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  • 1. Ahmed, K. M.
    et al.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hasan, M. A.
    Rahman, M
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    Islam, M. Mainul
    Rahman, Marina
    Rashid, S.M.A.
    Sustainable Arsenic Mitigation (SASMIT) in Bangladesh: The Matlab strategy2010In: Abstracts with programs (Geological Society of America), ISSN 0016-7592, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 652-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Annaduzzaman, Md.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hossain, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Tubewell platform color: A low-cost and rapid screening tool for arsenic and manganese in drinking water2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Presence of high level of geogenic arsenic (As) in groundwater is one of the major and adverse drinking water quality problem all over the world, especially in Southeast Asia, where groundwater is the prominent drinking water source. Bangladesh is already considered as one of the most As affected territories, where As contamination in the groundwater is key environmental disasters. Recently besides As, presence of high level of manganese (Mn) in drinking water has also got attention due to its neurological effect on children. It becomes very essential to formulate a reliable safe drinking water management policy to reduce the health threat caused by drinking As and Mn contained groundwater. The development of a simple low cost technique for the determination of As and Mn in drinking water wells is an important step to formulate this policy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potentiality of tubewell platform color as low-cost, quick and convenient screening tool for As and Mn in drinking water wells (n=272) in a highly arsenic affected area on Matlab, Southeastern Bangladesh.

    The result shows strong correlation between the development of red color stain on tubewell platform and As enrichment in the corresponding tubewell water compared to WHO drinking water guideline (10 μg/L) as well as Bangladesh drinking water standard (BDWS) (50 μg/L), with certainty values of 98.7% and 98.3% respectively. The sensitivity and efficiency of red colored platforms to screen high As water in tubewells are 98% and 97% respectively at 10 μg/L, whereas at cut-off level of 50μg/L both sensitivity and efficiency values are 98%. This study suggests that red colored platform could be potentially used for primary identification of tubewells with elevated level of As and thus could prioritise sustainable As mitigation management in developing countries. Due to lack of tubewells with black colored platform in the study area, the use of platform color concept for screening of Mn enriched water in the wells have not been tested significantly, which requires further study.

    Acknowledgements: This study was carried out with support from the Liuuaeus-Palme Academic Exchange Programme supported by International Programs Office (IPK) and the KTH led joint collaborative action research project on Sustainable Arsenic Mitigation- SASMIT (Sid Contribution 750000854).

  • 3.
    Aullón Alcaine, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Schulz, C.
    Universidad Nacional de la Pampa, Argentina.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    University of Southern Queensland, Australia.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Physics.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholms Universitet, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Geogenic arsenic and fluoride in shallow aquifers of northeastern La Pampa, Argentina: mobility constraints2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High concentrations of geogenic arsenic (As) and fluoride (F-) in groundwater have been reported at elevated concentrations in different parts of the Chaco-Pampean Plain, in Argentina, where more than 2 million people may be exposed to high levels of these toxic elements through drinking water. Groundwater from the shallow aquifer is far exceeding the permissible WHO Standard limits of 10 μg/L for As and 1.5 mg/L for fluoride, as well as the Argentinean Standard limit of 50 μg/L for As. Geogenic As results due to the weathering of ash originated by volcanic eruptions from the Andean Cordillera and transported by wind and deposited along with the sediments and also as discrete layers and lenses over large geographical area containing around 90% of rhyolitic glass. Groundwater is hosted in a sandy silty interconnected system of aquifers and aquitards within the The Pampean aquifer. A total of 44 groundwater samples were collected from the shallow aquifers in NE of La Pampa province. Two rural areas covering an area of 600km2 in Quemú Quemú (QQ) and 300km2 in Intendente Alvear (IA) were investigated in the present study. Groundwater was circum-neutral to alkaline (pH 7.43-9.18), predominantly oxidizing (Eh ~0.24 V) with widely variable EC range (456-11,400 μS/cm). The major cation dissolved in groundwater was Na+, while the predominant anions were HCO3-, Cl- and SO42-, respectively. Water type in QQ was mostly Na-HCO3- while in IA, the composition differed between Na-HCO3- and Na-Cl-SO42- water types. Groundwater composition showed high degree of mineralization and high salinity evidenced by high EC. In discharge areas, high evaporation rates result in high salinity of shallow groundwater and visible salts incrustations on the surface of the lakes. Elevated concentrations of NO3- and PO43- observed in some wells indicated possible anthropogenic contamination. Total As concentration in groundwater from QQ ranged from 5.58 to 535 μg/L, where 94% of the wells exceeded the WHO standard limit for safe drinking water of 10 μg/L, and 56% of the wells exceeded the old Argentine standard limit of 50 μg/L. F- concentrations revealed heterogeneity and high concentrations in some wells (0.5-14.2 mg/L), 78% of samples in QQ study area exceeded the WHO standard limit of 1.5 mg/L. Under oxidizing conditions and neutral to alkaline pH, arsenate (AsV) species predominated, mainly in HAsO42- forms. As "hotspots" indicated locally contamination and correlated positively with F-, HCO3-, B and V and showed negative correlation with salinity, dissolved Fe, Al and Mn. The mechanisms involved in the mobilization of As in the shallow aquifers are controlled by the rise of pH, variations in Eh conditions and the presence of competitor ions (HCO3-, PO43-, Si, V oxyanions). Geochemical processes like adsorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution and redox reactions may trigger to As mobilization in the shallow aquifers of La Pampa region.

  • 4.
    Aullón Alcaine, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Schulz, C.
    Mörth, C. M.
    Distribution and mobility of geogenic arsenic in the shallow aquifers of the northeast of La Pampa, Argentina2012In: Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic, As 2012 - 4th International Congress: Arsenic in the Environment, 2012, p. 132-134Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater contamination with elevated Arsenic (As) and other toxic trace elements has been studied in the central part of the vast Chaco-Pampean Plain, in the city of Quemú Quemú, northeastern La Pampa, Argentina. The groundwater samples were mostly alkaline with pH ranging up to 9.18, oxidizing and characterized by high EC. The concentration of total As (5.58-535 μg/L) and fluoride (0.5-14.2 mg/L) in some samples exceeded the recommended WHO drinking water guideline and the Argentine national drinking water standard. Arsenic was positively correlated with bicarbonate (HCO 3 -), Boron (B), Fluoride (F) and Vanadium (V). Long-term consumption of the groundwater could pose a severe health threat for the local community.

  • 5.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    SINGH, NANDITA
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Koku, John
    Dept. of Geography & Environment, University of Ghana.
    Contamination of water resources in Takwa mining area of Ghana: Linking technical, social-economic and gender dimensions2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ghana is Africa’s second largest producer of gold with gold deposits in western part of the country. There are seven large-scale mines and 168 small-scale mining concessions valid in the region. Wassa West District is an important mining area, with Tarkwa as administrative capital. In recent years, the area has been exposed to lead, cadmium, arsenic, mercury and cyanide. Both small and large-scale mining industries have reportedly contaminated rivers, streams, dug wells and boreholes with heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, mercury and cyanide. There has been significant adverse impact upon health, economy, and social life that may be felt differently by women and men, raising the question of sustainable access to safe water as a millennium development goal (MDG) in the area.

    A multi-disciplinary approach was adopted in the project with distinct work components on the technical as well as on social, gender and policy aspects. It also aimed to suggest integrated strategies to address the problem so as to ensure achievement of the MDGs. Based upon a field study in 37 local communities coupled with water and sediment analysis from the area, the research indicated the existence of not only higher levels of metal contaminants in local water resources in Tarkwa area, particularlymanganese and iron, but also arsenic and aluminium in some wells. However, water resources, particularly groundwater is currently safe for human consumption but the spillages of cyanide and other effluents into surface streams have health and ecological implications. Levels of mercury in stream sediments are high with a clear risk of methylation of the mercury and transfer in the food chain via fish to humans.

