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  • 1.
    Barragán-Beaud, Camila
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Aalto, Finland.
    Pizarro-Alonso, A.
    Xylia, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Syri, S.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Carbon tax or emissions trading?: An analysis of economic and political feasibility of policy mechanisms for greenhouse gas emissions reduction in the Mexican power sector2018In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 122, p. 287-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides a comparative assessment of carbon-pricing instruments for the Mexican electricity sector, contrasting a carbon tax with an emissions trading scheme (ETS). The assessment is performed in terms of economic impacts and political feasibility. Model-based scenarios considering different price and quantity levels are analyzed on Balmorel-MX, a cost optimization bottom-up model of the Mexican electricity system. The political feasibility is evaluated using an online survey and interviews with representatives of relevant stakeholder groups. The assessment suggests that an ETS is the most appropriate instrument for the Mexican case. We recommend to set the cap as 31% abatement in relation to a baseline, which is suggested to be 102 MtCO2 by 2030, given the business-as-usual baseline used as reference by the Mexican government (202 MtCO2) is found to leave cost-effective abatement potential untapped. An emission trading system with such design has higher cost-efficiency and lower distributional effects than a carbon tax at equivalent ambition level (15 USD/tCO2). The political feasibility analysis confirms the assessment, as it is in line with the priorities of the stakeholder groups, allows earmarking carbon revenue and avoids exempting natural gas from carbon pricing.

  • 2. Belico dos Reis, Lineu
    et al.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Energy Technology.
    Energia Elétrica para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável2000Book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Conti, Davide
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Harahap, Fumi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Santasalo-Aarnio, Annukka
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    A techno-economic assessment for optimizing methanol production for maritime transport in Sweden2019In: Proceedings of ECOS 2019 - the 32ND International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems / [ed] Wojciech Stanek, Paweł Gładysz, Sebastian Werle, Wojciech Adamczyk, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maritime transport sector is currently highly dependent on oil-based fuels. International regulations enforce tight limits regarding NOx emissions from the exhaust gases and maximum sulphur content in the fuel, enhancing the sector interest towards the development of cleaner alternative fuels. A transition to biomass-based liquid fuels is of interest as a common solution for reducing pollutant emissions and for CO2 emissions mitigation. In this paper, a case study on Sweden analyses the potential of methanol production, using gasification of woody residues from sawmills to cover domestic and international maritime energy demand. Methanol seems to be a promising alternative to heavy and light fossil oils as maritime fuel, and sawmills residues are an abundant resource in Sweden. The study considers the entire methanol production chain, starting by assessing the availability of sawmill by-products and ending with the energy demand of final users, identified as the Swedish ports. The analysis considers two scenarios until year 2035, assuming different share of energy demand covered by methanol. When considering the production and use of biofuels, the cost for transportation of the feedstock and the final product have a great impact on the final cost. An optimization model is used to locate the methanol production plants, so to minimize the cost of the production chain. Four possible plant sizes are considered, 100, 200, 300 and 400 MW of biomass fuel thermal input. The production plant is modelled to determine the material and energy streams involved in the process and to obtain the cost and efficiency of producing methanol at the synthesis plant. The results include the final methanol cost and an estimation of the CO2 emissions reduction potential from replacing oil fuels with methanol for the assumed scenarios.

  • 4. de Carvalho, Carolina Monteiro
    et al.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    La Rovere, Emilio Lebre
    Iwama, Allan Yu
    Deforested and degraded land available for the expansion of palm oil for biodiesel in the state of Para in the Brazilian Amazon2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 44, p. 867-876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper maps the availability of deforested and degraded land in the state of Para in the eastern Amazon and discusses the feasibility of using this land for the expansion of palm crops for biodiesel production. The ultimate objective is to highlight land that is suitable for palm oil and its availability/distribution, so that the palm oil expansion envisaged by the Brazilian Government's Sustainable Palm Oil Program can be achieved in a sustainable way. The analysis is developed with the support of geoprocessing techniques that pull data together from different sources, including the Agroecological Zoning (ZAE) developed for palm oil in Brazil and degraded land data. The analysis identifies some of the challenges faced when planning and monitoring the expansion of palm oil in the Amazon, including the need for an operational concept to identify and use degraded land.

