, Joakim
    et al.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Datorsystem för konstruktion och tillverkning.
    Ryden, Jesper
    Polynomial probability distribution estimation using the method of moments2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 4, artikkel-id e0174573Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We suggest a procedure for estimating Nth degree polynomial approximations to unknown (or known) probability density functions (PDFs) based on N statistical moments from each distribution. The procedure is based on the method of moments and is setup algorithmically to aid applicability and to ensure rigor in use. In order to show applicability, polynomial PDF approximations are obtained for the distribution families Normal, Log-Normal, Weibull as well as for a bimodal Weibull distribution and a data set of anonymized household electricity use. The results are compared with results for traditional PDF series expansion methods of Gram-Charlier type. It is concluded that this procedure is a comparatively simple procedure that could be used when traditional distribution families are not applicable or when polynomial expansions of probability distributions might be considered useful approximations. In particular this approach is practical for calculating convolutions of distributions, since such operations become integrals of polynomial expressions. Finally, in order to show an advanced applicability of the method, it is shown to be useful for approximating solutions to the Smoluchowski equation.

  • 46.
    Nilsson, Bruno
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Tilert, Dan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Temun, Attila
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Carlsson, Torgny E.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Fast four-channel fibre-optic displacement sensor for measuring impact waves at low cost2006Inngår i: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 17, nr 5, s. 1162-1166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a fast four-channel fibre-optic sensor for measuring dynamic surface displacements caused by shock waves. Light from an LED emitter is sent through a plastic fibre and reflected from the surface back into the fibre. The intensity of the reflected light gives the distance to the surface unambigously. Based on simple principles and utilizing inexpensive components, micrometre and microsecond resolution is achieved at lower cost and with easier usage than for interferometric methods and with better reliability than an accelerometer. The sensor is comparatively easy to set up. It is battery operated for reduced sensitivity to electromagnetic interference. The design of the fibre probe facilitates access in narrow and hostile environments.

  • 47.
    Nilsson, Bruno
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Tilert, Dan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Témun, Attila
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Carlsson, Torgny
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Fast, low-cost fiber-optic displacement sensor2005Inngår i: 17th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, Pts 1 and 2 / [ed] Voet, M; Willsch, R; Ecke, W; Jones, J; Culshaw, B, BELLINGHAM: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2005, Vol. 5855, s. 783-786Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a fiber-optic sensor for measuring dynamic surface displacements caused by shock waves. Light from a LED emitter is sent through a plastic fiber and reflected from the surface back into the fiber. The intensity of the reflected light gives the distance to the surface. Based on simple principles and utilizing inexpensive components, micrometer and microsecond resolution is achieved at lower cost and easier usage than for interferometric methods and with better reliability than an accelerometer. The sensor is comparatively easy to set up. It is battery operated for reduced sensitivity of electromagnetic interference. The design of the fiber probe facilitates access in narrow and hostile environments.

  • 48.
    Olwal, Alex
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Numerisk Analys och Datalogi, NADA.
    Lindfors, Christoffer
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Gustafsson, Jonny
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Kjellberg, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Mattson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    ASTOR: An Autostereoscopic Optical See-through Augmented Reality System2005Inngår i: ISMAR: IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, 2005, s. 24-27Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel autostereoscopic optical see-through system for Augmented Reality (AR). It uses a transparent holographic optical element (HOE) to separate the views produced by two, or more, digital projectors. It is a minimally intrusive AR system that does not require the user to wear special glasses or any other equipment, since the user will see different images depending on the point of view. The HOE itself is a thin glass plate or plastic film that can easily be incorporated into other surfaces, such as a window. The technology offers great flexibility, allowing the projectors to be placed where they are the least intrusive. ASTOR's capability of sporadic AR visualization is currently ideal for smaller physical workspaces, such as our prototype setup in an industrial environment.