    Regarding the impact of mining, it was found that for women who are the primary domestic water managers, contamination of local water sources has forced them to fetch water from greater distances, and livelihoods are hampered due to the fish loss through cyanide spillages in streams. Another finding was the lack of trust and rising water conflicts between mining authorities and the local communities. Regarding the policy aspects underlying the problem, it was found that there is a lack of coordination between the 3 policy areas, namely, rural water supply, mining, and environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental protection to the detriment of women as water users and domestic water managers. While impact of mining is increasingly seen as an issue of human rights violation, little is being done to strengthen participatory approaches especially involving women in rural water supply programs. The detailed analysis of the EIA regulations reveals that most mining have not undertaken any comprehensive EIA guiding their operations.

    A number of recommendations have emerged from the integrated perspective attempted to be developed through this research. These include a need for further in-depth explorations on the situation of contamination in groundwater and surface waters as well as stream sediments in the area; the need to resolve the situations of water conflicts between the local communities and the mining authorities by promoting greater public participation; and the need to minimize the gaps between the three related policy frameworks. Also, there is a necessity to strengthen environmental compliance on part of the mining companies so as to uphold the quality of water resources in the area.

  • 6. Battaleb-Looie, S.
    et al.
    Moore, F.
    Jafari, H.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Ozsvath, D.
    Hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwaters with excess fluoride concentrations from Dashtestan, South of Iran2012In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 1173-1182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogeochemical investigations were carried out in the Dashtestan, the eastern part of Borazjan, with a focus on fluoride content. The study area is underlain by a complex geology that is dominated by three lithological units, namely marl, alluvial sediments, and carbonate rocks. To assess the major geochemical factors controlling the fluoride enrichment in water, 37 groundwater and 12 surface water samples were collected from the three lithological units. Fluoride concentrations ranged up to 3 mg/L, and average concentrations varied from 1.12 (in carbonate aquifers) to 1.73 (in alluvial aquifers) to 1.82 mg/L (in marl aquifers). To study the influence of rocks and soils on groundwater quality, an additional 41 soil and rock samples were also taken and analyzed for fluoride. The order of average fluoride content in both rocks and soils is: marl > alluvial sediments > limestone, which confirms that marl is a likely source of fluoride.

  • 7. Battaleb-Looie, S.
    et al.
    Moore, F.
    Malde, M. K.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Fluoride in groundwater, dates and wheat: Estimated exposure dose in the population of Bushehr, Iran2013In: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, ISSN 0889-1575, E-ISSN 1096-0481, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 94-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study was to estimate the daily fluoride intake for residents of Bushehr province in southern Iran by determining their exposure to fluoride through consumption of drinking water, dates and wheat. The fluoride concentration of drinking water in this region varies between 0.5 and 3.0mg/L, with an average of 1.6mg/L; and 44.4% of the drinking water exceed the guideline value of 1.5mg/L recommended by WHO. The average fluoride content of dates is 10.0mg/kg; whereas wheat roots and shoots contain an average of 30.0 and 19.0mgF-/kg, respectively. The estimated intake from drinking water is 0.12mg/kg/d for children (20kg body weight) and 0.05mg/kg/d for adults (70kg body weight). The total estimated fluoride intake (from drinking water and dates) for children is 0.17mg/kg/d. Thus, dates contribute an average 30% to the daily fluoride intake in the population. The maximum estimated fluoride intake (from dates and drinking water) for children and adults are 3.4 and 1.6 times higher, respectively, than the minimum risk level of 0.05mg/kg/d calculated by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

  • 8. Battaleb-Looie, Sedigheh
    et al.
    Moore, Farid
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ketabdari, Mohammad Reza
    Geological sources of fluoride and acceptable intake of fluoride in an endemic fluorosis area, southern Iran2012In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, ISSN 0269-4042, E-ISSN 1573-2983, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 641-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is the first attempt to put forward possible source(s) of fluoride in the Dashtestan area, Bushehr Province, southern Iran. In response to reports on the high incidence of dental fluorosis, 35 surface and groundwater samples were collected and analysed for fluoride. The results indicate that dissolved fluoride in the study area is above the maximum permissible limit recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). An additional 35 soil and rock samples were also collected and analysed for fluoride, and rock samples were subjected to petrographic investigations and X-ray diffraction. The results of these analyses show that the most likely source for fluoride in the groundwater is from clay minerals (chlorite) and micas (muscovite, sericite, and biotite) in the soils and rocks in the area. We also note that due to the high average temperatures all year round and excessive water consumption in the area, the optimum fluoride dose level should be lower than that recommended by the WHO.

  • 9. Bhattacharya, Aparajita
    et al.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Jacks, Gunnar
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Morth, Magnus
    Environmental assessment of abandoned mine tailings in Adak, Vasterbotten district (northern Sweden)2006In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 1760-1780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sulfide-rich mine tailings in Adak that are exposed to weathering cause acid mine drainage characterized by low PH (2-4) and high SO4 (UP to 800 mg L-1). Surface water, sediment and soil samples collected in this study contain higher concentrations of As, Cu, Fe and Zn, compared to the target and/or intervention limits set by international regulatory agencies. In particular, high As concentrations in water (up to 2900 mu g L- 1) and sediment (up to 900 mg kg(-1)) are of concern. There is large variability in trace element concentrations, implying that both physical (grain size) and chemical factors (pH, secondary phases as sulfides, Al-oxides or clay minerals) play an important role in their distribution. The low PH keeps the trace elements dissolved, and they are transported farther downstream. Trace element partition coefficients are low (log K-d = 0.3-4.3), and saturation indices calculated with PHREEQC are < 0 for common oxide and sulfidic minerals. The sediment and soil samples indicate an enhanced pollution index (up to 17), and high enrichment factors for trace elements (As up to 38,300; Zn up to 800). Finally, leaves collected from different plant types indicate bioaccumulation of several elements (As, Al, Cu, Fe and Zn). However, some of the plants growing in this area (e.g., Salix, Equisetum) are generally resistant to metal toxicity, and hence, liming and phytoremediation could be considered as potential on-site remediation methods.

  • 10.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Ahmed, K.M.
    Hasan, M.A.
    Broms, S.
    Fogelström, J.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Sracek, O.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Routh, J.
    Mobility of arsenic in groundwater in a part of Brahmanbaria district, NE Bangladesh2006In: Managing Arsenic in the Environment: From soil to human health / [ed] Naidu, R., Smith, E., Owens, G., Bhattacharya, P. Nadebaum. P., Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing , 2006, p. 95-115Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Nath, B.
    Chatterjee, D.
    Mukherjee, A.
    Tubewell platform color: Assessment of a tool for rapid screening of arsenic and manganese in well water2012In: Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic, As 2012 - 4th International Congress: Arsenic in the Environment, Taylor & Francis Group, 2012, p. 515-518Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study attempts to make a statistical comparison between Tubewell (TW) platform color and the level of Arsenic (As) and Manganese (Mn) concentration in groundwater abstracted from a set of 423 Tubewells (TWs) in Chakdaha Block of Nadia District, West Bengal, India to validate platform color as a screening tool for both As and Mn in groundwater. The results indicate that water extracted from TWs with black colored platform in 93% cases was safe for As while water extracted from TWs with red colored platform is contaminated with As with 38% certainty, compared to drinking water standard of India (50 ÎŒg/L). At this standard the respective efficiency, sensitivity and specificity of the tool are 65, 85 and 59%. If WHO drinking water guideline (10 ÎŒg/L) is considered, the certainty increases to 73% and 84% respectively for black and red colored platform with respective efficiency, sensitivity and specificity values of 79, 77 and 81%. Furthermore, the black colored platform with 78% certainty indicates well water is enriched with Manganese (Mn), while red colored platform indicates water is low in Mn with 64% certainty evaluated against Indian national standard of 300 ÎŒg/L. This study demonstrates that platform color can be potentially used as an initial screening tool for As and Mn, to assess the safe water acess for drinking purposes.