  • 5.
    Dreier, Dennis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Smart City Concepts in Curitiba - innovation for sustainable mobility and energy efficiency: Project NEWSLETTER, January 20162016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Dreier, Dennis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Smart City Concepts in Curitiba - innovation for sustainable mobility and energy efficiency: Project NEWSLETTER, November 20162016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Dreier, Dennis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Fonseca, K. V. O.
    Nieweglowski, R.
    Schepanski, R.
    Well-to-Wheel analysis of fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for conventional, hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric city buses in the BRT system in Curitiba, Brazil2018In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 58, p. 122-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study estimates Well-to-Wheel (WTW) fossil energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for six types of city buses with conventional, hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric powertrains, including two-axle, articulated and bi-articulated chassis in the BRT (Bus Rapid Transit) system in Curitiba, Brazil. Particular emphasis is put on the operation phase (Tank-to-Wheel, TTW) of the city buses using the Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR). The simulations are based on real-world driving patterns collected from Curitiba, comprising 42 driving cycles that represent city bus operation on seven BRT routes with six operation times for each. Hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric two-axle city buses use 30% and 75% less WTW fossil energy per distance compared to a conventional two-axle city bus (19.46 MJfossil,WTW/km). This gives an absolute reduction of 1115 gCO2e,WTW/km in WTW GHG emissions when operating a plug-in hybrid-electric city bus instead of a conventional two-axle city bus (1539 gCO2e,WTW/km). However, a conventional bi-articulated city bus can be environment-friendlier than hybrid-electric city buses in terms of WTW fossil energy use and WTW GHG emissions per passenger-distance, if its passenger capacity is sufficiently utilised. Nonetheless, the plug-in hybrid-electric city bus remains the most energy-efficient and less polluting option. Hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric powertrains offer the possibility to achieve much higher levels of decarbonisation in the BRT system in Curitiba than the blending mandate of 7%vol biodiesel into diesel implemented in Brazil in 2016. In addition, the simulations show that TTW energy use can considerably vary by up to 77% between different operation times, BRT routes and types of city buses. In conclusion, advanced powertrains and large passenger capacity utilisation can promote sustainability in Curitiba's BRT system. The results of this analysis provide important insights for decision makers both in Curitiba and other cities with similar conditions.

  • 8.
    Dreier, Dennis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fonseca, Keiko V. O.
    Federal University of Technology – Paraná (UTFPR), Curitiba, Brazil.
    Nieweglowski, Rafael
    Volvo Bus Corporation, Curitiba, Brazil.
    Schepanski, Renan
    Volvo Bus Corporation, Curitiba, Brazil.
    The influence of passenger load, driving cycle, fuel price and different types of buses on the cost of transport service in the BRT system in Curitiba, Brazil2018In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, p. 1-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the influence of passenger load, driving cycle, fuel price and four different types of buses on the cost of transport service for one bus rapid transit (BRT) route in Curitiba, Brazil. First, the energy use is estimated for different passenger loads and driving cycles for a conventional bi-articulated bus (ConvBi), a hybrid-electric two-axle bus (HybTw), a hybrid-electric articulated bus (HybAr) and a plug-in hybrid-electric two-axle bus (PlugTw). Then, the fuel cost and uncertainty are estimated considering the fuel price trends in the past. Based on this and additional cost data, replacement scenarios for the currently operated ConvBi fleet are determined using a techno-economic optimisation model. The lowest fuel cost ranges for the passenger load are estimated for PlugTw amounting to (0.198–0.289) USD/km, followed by (0.255–0.315) USD/km for HybTw, (0.298–0.375) USD/km for HybAr and (0.552–0.809) USD/km for ConvBi. In contrast, the coefficient of variation (Cv'>C v  Cv) of the combined standard uncertainty is the highest for PlugTw (Cv'>C v  Cv: 15–17%) due to stronger sensitivity to varying bus driver behaviour, whereas it is the least for ConvBi (Cv'>C v  Cv: 8%). The scenario analysis shows that a complete replacement of the ConvBi fleet leads to considerable higher cost of transport service on the BRT route, amounting to an increase by 64% to 139%, depending on the bus fleet composition. Meanwhile, the service quality is improved resulting in 42% up to 64% less waiting time for passengers at a bus stop.

