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  • 1.
    Berglund, Björn I.
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Carlsson, Annica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings Universtitet.
    Svanström, S.
    To prospect an urban mine - Assessing the metal recovery potential of infrastructure cold spots in Norrköping, Sweden2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In conventional mining, prospecting methods are used to increase the degree of certainty with regard to the stock of metals. Similarly, prospecting in terms of "urban mining" aims to increase the information about metal stocks available for recovery in the built environment. Infrastructure systems, such as for power supply and heating, are rich in copper, aluminum and iron (including steel). For a number of reasons, pipes and cables remain in the ground after being taken out of use or disconnected. This is also true for entire obsolete systems. In this paper, these infrastructures "cold spots" are viewed as hibernating stock with a significant potential for urban mining. The infrastructure systems for AC and DC power, telecommunication, town gas and district heating in the city of Norrköping, Sweden, have been quantified and spatially allocated with a GIS-based approach of Material Flow Analysis (MFA). About 20% of the total stock of aluminum and copper in these systems is found to be in hibernation. The findings also indicate that cables have been disconnected to a larger extent than pipes. As an example, cables for DC power, taken out of use in the late 1930s yet still in the ground, consist of 230 tonnes of copper. The results illustrate a clear tendency for larger stocks of hibernating copper and aluminum to be found in the central rather than the outer parts of the city. A reverse, ring-like pattern is true for iron, mostly because the central parts of the town gas pipes are used for fiber optics. Particular focus has been placed on the industrial area of Södra Butängen, which is slated for re-development and re-zoning from industrial to residential. Since the ground will be dug up for sanitation purposes anyway, the entire metal stock can be taken into prospecting consideration. Analysis shows that the chances of finding aluminum here are 28 times higher than in the rest of the city. We argue for an increased MFA focus on the heterogeneous complexity found in the details of the specific locale, rather than striving for generalized assumptions about the broader picture. In doing so, MFA could very well provide a tool for a future business line of urban mining of hibernating metal stocks.

  • 2.
    Carlsson, Annica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Combinations of codes in the Combined Nomenclature for Swedish Material Flow Accounts: Method development2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Palm, V.
    Wadeskog, A.
    IPP-indicators for private and public consumption based on environmental accounts and LCA2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Brolinson, H.
    Material Flows for som products: LCD-monitors, tires, jackets and bridge foundations2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hemström, K.
    Edborg, P.
    Stenmarck, Ä.
    Sörne, L.
    Kartläggning av mängder och flöden av textilavfall2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). Environmental Accounts, Statistics Sweden, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Eklund, Mats
    Frändegård, Per
    Svensson, Niclas
    Urban mining: hibernating copper stocks in local power grids2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 9-10, p. 1052-1056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large technical systems serving the everyday needs of people, such as water supply systems, power grids or communication networks, are rich in accumulated metals. Over time, parts of these systems have been taken out of use without the system infrastructure being removed from its original location. Such metal stocks in hibernation thus constitute potential resource reservoirs accessible for recovery. In this paper, obsolete stocks of copper situated in the local power grids of two Swedish cities are quantified. Emphasis is also on economic conditions for extracting such "hibernating" cables. The results show that on a per customer basis, the two power grids contain similar amounts of copper, i.e. 0.04-0.05 tonnes per subscriber. However, the share of the copper stock that is in hibernation differs between the grids. In the larger grid of Gothenburg, almost 20% of the copper accumulated in the grid is no longer in use, while the obsolete share does not exceed 5% in the city of Linkoping. For managers of local power grids, recovery of hibernating cables could be beneficial if integrated with other maintenance work on the grid. At the present price of copper, however, separate recovery of obsolete cables is not economically justified.