  • 12.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani-741 235, India.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Occurrence of arsenic-contaminated groundwater in alluvial aquifers from delta plains, eastern India: Options for safe drinking water supply1997In: International Journal of Water Resources Development, ISSN 0790-0627, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 79-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater used for drinking purposes has been envisaged as a problem of global concern. Exploitation of groundwater contaminated with arsenic within the delta plains in West Bengal has caused adverse health effects among the population within a span of 8-10 years. The sources of arsenic in natural water are a function of the local geology, hydrology and geochemical characteristics of the aquifers. The retention and mobility of different arsenic species are sensitive to varying redox conditions. The delta plains in West Bengal are characterized by a series of meander belts formed by the fluvial processes comprising different cycles of complete or truncated fining upward sequences (sand-silt-clay). The arseniferous groundwater belts are mainly located in the upper delta plain and in abandoned meander channels. Mineralogical investigations have established that arsenic in the silty day as well as in the sandy layers occurs as coatings on mineral grains. Clayey sediments intercalated with sandy aquifers at depths between 20 and 80 m are reported as a major source of arsenic in groundwater. Integrated knowledge on geological, hydrological and geochemical characteristics of the multi-level aquifer system of the upper delta plain is therefore necessary in predicting the origin, occurrence and mobility of arsenic in groundwater in West Bengal. This would also provide a basis for developing suitable low-cost techniques for safe drinking water supply in the region.

  • 13.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Claesson, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bundschuh, J.
    Sracek, O.
    Fagerberg, Jens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Martin, R. A.
    Storniolo, A. D.
    Thir, J. M.
    Distribution and mobility of arsenic in the Rio Dulce alluvial aquifers in Santiago del Estero Province, Argentina2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 358, no 1-3, p. 97-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors controlling arsenic (As) mobilization in the aquifers of the Rio Dulce alluvial cone were investigated. Groundwater analyses show severe As contamination (average concentration of 743 mu g/L) from geogenic sources, but spatial variability of As concentration is considerable. Sequential leaching of sediment samples from unsaturated zone using de-ionised water, bicarbonate, acetate, and oxalate extracted As to different extents. Sediment oxalate extraction showed that Al and Mn oxide and hydroxides are more abundant than Fe oxides and hydroxides, in spite of similar total Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations in the sediment. Speciation calculations performed for saturated zone samples indicated that Fe and Al oxides and hydroxides are stable in groundwater, suggesting that As adsorption processes may be to some extent controlled by the presence of Fe and Al mineral phases. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that As is related to F, V, Mo, B, Si, most likely due to their common origin in volcanic ash. This suggests the volcanic ash as the probable source of groundwater As. Locally, elevated pH values linked to carbonate dissolution, cation exchange, and dissolution of silicates promote release of adsorbed As. Another factor contributing to the release of As locally may be the input of organic matter from excessive irrigation. The conceptual model of As release includes: i) As influx from dissolution of volcanic glass in volcanic ash, ii) adsorption of As on the surface of Fe and Al mineral phases in relatively low pH zones, and iii) high mobility of As in high pH zones. Future work should be focused on the determination of mineralogical forms of As in volcanic ash and on detailed investigation on factors controlling As mobility.

  • 14.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Hasan, M. A.
    Von Brömssen, M.
    Groundwater arsenic pollution: A conceptual framework for sustainable mitigation strategy2014In: One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, CRC Press, 2014, p. 881-885Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tubewells installed by local drillers, provide access of drinking water in rural Bangladesh. Significant proportion of these wells contains arsenic (As) above the WHO guideline and the Bangladesh Drinking Water Standard. Various attempts for mitigation at household and community scale have resulted in limited success, but through the local driller's initiatives, the tubewells are the source of priority drinking water supply. We have developed a concept of Sustainable Arsenic Mitigation (SASMIT) to identify and target the safe aquifers through detailed hydrogeological studies for scientific validation of the water quality with respect to the color of the shallow sediments as perceived by local drillers. Together with water quality monitoring, we have also targeted the Intermediate Depth Aquifers (IDA) for providing As-safe and low manganese (Mn) water. SASMIT intervention logic also considered the relevant socio-economic scenario, such as household distribution, poverty issues and available safe water access for prioritizing safe well installation.

  • 15.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Rahman, Shamsun Naima
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Robinson, Clare
    Nath, Bibhash
    Rahman, Marina
    Islam, M. Mainul
    Von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Chowdhury, Dulaly
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    Jakariya, Mohammed
    Persson, Lars Ake
    Vahter, Marie
    Temporal and seasonal variability of arsenic in drinking water wells in Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh: A preliminary evaluation on the basis of a 4 year study2011In: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 46, no 11, p. 1177-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal and seasonal variability of As concentrations in groundwater were evaluated in As-affected areas of Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh. Groundwater samples from 61 randomly selected tubewells were analyzed for As concentrations over a period of three years and four months (from July 2002 to November 2005) and monitored seasonally (three times a year). The mean As concentrations in the sampled tubewells decreased from 153 to 123 mu g/L during July 2002 to November 2005. Such changes were pronounced in tubewells with As concentration >50 mu g/L than those with As concentrations <50 mu g/L. Similarly, individual wells revealed temporal variability, for example some wells indicated a decreasing trend, while some other wells indicated stable As concentration during the monitoring period. The mean As concentrations were significantly higher in Matlab North compared with Matlab South. The spatial variations in the mean As concentrations may be due to the differences in local geological conditions and groundwater flow patterns. The variations in mean As concentrations were also observed in shallow (<40 m) and deep (>40 m) wells. However, to adequately evaluate temporal and seasonal variability of As concentration, it is imperative to monitor As concentrations in tubewells over a longer period of time. Such long-term monitoring will provide important information for the assessment of human health risk and the sustainability of safe drinking water supplies.

  • 16.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Brömssen, Mattias von
    Ramböll AB, 10462 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arsenic in Swedish groundwater Mobility and risk for naturally elevated concentrations: Final Report2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) in groundwater has become a serious global problem during the last few decades forseveral reasons. The chronic toxicity from drinking water has motivated the lowering of thehealth limit from 50 μg/L to 10 μg/L. Due to the rather complicated analytical chemistry of As ithas seldom been analysed in groundwater. Once the common occurrence of excess As ingroundwater has been discovered like in Bangladesh it has become evident that As in concentrationswell above the health limit can be easily mobilized from very moderate amounts in the aquifermaterial under specific conditions. There are essentially three mechanisms of mobilization: 1)oxidation of sulphides containing As; 2) reduction of ferric compounds releasing adsorbed Asand 3) high pH conditions leading to lowered adsorption capacity of ferric and aluminium compounds.

    This study has aimed at investigating the mobilization of As under the conditions existing in Precambrianrocks and the overlying tills in Sweden. As study area the north-eastern part of theVästerbotten county was chosen. The occurrence of sulphides both in mineralisations and insome of the country rocks may infer that the risk of elevated As concentrations in groundwatermay be a bit higher there than elsewhere in Sweden. The hypothesis was that the two firstmechanisms mentioned above would be responsible for any elevated groundwater As in groundwater,thus either oxidation of sulphides or reducing conditions leading the reduction of ferrichydroxides.

    Samples were collected from drilled wells, dug wells and springs. pH, Eh and temperature weremeasured in the field and the samples were filtered through 0.20 m filters in the field. As(II) wasseparated from As(V) in the field by ion-exchangers. As redox conditions are the determinantsfor the mobilization of As the groundwaters have been classified into five redox classes followinga classification developed by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Dug wells with elevatedAs turned out to be in the oxidizing part of the classification while drilled wells were foundin all classes. This is reasonable as drilled wells often collect water from different environmentsthrough the different fracture systems the drilled wells contact. Wetland springs are found tohave moderately reducing water high in iron. While drilled wells and dug wells show a wide spectrumof As(III)/As(tot) ratios the As(III) is clearly dominant in wetland springs. Drilled wellsshowed the highest concentrations of As up to 300 μg/L and wells drilled in alkaline volcanicrocks had the highest median concentrations of As. Arsenic in wetland springs were strongly correlatedto iron. Another clear relationship was that groundwater with even low concentrations ofnitrate was low in As. Obviously the presence of nitrate indicates an oxidizing environmentwhere As is firmly adsorbed onto ferric hydroxides. There was no clear relationship with sulphateindicating that the drilled wells which made up the majority of the groundwaters often had waterof a mixed origin coming to the well via different fracture systems.

