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  • 1.
    Carstens, Christoffer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Water Resources Engineering.
    In the Pipe or End of Pipe?: Transport and Dispersion of Water-borne Pollutants and Feasibility of Abatement Measures2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication is one of the key environmental problems of today, both in terms of complexity and magnitude. For the Baltic Sea (BS), eutrophication is an acute problem, leading to hypoxic conditions at the bottom; a situation that is sustained and amplified, when phosphorus is released from hypoxic sediments. Reducing nutrient loading is a top political priority but the present situation is believed to require active measures within the catchments and recipients to reduce both loading and adverse effects. Implementation of effective and cost-efficient abatement methods requires understanding of natural processes in watersheds, streams and recipients as well as technological expertise in order to compare the effects of measures of different kinds and locations. This thesis tries to combine process understanding of catchment transport behaviour, especially in coastal zones, and feasibility of certain technologies for reducing nutrient loading and effects of eutrophication in-situ. The over-arching theme is the fate of the individual contaminant, from injection to removal. Transport and dispersion in catchments are investigated, combining physically-based, distributed, numerical groundwater models with Lagrangian stochastic advective reactive solute (LaSAR) transport modelling. The approach is powerful in the sense that it incorporates catchment structural, geomorphological dispersion in the numerical model with hydrodynamic and sub-scale dispersion as well as uncertainty in the LaSAR framework. The study exemplifies the complex nature of transport time distributions in catchments in general and when varying source size and location, importance of dispersion parameters and retention due to molecular diffusion. It is shown that geomorphological control on dispersion is present even for relatively heterogeneous systems and that neither the mean residence time nor a statistical distribution may provide accurate representations of hydrological systems. To combat internal loading of P from sediments in-situ, large-scale aeration of deep waters, halocline ventilation, has been suggested. This study further investigates the feasibility of wave-powered devices to meet the energy demands for such an operation. It is shown that the required amount of oxygen needed to keep the sediments at oxic conditions could be provided, cheaply and efficiently, through the use of wave power.

  • 2.
    Carstens, Christoffer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Water Resources Engineering.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Water Resources Engineering.
    Hydrological dispersion in a coastal catchmentArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Carstens, Christoffer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Water Resources Engineering.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Water Resources Engineering.
    Wave-power potentialfor reducing hypoxia in the Baltic SeaArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Carstens, Christoffer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Cty Adm Board Gavleborg, S-80266 Gavle, Sweden..
    Sonnek, Karin Mossberg
    Swedish Def Res Agcy, Def Anal, S-16490 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Raty, Riitta
    Swedish Def Res Agcy, Def Anal, S-16490 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Metzger, Jonathan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Insights from Testing a Modified Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways Approach for Spatial Planning at the Municipal Level2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways (DAPP) approach has successfully been used to manage uncertainties in large infrastructure projects. However, the viability of the DAPP approach for spatial planning in smaller municipal settings is not clear. This paper examines opportunities and constraints of using adaptive pathways approaches to help small municipalities plan for future sea-level rise. The methodology was based on developing a simplified DAPP-approach, which was tested in a multiple experimental case study of spatial planning projects in three municipalities in Sweden. The results show that the approach promoted vulnerability-based thinking among the end-users and generated new ideas on how to manage the uncertain long-term impacts of future sea-level rise. However, the increased understanding of uncertainties was used to justify static, rather than adaptive, solutions. This somewhat surprising outcome can be explained by perceived legal constraints, lack of experience of adaptive pathways, and unwillingness to prescribe actions that could prove difficult to enforce in the future. More research is needed to further understand at what planning phases dynamic policy pathway approaches work best and how current barriers in legislation, practices, mind-set, organization, and resources can be overcome.

  • 5.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Water Resources Engineering.
    Carstens, Christoffer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Water Resources Engineering.
    Selroos, Jan-Olof
    Destouni, Georgia
    Water and solute transport along hydrological pathways2012In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 48, no 6, p. W06537-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Lagrangian framework for material transport along hydrological pathways is presented and consequences of statistically stationary space-time flow velocity variations on advective transport are investigated. The two specific questions addressed in this work are: How do temporal fluctuations affect forward and backward water travel time distributions when combined with spatial variability? and Can mass transfer processes be quantified using conditional probabilities in spatially and temporally variable flow? Space-time trajectories are studied for generic conditions of flow, with fully ergodic or only spatially ergodic velocity. It is shown that forward and backward distributions of advective water travel time coincide for statistically stationary space-time variations. Temporal variability alters the statistical structure of the Lagrangian velocity fluctuations. Once this is accounted for, integration of the memory function with the travel time distribution is applicable for quantifying retention. Further work is needed to better understand the statistical structure of space-time velocity variability in hydrological transport, as well as its impact on tracer retention and attenuation.

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