  • 49. Rubio, Carlos A.
    et al.
    Grimelius, Lars
    Lindholm, Johan
    Hamberg, Hans
    Porwit, Anja
    Elmberger, Goran
    Hoog, Anders
    Kanter, Lena
    Eriksson, Elina
    Stemme, Sten
    Orrego, Abiel
    Saft, Leonie
    Petersson, Fredrik
    De la Torre, Manuel
    Ekstrom, Christina
    Astrom, Kristina
    Rundgren, Asa
    Djokic, Miroslav
    Chandanos, E.
    Lenander, Claes
    Machado, Mikael
    Nilsson, Per
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Reliability of the reported size of removed colorectal polyps2006Inngår i: Anticancer Research, ISSN 0250-7005, E-ISSN 1791-7530, Vol. 26, nr 6C, s. 4895-4899Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The size of colorectal polyps is important in the clinical management of these lesions. Aim: To audit the accuracy in calculating the size of polyps by various specialists. Materials and Methods: Eighteen pathologists and four surgeons measured, with a conventional millimetre ruler, the largest diameter of 12 polyp phantoms. The results of two independent measurements (two weeks apart) were compared with the gold standard-size assessed at The Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden. Results: Thirty-one percent (83/264-trial 1) and 33% (88/264-trial 2) of the measurements underestimated or overestimated the gold standard size by > 1 mm. Of the 22 experienced participants, 95% (21/22-trial 1) and 91% (20/22-trial 2) misjudged by > 1 mm the size of one or more polyps. Values given by 13 participants (4.9%) in trial I and by 15 participants (5.7%) in trial 2, differed by ! 4 mm from the gold standard size. In addition, a big difference between the highest and the lowest values was recorded in some polyps (up to 11.4 mm). Those disparate values were regarded as a human error in reading the scale on the ruler. Conclusion: Using a conventional ruler (the tool of pathologists worldwide) unacceptably high intra-observer and inter-observer variations in assessing the size of polyp-phantoms was found. The volume and the shape of devices, as well as human error in reading the scale of the ruler were confounding factors in size assessment. In praxis, the size is crucial in the management of colorectal polyps. Considering the clinical implications of the results obtained, the possibility of developing a method that will allow assessment of the true size of removed clinical polyps is being explored.

  • 50. Rubio, Carlos A.
    et al.
    Hoog, Charlotte M.
    Brostrom, Olle
    Gustavsson, Jorgen
    Karlsson, Mats
    Moritz, Per
    Stig, Robert
    Wikman, Ola
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Palli, Domenico
    Assessing the Size of Polyp Phantoms in Tandem Colonoscopies2009Inngår i: Anticancer Research, ISSN 0250-7005, E-ISSN 1791-7530, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 1539-1545Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The size of colorectal neoplastic polyps is important for their clinical management. Materials and Methods: The size of 12 polyp phantoms was assessed in tandem colonoscopies carried out by 7 endoscopists differing in years of clinical endoscopical experience. The endoscopists measured, with (n=5) or without (n=2) the aid of open forceps, the largest diameter of 12 polyp phantoms. Measurements in two independent trials were compared with the gold standard-size assessed at The Department Of Production Engineering, The Royal Institute of Technology. Results: In tandem trials, 99.4% (167/168) of the measurements underscored the gold standard size. In the 1st trial, the size in all 84 measurements was underestimated by -40% (range -34% to -45%) and in the 2nd trial the size in 83 of the 84 measurements was underestimated by -34% (range -24% to -42%). Neither the age of the participant, nor the years of experience with clinical endoscopy improved the results obtained. The participants significantly underestimated larger devices (>= 20 mm) whereas the smallest "polyps" were also underestimated, but with a lower degree of inaccuracy. The absolute difference between the golden standard size and the mean of all measurements performed on each polyp in 167 out of 168 measurements followed a regular downward trend. The volume of the devices was one of the confounding factors in size assessment. When compared to the gold standard size, the larger the "polyp" size, the higher the degree of underestimation. This may be crucial considering that the risk for colorectal adenomas to shelter an invasive growth is 46%, for adenomas measuring >= 2 cm, a limit accepted as a guideline worldwide for the management of patients with large colorectal polyps. Conclusion: Considering the clinical implications of the results obtained, the possibility of developing a method that would allow the assessment of the true size of polyps in clinical colonoscopy, is being explored.

12 1 - 50 of 69
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