    The results indicate that As should in general be analysed in household wells as it is difficult topredict the presence of elevated concentrations from the major ion chemistry. High iron concentrationis a factor that indicates an elevated risk of As above the health limit. Nitrate on the otherhand indicates a low risk for elevated As concentration.

  • 17.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Nath, Bibhas
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani-741 235, India.
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Majumder, Santanu A.
    Bhowmick, Subhamoy K.
    Ramanathan, AL L.
    Natural Arsenic in Coastal Groundwaters in the Bengal Delta Region in West Bengal, India2010In: Management and Sustainable Development of Coastal Zone Environments / [ed] Ramanathan, A.; Bhattacharya, P.; Dittmar, T.; Prasad, B.; Neupane, B., Springer Netherlands, 2010, p. 146-160Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bengal Delta region is currently confronted with largest groundwater arsenic calamity in history of human kind (BGS-DPHE, 2001; Mukherjee and Bhattacharya, 2001; Bhattacharya et al., 2002a; McArthur et al., 2001; Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002; Mukherjee et al., 2006; Nath et al., 2005, 2007, 2008). Concentrations of arsenic in drinking water wells in the region often exceed the WHO drinking water guideline value (10 μg L-1) and the national safe limit of both India and Bangladesh for arsenic in drinking water (Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002; RGNDWM, 2002; CGWB, 1999; Bhattacharya et al., 2002a). About one third (35 million) population inhabiting in this region (West Bengal and Bangladesh), currently at risk of long-term arsenic exposure (Bhattacharya et al., 2001; RGNDWM, 2002; Chakraborti et al., 2004; Kapaj et al., 2006), are being diagnosed with a wide spectrum of adverse health impacts including skin disorders such as hyper/hypo-pigmentation, keratosis and melanosis and are also in hot-spot areas of BDP which is reflected in a rise in the number of cancer cases (Guha Mazumdar et al., 1988). The distribution pattern of arsenic occurrence in BDP is patchy and there are numerous hotspots of arsenic contamination in the semi-confined shallow Holocene aquifer (Bhattacharya et al., 1997; Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002). The scale of the problem is serious both in terms of hotspots and geographic area coverage (173 × 10 3 km2, eastern part of Hoogly-Bhagirathi/Western part of Ganga-Padma-lower Meghna flood plains).

  • 18.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Svensson, M.
    von Bromssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Genesis of arsenic enriched groundwater and relationship with bedrock geology in northern Sweden2012In: Metals and related substances in drinking water: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference, METEAU, LONDON: IWA PUBLISHING , 2012, p. 242-246Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing concern over incidents of widespread human exposure to arsenic (As) from groundwater sources has been noticed during the past three decades. Vaasterbotten county in northern Sweden hosts a large number of sulphide ore deposits and a number of gold deposits are recently discovered. Both are accompanied by elevated arsenic contents. Proterozoic metasediments sandwiched in the bedrock and mixed into the till contains elevated amounts of arsenic as well. During the present study about 80 groundwater samples were collected from dug wells, bore-wells and springs in the Skellefte field in Vasterbotten County in northern Sweden. Data from community environmental offices were also collected and included in the study. Arsenic concentrations were elevated in borewells and wetland springs while none of the dug wells had arsenic contents above 10 mg/l. The highest content seen in borewells was 300 mg/l and in wetland springs 100 mg/l. The As(III)/As(tot) varied largely in borewells while it was mostly above 0.8 in wetland springs indicating more reducing contents in the latter. The use of a redox classification indicated that two nechanisms were involved in the mobilisation of he arsenic, oxidation of sulphides and reduction of ferric oxyhydroxides. In some cases the borewells showed a mixed pattern, indicating inflow from different environments.

  • 19.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    DEpartment of Geology, UNiversity of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.
    Arsenic in Groundwater of Bangladesh: Options for Safe Drinking Water2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study was undertaken in order to find and scientifically validate the options for arsenic safewater in Bangladesh. The study has been carried out in a geological province where most of theshallow wells have arsenic above the allowable limit for drinking water according to Bangladeshstandard. The original study plan has been modified as newer information on arsenic mobilisationand mitigation was available. Accordingly the emphasis on dug well and arsenic removal filter hadbeen shifted to other options such as geologically targeted aquifers. Also at the same time therehas been collaboration with number of other projects been carried out in and around the studyarea. Eventually the main focus of the research was shifted to capacity development in order toenhance the local capability for finding safer sources drinking water in the study area and othersimilar environments in the country.

  • 20.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Shi, Fei
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Sracek, O
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bundschuh, J
    Groundwater characteristics in the shallow aquifers of Huhhot region in Inner Mongolia, PR China: Implications on the mobilisation of arsenic2006In: Natural Arsenic in Groundwaters of Latin America: Abstract Volume / [ed] Bundschuh, J., Armienta, M.A., Bhattacharya, P., Matschullat, J., Birkle, P., Rodríguez, R., 2006, p. 11-12Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Elevated arsenic (As) concentration ingroundwater is becoming a worldwide problem. In Huhhot Alluvial Basin (HAB) in 

    Inner Mongolia, People’s Republic ofChina, a population of over a million isexposed to severe health risk due to theconsumption of groundwater with high Asconcentration. In some arsenic seriouslyaffected areas, As concentration reach 1491µg L-1, 149 times over WHO’s drinkingwater guideline value for As and exceed theChinese drinking water standard by a factorof 30 times. Due to the acute shortage ofsafe water supply and inefficient watermanagement system, people are compelledto drink groundwater with high As concentration. Long period ingestion of water withhigh As concentration have lead to chronicarsenic poisoning among the residents ofthe region. This present work deals with thehydrogeochemical characterisation of thegroundwater of the shallow alluvial aquifers and their implications on the chemistryand its relation to the mechanism of Asmobilization in the HAB.Groundwater samples were collected during October 2003, from 29 sites in the village of Tie Men Jing, located about 100 kmfrom Inner Mongolia’s capital Huhhot. ThepH, redox potential (Eh), temperature andelectrical conductivity were measured atsites while major ions, trace elements including As total and As (III) were analyzedin laboratories at the Royal Institute ofTechnology and Stockholm University inSweden. Groundwater is generally neutralto alkaline and the pH varies from 6.67 to8.7. The redox potential (Eh) lies between74 and 669 mV. The electrical conductivity(EC) range varies from 581 to 5200 µS cm-1. Temperature ranges from 9.1 to 13.5 °C.Depths of wells are from 4 m to 75 m.Groundwater is mostly of Na-Mg-HCO3-Cl-type and dominated by HCO3-and Cl-asthe predominant anions. The concentrationsof SO42-range between 0.3 and 172.8 mg L-1and there is a trend of decreasing sulfateconcentrations with increase in well depth.The levels of NO3-were lower than theWHO´s guideline value of 50 mg L-1in 27wells. These high NO3-concentrations 

    could have been caused by anthropogeniccontamination due to the sanitation practices.The PO43-concentration ranges between 0.04to 2.6 mg L-1.Total As concentration ranged from belowdetect limit (5.2 µg L-1) to 141 µg L-1. In 28of the investigated wells, As levels exceededWHO’s guideline value 10 µg L-1and 17wells exceeded Chinese standard 50 µg L-1.Among the 42 groundwater samples of theshallow aquifers only three complied withthe WHO drinking water guideline value forAs. The dominant species in the groundwaterwas As (III). In the 29 wells of Tie MenJing, the concentration of Fe and Mn –exceeded the WHO’s guideline value by afactor of 10.The aquifers are composed of Quaternary(mainly Holocene) fluvial and lacustrinesediments. High As occurring in anaerobicgroundwater in low-lying areas is associatedwith high concenrations of dissolved Fe andMn. Improved water supply system, employment new water and energy resources,poverty fighting and expertise cooperationare recommended to solve Huhhot basinrural area’s drinking water problem.