  • 7.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    Environmental Accounts, Statistics Sweden.
    Palm, V.
    Sörne, L.
    Wadeskog, A.
    Material Flows in Sweden 20042008In: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus, ISSN 1567-7230, Vol. 8, no 5-6, p. 425-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and discusses the method and results of account for material flows in Sweden for the year 2004. The results show that it is possible to compile material flow data from existing sources in the Swedish statistical system. By using the European classification system of goods, the Combined Nomenclature, as the basic unit of the data collection, both data collection and aggregation into material flow categories were made possible. Although these data exist in the statistical system, they are not easily available for the scientific community. This is due to several reasons, such as the aggregation of data in the system of statistics not corresponding to the material flow account structure and the fact that data on import and export of materials are organised differently than data for domestic extraction. Almost 50% of the material flows in Sweden are flows of minerals, mainly construction minerals followed by iron ores. Most of the extracted iron ores are exported. In comparison with other European countries this generates a unique situation with Sweden as the only net exporter of iron ores. The flow of biomass in terms of wood is also considerable (26% of the Swedish material flows in 2004). The domestic material consumption (inflow) per capita in 2004 was 8 tonnes minerals, 6 tonnes biomass and almost 3 tonnes of fossil fuels. Of the material flows of fossil fuels petroleum and natural gas dominates with 90%.

  • 8.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Palm, V.
    Wadeskog, A.
    Energy use and CO2-emissions for consumed products and services: IPP-indicators for private and public consumption based on environmental accounts2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Sternbeck, J.
    Looström-Urban, H.
    Skårman, T.
    Villner, M.
    Sjödin, Ä.
    Modellering av emissioner från icke-rapporterande punktkällor: exemplet xylen och DEHP2004Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Sörme, L.
    Palm, V.
    Material Flow Accounts  : Statistics and Development2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Sörne, L.
    Palm, V.
    Domestic Inflow of Hazardous Substances2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Wadeskog, A.
    Edborg, P.
    Accounting for Flows of Fruit and Vegetables in the Food chain: Method development based on MFA2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Wadeskog, A.
    Palm, V.
    Kanlén, F.
    Flow Accounts and Policy: Data for Sweden 20042006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14. Emilsson, S.
    et al.
    Tyskeng, Sara
    Environmental Technology/Management, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linköping University.
    Carlsson, Annica
    Environmental Technology/Management, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linköping University.
    Potential benefits of combining environmental management tools in a local authority context2004In: Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, ISSN 1464-3332, E-ISSN 1757-5605, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 131-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there are many environmental management tools available to support integration of environmental perspectives in decision-making processes. However, a single tool is seldom the answer to all queries. This paper shows potential benefits of using a combination of different environmental management tools in a local authority context. Three environmental management tools used in Swedish local authorities are examined - Substance Flow Analyses (SFA), Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), and Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) - from mainly a theoretical point-of-view. The tools are positioned according to their key characteristics, and their individual contribution to environmental management in local authorities is explored. For the local authorities, a combination of tools allows decision-makers to integrate experience from individual projects to overall environmental management, which helps decision-makers to deal with some of the challenges that different environmental management situations require.

  • 15. Krook, J
    et al.
    Eklund, M
    Carlsson, Annica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Frändegård, P
    Svensson, N
    Urban Mining: Prospecting for Metals in the Invisible City2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In theory, ‘urban mining’ has a huge potential for enabling more efficient resource use and offering new business opportunities for the cleantech and recycling industries. This concept involves recovering technospheric stocks of previously employed natural resources that have been taken out of use without being collected for waste management. Such hibernating material stocks can be found in old water supply, sewage and power distribution networks – urban structures rich in for example iron and copper. This paper aims to analyze the potential for urban mining of the metals copper and aluminum from hibernating power and communication cables in Sweden. Emphasis is on the economic feasibility of two different approaches for realizing such initiatives. The results indicate that separate extraction of obsolete cables situated below ground in a city is not yet likely to be economically justified for power grid managers. Even in case of integrated recovery during other maintenance work on the grids, additional project costs often exceed potential revenues for the cables. In rural areas, however, both separate and integrated recovery of hibernating cables seem straightforwardly profitable, especially for obsolete copper cables belonging to the regional communication network. It is concluded however that the viability of urban mining is not only a matter of economics. Research aiming to analyze technical, economic, environmental and other institutional conditions for realization of urban mining is therefore strongly encouraged.