  • 21.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Eldvall, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Asklund, Ragnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Barmen, Gerhard
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Koku, John
    Gustafsson, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Water Management.
    Singh, Nandita
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Water Management.
    Balfors, Berit Brokking
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Hydrogeochemical study on the contamination of water resources in a part of Tarkwa mining area, Western Ghana2012In: Journal of African Earth Sciences, ISSN 1464-343X, Vol. 66-67, p. 72-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the groundwater chemistry with special concern to metal pollution in selected communities in the Wassa West district, Ghana. In this mining area, 40 ground water samples, mainly from drilled wells, were collected. The groundwaters have generally from neutral to acidic pH values and their Eh values indicate oxidising conditions. The dominating ions are calcium, sodium, and bicarbonate. The metal concentrations in the study area are generally lower than those typically found in mining regions. Only 17 wells show metal concentrations exceeding WHO guidelines for at least one metal. The main contaminants are manganese and iron, but arsenic and aluminium also exceed the guidelines in some wells probably affected by acid mine drainage (AMD). Metal concentrations in the groundwater seem to be controlled by the adsorption processes. Hydrogeochemical modelling indicates supersaturation of groundwater with respect to several mineral phases including iron-hydroxides/oxides, suggesting that adsorption on these minerals may control heavy metal and arsenic concentrations in groundwater. The area is hilly, with many groundwater flow divides that result in several local flow systems. The aquifers therefore are not strongly affected by weathering of minerals due to short groundwater residence times and intense flushing. The local character of groundwater flow systems also prevents a strong impact of acid mine drainage on groundwater systems in a regional scale.

  • 22.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    Department of Soil and Water Environment Ramböll Sweden AB.
    Targeting Arsenic-Safe Aquifers in Regions with High Arsenic Groundwater and its Worldwide Implications (TASA)2015Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Vahter, M.
    Jarsjö, J.
    Kumpiene, J.
    Ahmad, A.
    Sparrenbom, C.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Donselaar, M. E.
    Bundschuh, J.
    Naidu, R.
    Editors’ foreword2016In: 6th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, AS 2016, p. xlv-xlviArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    von Brömssen, M.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hasan, M.A.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Ahmed, K.M.
    Sracek, O.
    Jakariya, M.
    Huq, S.M.I.
    Naidu, R.
    Smith, E.
    Owens, G.
    Arsenic mobilisation in the Holocene flood plains in South-central Bangladesh: Evidences from the hydrogeochemical trends and modeling results2008In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development: Problems, Perspectives and Challenges / [ed] Bhattacharya, P., Ramanathan, AL., Mukherjee A.B., Bundschuh, J., Chandrasekharam, D. Keshari, A.K., The Netherlands: Taylor and Francis/A.A. Balkema , 2008, p. 283-299Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    von Brömssen, M.
    Jakariya, M.
    Hasan, M. A.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Jonsson, L.
    Lundell, L.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Arsenic-safe aquifer as sustainable source of drinking water supply: A case study from Matlab thana in Southeast Bangladesh2005In: Abstract Volume, The 15th Stockholm Water Symposium: Drainage Basin Management- Hard and Soft Solutions in Regional Development, 2005, p. 143-144Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jakariya, Md
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hasan, M.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Ramanathan, A.
    Chandrashekharam, D.
    Mahanta, Chandan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Husain, V.
    Targeting safe aquifers in regions with high arsenic groundwater in South Asia: Options for sustainable drinking water supply2006In: Abstract Volume-International Conference on Arsenic Contamination in Tropics (ICACT-2007) / [ed] Patel K.S., 2006, p. 18-21Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Welch, A. H.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Naidu, R.
    Arsenic in groundwater of sedimentary aquifers2004In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 163-167Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Nath, B.
    Mukherjee, A.
    Kundu, A. K.
    Mandal, U.
    Chatterjee, D.
    Potentiality of shallow brown sand aquifers as an alternative safe drinking water source in Bengal Basin2012In: Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic, As 2012 - 4th International Congress: Arsenic in the Environment, 2012, p. 67-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the regional distribution of brown sand aquifers (BSA) as well as their hydrogeochemical contrast to grey sand aquifers (GSA). The data indicated that in BSA redox status is limited to the Mn oxides reduction stage, while in GSA, Fe oxides reduction to SO 4 2- reduction processes are prevalent. Though, the concentration of dissolved As was very low (&lt;10 ÎŒg/L) in BSA, the concentration of Mn was very high (&gt;400 ÎŒg/L). Whereas in GSA, the enrichment patterns of As and Mn were opposite to that of BSA. This study suggests that underlying health risk of Mn in drinking water needs to be addressed more rigorously before advocating for mass scale exploitation of BSA as an alternative drinking water source despite of significantly low As concentration in groundwater.

  • 29.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Nath, Bibhash
    Alexanderson, Helena
    Kundu, Amit K.
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Delineation of shallow hydrostratigraphy in arsenic affected region of Bengal Basin: implication for targeting safe aquifers for drinking water supplyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Nath, Bibhash
    Alexanderson, Helena
    Kundu, Amit K.
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Shallow hydrostratigraphy in an arsenic affected region of Bengal Basin: Implication for targeting safe aquifers for drinking water supply2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 485, p. 12-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To delineate arsenic (As) safe aquifer(s) within shallow depth, the present study has investigated the shallow hydrostratigraphic framework over an area of 100 km(2) at Chakdaha Block of Nadia District, West Bengal. Drilling of 29 boreholes and subsequent hydrostratigraphic modeling has identified three types of aquifer within 50 m below ground level (bgl). Aquifer-1 represents a thick paleochannel sequence, deposited parallel to the River Hooghly and Ichamati. Aquifer-2 is formed locally within the overbank deposits in the central floodplain area and its vertical extension is strictly limited to 25 m bgl. Aquifer-3 is distributed underneath the overbank deposits and represents an interfluvial aquifer of the area. Aquifer-3 is of Pleistocene age (similar to 70 ka), while aquifer-1 and 2 represent the Holocene deposits (age <951 ka), indicating that there was a major hiatus in the sediment deposition after depositing the aquifer-3. Over the area, aquifer-3 is markedly separated from the overlying Holocene deposits by successive upward sequences of brown and olive to pale blue impervious clay layers. The groundwater quality is very much similar in aquifer-1 and 2, where the concentration of As and Fe very commonly exceeds 10 mu g/L and 5 mg/L, respectively. Based on similar sediment color, these two aquifers have jointly been designated as the gray sand aquifer (GSA), which constitutes 40% (1.84 x 10(9) m(3)) of the total drilled volume (4.65 x 10(9) m(3)). In aquifer-3, the concentration of As and Fe is very low, mostly <2 mu g/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. This aquifer has been designated as the brown sand aquifer (BSA) according to color of the aquifer materials and represents 10% (4.8 x 10(8) m(3)) of the total drilled volume. This study further documents that though the concentration of As is very low at BSA, the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines.

  • 31.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Nath, Bibhash
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Kundu, Amit K.
    Mandal, Ujjal
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Hydrogeochemical contrast between brown and grey sand aquifers in shallow depth of Bengal Basin: Consequences for sustainable drinking water supply2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 431, p. 402-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Delineation of safe aquifer(s) that can be targeted by cheap drilling technology for tubewell (TW) installation becomes highly imperative to ensure access to safe and sustainable drinking water sources for the arsenic (As) affected population in Bengal Basin. This study investigates the potentiality of brown sand aquifers (BSA) as a safe drinking water source by characterizing its hydrogeochemical contrast to grey sand aquifers (GSA) within shallow depth (<70 m) over an area of 100 km(2) in Chakdaha Block of Nadia district, West Bengal, India. The results indicate that despite close similarity in major ion composition, the redox condition is markedly different in groundwater of the two studied aquifers. The redox condition in the BSA is delineated to be Mn oxy-hydroxide reducing, not sufficiently lowered for As mobilization into groundwater. In contrast, the enrichments of NH4+, PO43-, Fe and As along with lower Eh in groundwater of GSA reflect reductive dis-solution of Fe oxy-hydroxide coupled to microbially mediated oxidation of organic matter as the prevailing redox process causing As mobilization into groundwater of this aquifer type. In some portions of GSA the redox status even has reached to the stage of SO42- reduction, which to some extent might sequester dissolved As from groundwater by co-precipitation with authigenic pyrite. Despite having low concentration of As in groundwater of the BSA the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines, which warrants rigorous assessment of attendant health risk for Mn prior to considering mass scale exploitation of the BSA for possible sustainable drinking water supply.

  • 32.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Nath, Bibhash
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Kundu, Arnit K.
    Mandal, Ujja
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Testing tubewell platform color as a rapid screening tool for arsenic and manganese in drinking water wells2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 46, p. 434-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A low-cost rapid screening tool for arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in groundwater is urgently needed to formulate mitigation policies for sustainable drinking water supply. This study attempts to make statistical comparison between tubewell (TW)platform color and the level of As and Mn concentration in groundwater extracted from the respective TW (n = 423), to validate platform color as a screening tool for As andMnin groundwater. The result shows that a black colored platform with 73% certainty indicates that well water is safe fromAs, while with 84% certainty a red colored platform indicates that well water is enriched with As, compared to WHO drinking waterguideline of 10 μg/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 79%, 77%, and 81%, respectively.However, the certainty values become 93% and 38%, respectively, for black and redcolored platforms at 50 μg/L, the drinking water standards for India and Bangladesh. The respective efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity are 65%, 85%, and 59%. Similarly for Mn, black and red colored platform with 78% and 64% certainty, respectively, indicates that wellwater is either enriched or free from Mn at the Indian national drinking water standard of 300 μg/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 71%, 67%, and 76%, respectively. Thus, this study demonstrates that TWplatform color can bepotentially used as an initial screening tool for identifying TWs with elevated dissolved As andMn, tomake further rigorous groundwater testing more intensive and implement mitigation options for safe drinking water supplies.

  • 33.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Neidhardt, Harald
    Kundu, Amit K.
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Berner, Zsolt
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Spatial, vertical and temporal variation of arsenic in the shallo aquifers of Bengal Basin: Controlling geochemical processesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. University of Kalyani, India .
    Neidhardt, Harald
    Kundu, Amit K.
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. University of Kalyani, India .
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Berner, Zsolt
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Spatial, vertical and temporal variation of arsenic in shallow aquifers of the Bengal Basin: Controlling geochemical processes2014In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 387, p. 157-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed understanding of the geochemical processes that regulate the spatial, temporal and vertical variation of dissolved arsenic (As) in shallow aquifers (<50 m) is a prerequisite for sustainable drinking water management in the Bengal Basin. The present study conducted at Chakdaha Block of the Nadia District, West Bengal, India, combined a high resolution hydrogeochemical monitoring study over 20 months from two sets of piezometers (2 x 5) to the sediment geochemistry at areas with high (average:146 mu g/L, n = 5) and relatively low (average: 53.3 mu g/L, n = 10) dissolved As concentrations in groundwater. The determination of the isotopic composition of delta H-2 and delta O-18 in groundwater of the two sites indicated the recharge of evaporative surface water to the aquifer. The concentrations of major aqueous solutes (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3- and Cl-) and electrical conductivity were considerably higher in wells at the high As site compared to the low As site. Additionally, at the high As site, the major ions, Fe, SO42-, electrical conductivity, delta H-2 and delta O-18 showed markedly greater enrichment in the shallowest part (<24 m) of the aquifer compared to the deeper part, reflecting vertical layering of groundwater composition within the aquifer. The oxidation of pyrites has been attributed to the high rate of mineral dissolution resulting in such greater enrichments in this part of the aquifer. In addition, the anthropogenic input with recharge water possibly increased the concentrations of Cl- in this part of the aquifer. The vertical layering of groundwater was absent in the aquifer at the low As site. The absence of such layering and relatively low major ion concentrations and electrical conductivity could be linked to the enhanced aquifer flushing and decreased water-ediment interactions influenced by local-scale groundwater abstraction. The seasonal variations of As concentrations in groundwater were observed only in the shallowest part of the aquifers (<30 m). Furthermore, the As concentrations in groundwater at the uppermost part of the shallow aquifers (<21 m) increased continuously over the monitoring period at both sites. This study supports the view that the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides coupled with competitive PO43- sorption reactions in the aquifer sediment enriches As in groundwater of the Bengal Basin. However, the additional Fe released by the weathering of silicate minerals, especially biotite, or the precipitation of Fe as secondary mineral phases such as siderite, vivianite and acid volatile sulfides may result in the decoupling of As and Fe enrichment in groundwater. The redox zonation within the aquifer possibly regulates the vertical distribution of As in the groundwater.

  • 35.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jakariya, Md
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Litter, M.I.
    Garcia, M.E.
    Arsenic-safe aquifers as a socially acceptable source of safe drinking water: What can rural Latin America learn from Bangladesh experiences?2009In: Natural Arsenic in Groundwater of Latin America: Occurrence, health impact and remediation, The Netherlands: CRC Press/Balkema , 2009, p. 677-685Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36. Englund, David
    et al.
    Brunberg, Anna
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    A CASE STUDY OF A FRESHWATER PEARL MUSSEL (MARGARITIFERA MARGARITIFERA) POPULATION IN CENTRAL SWEDEN2008In: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, ISSN 0435-3676, E-ISSN 1468-0459, Vol. 90A, no 4, p. 251-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the Margaritifera margaritifera populations in Sweden are not reproducing. Land use such as forestry, eutrophication and water regulation for hydropower are commonly reported causes for the absence of reproduction. A brook with a very dense population of pearl mussels has been investigated with regard to the age distribution of the population and their habitat, in order to discover the reason for the absence of reproduction. The population consisted almost entirely of old mussels with very few young ones. The water flow and chemistry of the water are very stable and well buffered, due to a large glacifluvial deposit in the catchment area. The substrate in the stream is favourable and well aerated to a depth of at least 15 cm. Forestry has been practised with care for at least the last 15 years to avoid siltation of the stream sediments. The most likely reason for the lack of reproduction seems to be the water regulation of the main stream introduced 60 years ago, which has left the main stream dry seasonally. This is likely to have affected the population of brown trout which is the host for the first life-stage of the mussels, the glochidia.

  • 37. Faltmarsch, Rasmus
    et al.
    Osterholm, Peter
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Chemical composition of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) grown on acid sulfate soils2010In: Journal of Plant Nutrition And Soil Science/Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernahrung und Bodenkunde, ISSN 1436-8730, E-ISSN 1522-2624, Vol. 173, no 3, p. 423-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of soil geochemistry on the concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, P, Co, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Fe in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) grown on acid sulfate (AS) soils in Western Finland. A total of 11 topsoil (0-20 cm) and corresponding cabbage samples and three whole-soil profiles (approximate to 0-260 cm) were collected on three agricultural fields. The concentrations of Co and Zn in cabbage were correlated with the NH4Ac-extractable (easily available) concentrations in the topsoil, indicating that the uptake of these elements in cabbage is largely governed by soil geochemistry. Yet, the concentrations of Co and Zn in cabbage were not in general elevated relative to that of Finnish average values, although some AS soils showed enriched concentrations of these metals in the soil and cabbage. Significant geochemical differences (e.g., oxidation depth, organic-matter and S content, pH) were observed among the studied AS soils, while, on the other hand, the concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, P, Ni, Mn, Cu, and Fe in cabbage were relatively similar. The hydroxylamine-extractable concentrations of these elements in the topsoil were not correlated to those in cabbage, suggesting that uptake is not governed by the oxide-bound fraction of these elements in the soil. Similarly, the easily available concentrations of Ca, P, Ni, Mn, Cu, and Fe in the topsoil were not correlated to those in cabbage, indicating that uptake is independent of the easily available concentrations in the soil. Hence, it is suggested that cabbage can regulate and thus optimize its concentrations of Ca, P, Ni, Mn, Cu, and Fe. Oxidation depth affected neither the easily available concentrations of Co, Ni, Zn, and Mn in the topsoil nor the concentrations in cabbage. However, the subsoil with a lower oxidation depth, which is to a smaller extent affected by leaching, may partly be enriched in these metals. Nevertheless, these showed no increased concentrations in cabbage. Based on these findings, it is suggested that the large amounts of metals mobilized in AS soils are easily lost to drains, subsequently contaminating nearby waterways and estuaries whereas they are only partly enriched in cabbage and other previously studied crops (oat).