  • 16.
    Lindqvist, Annica
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    von Malmborg, F.
    What can we learn from local substance flow analyses? - The review of cadmium flows in Swedish municipalities2004In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 12, no 8-10, p. 909-918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local authorities are important actors in the transition towards sustainable development. They can play important roles for the promotion of industrial ecology systems oriented management of resources and pollutants on the local and regional level. In this context, the method of substance flow analysis (SFA) has been argued to be supportive to municipal environmental management, although, performing an SFA is often time consuming and demands great deal of work. It may be a task hard to fulfil on a regular basis for many local authorities. A crucial issue is, then, to what extent it is possible to learn from other SFA studies? Aiming to contribute to this understanding, this paper analyses comparative results of SFA case studies of the cadmium metabolism in three structurally different municipalities in Sweden. The analyses illustrate that in addition to specific knowledge gained from a single case study, there is also general knowledge that may constitute important information for environmental decision-making in other local authorities.

  • 17.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Carlsson, Annica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Opportunities for environmentally improved asphalt recycling: the example of Sweden2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 43, p. 156-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asphalt waste from State roads in Sweden is usually recycled in order to preserve natural resources and reduce the burden on landfill. However, there appears to be a knowledge gap regarding the methods of asphalt recycling used by municipalities and private owners in Sweden. There is also a lack of knowledge regarding best practice from a life cycle environmental point of view. This study identified and evaluated potential ways of improving the life cycle environmental performance of asphalt recycling in Sweden. Data and information about the current situation of asphalt recycling in Sweden were collected through reviewing the literature and through interviews. It was observed that asphalt recycling practices were different for all three groups of road owners: the State, represented by the Swedish Transport Administration (STA), municipalities and industry. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to identify processes within asphalt recycling and reuse that contribute a significant share of the total environmental impact (hotspots), and to compare the life cycle environmental performance of the main techniques used for asphalt recycling and reuse in Sweden: hot in-plant, hot in-place and reuse as an unbound material. The results showed that hot in-place recycling gave slightly more global warming potential (GWP) and cumulative energy demand (CED) savings than hot in-plant recycling. There were no savings of GWP and small savings of CED during asphalt reuse. It was concluded that asphalt recycling is environmentally preferable to asphalt reuse. However each method of asphalt recycling can provide different benefits, so possibilities exist for improving the environmental performance of the processes involved. These possibilities were subdivided into logistic, technical and organisational.

  • 18.
    Toller, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Carlsson, Annica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Wadeskog, Anders
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Indicators for environmental monitoring of the Swedish building and real estate management sector2013In: Building Research & Information, ISSN 0961-3218, E-ISSN 1466-4321, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 146-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to assess the environmental impact of the Swedish building and property (real estate) management sector, a new top-down life cycle assessment (LCA) method was used which was based on inputoutput analysis using national statistical data. Six indicators were developed as suitable for environmental monitoring of the sector: energy use; emissions of greenhouse gases; emissions of nitrogen oxides; emissions of particulates; use of hazardous chemical products; and generation of waste. These indicators were then used to describe the environmental performance of the sector over a 15-year period in order to monitor change and improvement. The use of energy and emissions to air can be effectively followed in time-series. These indicators could be used to create incentives to evaluate regularly improvement work and to inform policy and practice. For greenhouse gas emissions, a trend was identified for space heating to become less important than construction and management towards the end of the period studied, most likely due to a transition from fossil fuels to renewable fuels for heat production. Key implications will be on the selection of building materials, the construction process and the extension of building longevity.

  • 19.
    Toller, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Wadeskog, A
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Carlsson, Annica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Energy Use and Environmental impacts of the Swedish Building and Real Estate Management Sector2011In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 394-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the key features of environmental policy integration in Sweden is sectorresponsibility. The National Board of Housing, Building and Planning is responsible for the building and real estate management sector and should, as a part of this responsibility, assess the environmental impacts of this sector. The aim of this study is to suggest and demonstrate a method for such an assessment. The suggested method is a life cycle assessment, based on an input-output analysis. The method can be used for regular monitoring and for prioritization between different improving measures. For the assessment to sufficiently cover the Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives, complementary information is needed, in particular with respect to the indoor environment. According to the results, the real estate management sector contributes between 10% and 40% of Swedish energy use; use of hazardous chemical products; generation of solid waste; emissions of gases contributing to climate change; and human toxicological impacts, including nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulates. Transport and production of nonrenewable building materials contribute significantly to several of the emissions. Heating of buildings contributes more to energy use than to climate change, due to the use of renewable energy sources. To reduce climate change, measures should therefore prioritize not only heating of buildings but also the important upstream processes.

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CiteExportLink to result list
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