  • 38.
    Fältmarsch, Rasmus
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Department of Geology and Mineralogy.
    Österholm, Peter
    Åbo Akademi University, Department of Geology and Mineralogy.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Chemical composition of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L) grown on acid sulphate soils2010In: Journal of Plant Nutrition And Soil Science/Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernahrung und Bodenkunde, ISSN 1436-8730, E-ISSN 1522-2624, Vol. 173, no 3, p. 423-433Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39. Guha, D. K.
    et al.
    Henkel, Herbert
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Abandoned on-shore deep wells: a potential for geothermal energy resource for rural Bangladesh2005In: Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2005: paper 2214, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Gårdestedt, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Plea, Mama
    Nilsson, Gertrud
    Jacks, Birgitta
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Zinc in Soils, Crops, and Meals in the Niger Inland Delta, Mali2009In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 334-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc deficiency is a problem in developing countries and not least so in Africa. This concerns both agriculture and human food provision. Zinc deficiency in soils may severely decrease yields, whereas insufficient zinc in food intake primarily affects the immune defense, notably in children. The present investigation concerned zinc availability in soils, crops, and food in the Niger inland delta in Mali. Agricultural soils are largely deficient in plant-available zinc, however, soils in close vicinity to habitation show elevated zinc concentrations. The zinc concentrations in crops are low; in rice, they are about half of reference ranges. Zinc intake assessed from a number of sampled meals was about half the recommended requirement. When zinc concentration is higher phytate was also high, which made the zinc less available. In spite of a recorded sufficient intake of iron, anemia is common and is most likely because of the high phytate concentration in the cereal-dominated diet. Increasing zinc and iron availability would be possible through the use of malting, fermentation, and soaking in food preparation. Finally, in the long run, any trace element deficiency, especially that of zinc in agricultural soils needs to be amended by addition of appropriate amounts in commercial fertilizers.

  • 41.
    Halder, Dipti
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhowmick, S.
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Chatterjee, D.
    Nriagu, J.
    Guha Mazumder, D. N.
    Šlejkovec, Z.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Risk of arsenic exposure from drinking water and dietary components: Implications for risk management in rural Bengal2013In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 1120-1127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the risk of arsenic (As) exposure to the communities in rural Bengal, even when they have been supplied with As safe drinking water. The estimates of exposure via dietary and drinking water routes show that, when people are consuming water with an As concentration of less than 10 μg L-1, the total daily intake of inorganic As (TDI-iAs) exceeds the previous provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) value of 2.1 μg day-1 kg-1 BW, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 35% of the cases due to consumption of rice. When the level of As concentration in drinking water is above 10 μg L-1, the TDI-iAs exceeds the previous PTDI for all the participants. These results imply that, when rice consumption is a significant contributor to the TDI-iAs, supplying water with an As concentration at the current national drinking water standard for India and Bangladesh would place many people above the safety threshold of PTDI. We also found that the consumption of vegetables in rural Bengal does not pose a significant health threat to the population independently. This study suggests that any effort to mitigate the As exposure of the villagers in Bengal must consider the risk of As exposure from rice consumption together with drinking water.

  • 42.
    Halder, Dipti
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhowmick, S.
    University of Kalyani, India.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Nriagu, Jerome O.
    University of Michigan, USA.
    Guha Mazumder, D.N.
    DNGM Research Foundation, India.
    Slejkovec, Z.
    Josef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    University of Kalyani, India.
    Assessment of arsenic exposure risk from drinking water and dietary component in West Bengal, India2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current status of arsenic (As) exposure risk from drinking water and different dietary components in rural Bengal has been compared in the present study. This study shows that the consumption of rice is the major source of dietary intake of inorganic As among the population when they are drinking As safe water. Consumption of vegetables does not pose a significant health threat to the population independently; it nevertheless can increase the total daily intake of inorganic As (TDI-iAs). The results indicate that when people are drinking water with As concentration <10 μg L-1, in 35% of the cases the total daily intake of inorganic As (TDI-iAs) exceeds the previous provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) value of 2.1 μg day-1 kg-1 BW, recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). It should be mention here that the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives (JECFA) has withdrawn the previous PTDI value in their 72nd meeting because PTDI value was in the lower range of bench mark dose level for 0.5% increased of lung cancer. However, Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods (CCCF) has argued that TDI-iAs below BMDL0.5 does not indicates that there is no risk and this motivated us to compare TDI-iAs of the participants with the previous PTDI value of 2.1 μg day-1 kg-1 bw. At the As concentration level <10 μg L-1in drinking water, the consumption of rice is the major source of daily intake of inorganic As. When As concentration in drinking water exceeds 10 μg L-1, drinking water and rice consumption contributes almost equally (~40% from rice, ~50% from drinking water, and 10% from vegetables according to median DI-iAs) and TDI-iAs exceeds previous PTDI for all the participants. The relative contribution of daily intake of iAs from drinking water (DI-iAs-DW) largely predominates over daily intake of iAs from rice (DI-iAs-R) when As concentration in drinking water exceeds 50 μg L-1. This study implies that when consumption of rice contributes significantly to the TDI-iAs, supply of drinking water to the population considering national drinking water standard of India and Bangladesh as a safety measure for As might compound the As exposure largely by increasing TDI-iAs. Thus it can be concluded that any effort to mitigate the As poisoning of rural villagers in Bengal must look beyond the drinking water and consider all the routes of exposure.

  • 43.
    Halder, Dipti
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Slejkovec, Zdenka
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Nriagu, Jerome
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Arsenic species in raw and cooked rice: Implications for human health in rural Bengal2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 497, p. 200-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares the concentrations of total and different species of arsenic (As) in 29 pairs of raw and cooked rice samples collected from households in an area of West Bengal affected by endemic arsenicism. The aim is to investigate the effects of indigenous cooking practice of the rural villagers on As accumulation and speciation in cooked rice. It is found that inorganic As is the predominant species in both raw (93.8%) and cooked rice (88.1%). Cooking of rice with water low in As (<10 mu g L-1) significantly decreases the total and inorganic As content in cooked rice compared to raw rice. Arsenic concentration is mainly decreased during boiling of rice grains with excess water. Washing of rice grains with low As water has negligible effect on grain As concentration. The study suggests that rice cooking with low As water by the villagers is a beneficial risk reduction strategy. Despite reductions in As content in cooked rice because of cooking with low As water, the consumption of cooked rice represents a significant health threat (in terms of chronic As toxicity) to the study population.

  • 44.
    Halder, Dipti
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Šlejkovec, Zdenka
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Nriagu, Jerome
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Variation of arsenic species in raw and cooked rice: Implications for human health in rural BengalManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Hasan, M. Aziz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Geological controls on groundwater chemistry and arsenic mobilization: Hydrogeochemical study along an E-W transect in the Meghna basin, Bangladesh2009In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 378, no 1-2, p. 105-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogeochemical investigations along an E-W transect in the middle Meghna basin show groundwater chemistry and redox condition vary considerably with the change in geology. Groundwater in the Holocene shallow (< 150 m bgl) alluvial aquifer in western part of the transect is affected by high arsenic concentration (As > 10 mu g/l) and salinity. On the other hand, groundwater from the Pliocene Dupi Tila sandy aquifer in the eastern part is fresh and low in As (< 10 mu g/l). The Holocene shallow aquifers are high in dissolved As. HCO3-, Fe and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), but generally low in SO2- and NO3-. High HCO3- concentrations (250-716 mg/l) together with high DOC concentrations (1.4-21.7 mg/l) in these aquifers reflect active sources of degradable natural organic matter that drives the biogeochemical process. There is generally de-coupling of As from other redox-sensitive elements. In contrast, the Pliocene aquifers are low in As, HCO3- and DOC. Molar ratio of HCO3-/H4SiO4 suggests that silicate weathering is dominant in the deeper Holocene aquifers and in the Pliocene aquifers. Molar ratios of Cl-/HCO3- and Na+/Cl- suggest mixing of relict seawater with the fresh water as the origin of groundwater salinity. Speciation calculations show that saturation indices for siderite and rhodochrosite vary significantly between the Holocene and Pliocene aquifers. Stable isotopes (delta H-2 and delta O-18) in groundwater indicate rapid infiltration without significant effects of evaporation. The isotopic data also indicates groundwater recharge from monsoonal precipitation with some impact of altitude effect at the base of the Tripura Hills in the east. The results of the study clearly indicate geological control (i.e. change in lithofacies) on groundwater chemistry and distribution of redox-sensitive elements such as As along the transect.

  • 46.
    Hasan, Md. Aziz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ahmed, K. Matin
    Department of Geology, University of Dhaka.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Broms, Sandra
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Fogelström, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mazumder, M. Lutful
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Arsenic in shallow groundwater of Bangladesh: investigations from three different physiographic settings2007In: Hydrogeology Journal, ISSN 1431-2174, E-ISSN 1435-0157, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 1507-1522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Occurrences of arsenic (As) in the Bengal Basin of Bangladesh show close relationships with depositional environments and sediment textures. Hydrochemical data from three sites with varying physiography and sedimentation history show marked variations in redox status and dissolved As concentrations. Arsenic concentration in groundwater of the Ganges Flood Plain (GFP) is characteristically low, where high Mn concentrations indicate redox buffering by reduction of Mn(IV)-oxyhydroxides. Low DOC, HCO3-, NH4+ and high NO3- and So(4)(2-) concentrations reflect an elevated redox status in GFP aquifers. In contrast, As concentration in the Ganges Delta Plain (GDP) is very high along with high Fe and low Mn. In the Meghna Flood Plain (MFP), moderate to high As and Fe concentrations and low Mn are detected. Degradation of organic matter probably drives redox reactions in the aquifers, particularly in MFP and GDP, thereby mobilising dissolved As. Speciation calculations indicate supersaturation with respect to siderite and vivianite in the groundwater samples at MFP and GDP, but groundwater in the GFP wells is generally supersaturated with respect to rhodochrosite. Values of log P-CO2 at MFP and GDP sites are generally higher than at the GFP site. This is consistent with Mn(IV)-redox buffering suggested at the GFP site compared to Fe(III)-redox buffering at MFP and GDP sites.

  • 47.
    Hasan, Md. Aziz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Department of Geology, University of Dhaka.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Hydrogeochemical evaluation of groundwater along an E-W transect in the Meghna basin, BangladeshManuscript (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Hasan, Md. Aziz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Department of Geology, University of Dhaka.
    Sikder, Arif Mohiuddin
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Stamford University, Dhanmondi, Dhaka.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University.
    Geochemistry and mineralogy of shallow alluvial aquifers in Daudkandi upazila in the Meghna flood plain, Bangladesh2009In: Environmental Geology, ISSN 0943-0105, E-ISSN 1432-0495, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 499-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shallow alluvial aquifers of the delta plains and flood plains of Bangladesh, comprises about 70% of total land area are mostly affected by elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in groundwater exposing a population of more than 35 million to As toxicity. Geochemical studies of shallow alluvial aquifer in the Meghna flood plain show that the uppermost yellowish grey sediment is low in As (1.03 mg/kg) compared to the lower dark grey to black sediment (5.24 mg/kg) rich in mica and organic matter. Sequential extraction data show that solid phase As bound to poorly crystalline and amorphous metal (Fe, Mn, Al)-oxyhydroxides is dominant in the grey to dark grey sediment and reaches its maximum level (3.05 mg/kg) in the mica rich layers. Amount of As bound to sulphides and organic matter also peaks in the dark grey to black sediment. Vertical distributions of major elements determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) show that iron (Fe2O3), aluminum (Al2O3) and manganese (MnO) follow the general trend of distribution of As in the sediments. Concentrations of As, Mn, Fe, HCO3 (-), SO4 (2-) and NO3 (-) in groundwater reflect the redox status of the aquifer and are consistent with solid phase geochemistry. Mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fitted with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) revealed dominance of crystalline iron oxides and hydroxides like magnetite, hematite and goethite in the oxidised yellowish grey sediment. Amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxides identified as grain coating in the mica and organic matter rich sediment suggests weathering of biotite is playing a critical role as the source of Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides which in turn act as sink for As. Presence of authigenic pyrite in the dark grey sediment indicates active reduction in the aquifer.

  • 49. Herbert, R.B.
    et al.
    Höckert, L.
    Von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology. Ramböll Sverige AB, Sweden .
    Friis, H.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Mine waste stabilisation with biosludge and Ca carbonate residues: column experiments2007In: Biohydrometallury: From the Single Cell to the Environment, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2007, Vol. 20-21, p. 291-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Column experiments investigated the stabilization of waste rock from Ljusnarsberg mine in Kopparberg, Sweden. In order to inhibit the generation of acidic leachate from the waste rock, biosludge and a Ca carbonate - rich residue from the paper industry were mixed with the sulfidic mine waste. The results of the column experiments indicate that the stabilization of the waste rock with the reactive amendments succeeded in maintaining a near - neutral pH in the waste rock leachate, compared to a pH 3 leachate from untreated waste rock. Copper and Zn concentrations in leachate from the untreated waste exceeded 100 mg/L, while these metals were detected at concentrations less than 0.1 and 1 mg/L, respectively, in the leachate from the treated wastes. This study indicates that the stabilization of acid - generating waste rock with biosludge and Ca carbonate residues is effective in preventing the generation of acid mine drainage; the treatment is expected to continue until the reactive amendments are exhausted.

  • 50. Hossain, M.
    et al.
    Haque, A.
    Alam, S.
    Rahman, M.
    Uddin, M. R.
    Sarwar, S. G.
    Kibria, M. G.
    Hasan, R.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Hasan, M. A.
    Alam, J.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Potentiality of intermediate depth aquifer as a source of arsenic and manganese safe tubewells in Bangladesh2012In: Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic, As 2012 - 4th International Congress: Arsenic in the Environment, Taylor & Francis Group, 2012, p. 71-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shallow tubewells excepting those installed in red/off-white sediments are mostly contaminated with high arsenic. Social survey conducted in 96 villages of Matlab, a worse-affected area of Bangladesh, reveals that only 18% of tubewells provide As-safe water. In such a condition, high Manganese in many wells is found to be an additional problem. Based on monitoring in depth-specific piezometers, drinking water wells were installed in intermediate depth aquifer around 120 m. Ninety percent of the wells installed in light grey medium sand, had arsenic concentrations below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ÎŒg/L and manganese was within the previous WHO guideline (0.4 mg/L). Availability of similar sand over this depth range could be targeted by local drillers to tap safe water at a reasonable cost. Replication trials and periodical monitoring are emphasized for validation and sustainability.

123 1 - 50 of 131
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