  • 9.
    Dreier, Dennis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Fonseca, Keiko V.O.
    Federal University of Technology - Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.
    Nieweglowski, Rafael
    Volvo Bus Corporation, Curitiba, Brazil.
    Schepanski, Renan
    Volvo Bus Corporation, Curitiba, Brazil.
    Energy use and CO2 emissions of city buses in Curitiba, Brazil2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Dreier, Dennis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Ramos, Silvia Mara dos Santos
    URBS – Urbanization of Curitiba S/A, Curitiba, Brazil.
    Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Scenarios for the Bus Rapid Transit System in Curitiba, Brazil: a well-to-wheel analysis2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Friman, Eva
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Green, Ing-Marie
    SLU.
    Gustafsson, Bengt
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Havnevik, Kjell
    SLU.
    Holmgren, Per
    Hornborg, Alf
    Lunds Universitet.
    Holmgren, Karin
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Ihse, Margareta
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Liljenström, Hans
    SLU.
    Molander, Sverker
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Olsson, Lennart
    Lunds Universitet.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Rydén, Lars
    Baltic University Programme.
    Sanne, Christer
    Silveira, Semida
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Swain, Ashok
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Varför brister politikerna när det gäller miljömålen?2012In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2012-12-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Klug, Israel
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers.
    Offsetting legal deficits of native vegetation among Brazilian landholders: Effects on nature protection and socioeconomic development2017In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 68, p. 189-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian native vegetation supports essential ecosystem services and biodiversity for the global society, whileland use competition may intensify around the increasing needs for food, fibre and bioenergy. The Brazilian Forest Actof 2012 amplified a market-based mechanism for offsetting native vegetation deficits in private farmlands. Thismechanism enables a large-scale trading system allowing landholders to offset their own deficits of native vegetationby purchasing certificates associated with a surplus of native vegetation from other landholders. This mechanism is analternative for the more expensive restoration of native vegetation on own land. The launching of the mechanism nowdepends on specific regulations at state level, which may include geographical restrictions for offsetting deficits. Theaim of this study is to evaluate the effects in nature protection and socio-economic development of different offsettingimplementation alternatives. Our findings suggest that in a business-as-usual scenario the offsetting mechanism mayhave little or no additional effects on protection of native vegetation, because most of the offsetting is likely to takeplace where native vegetation is already protected by prevailing legislations. We concluded that it is possible tomaximise environmental and socio-economic returns from the offsetting mechanism without undermining productiveland. This would be possible if regulations ensure additionality in nature protection while enabling a self-sustainingmechanism for income generation for small-scale family farmers in the poorest region of Brazil, protecting biodiversityand counteracting major trade-offs between ecosystem services.

  • 13. Gan, J. B.
    et al.
    Rauscher, H. M.
    Smith, C. T.
    Ashton, S.
    Biles, L.
    Cassidy, D.
    Foster, D.
    Howell, M. R.
    Hubbard, W. G.
    Jackson, B.
    Mayfield, C.
    Mead, D. J.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Taylor, E.
    The southern US forest bioenergy encyclopedia: Making scientific knowledge more accessible2008In: Southern journal of applied forestry, ISSN 0148-4419, E-ISSN 1938-3754, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 28-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of forest biomass in sustainably managed forests in the southern United States has great potential to improve forest health, make energy supplies more secure, and increase the social and economic welfare of rural communities. The awareness and access of landowners and forestry and natural resource professionals to new knowledge and market development opportunities must be increased, and new technological advances in knowledge dissemination systems can be very useful in this connection. The Encyclopedia of Southern Bioenergy was developed within The Forest Encyclopedia Network (www. forestencyclopeclia.net/) to facilitate the transfer of useable knowledge from scientific experts in bioenergy and bio-based products to natural resource professionals, landowners, and the general public. Using the encyclopedia as a base, a team of bioenergy and extension education experts has developed several new educational products. These materials are designed as components of an overall biomass training program for the South that is being disseminated through the Southern Regional Extension Forest network.

  • 14.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Peck, Philip
    Lund University.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Larsson, Mårten
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Khedkar, Prasad
    Lund University.
    Policy Instruments Directed at Renewable Transportation Fuels: An International Comparison2013Report (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Gómez, Maria F
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Sanches-Pereira, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Technology for social inclusion: the case of electricity access in the Brazilian Amazon2013In: Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, ISSN 1848-9257, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 237-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the Social Technology concept and analyses how it can support the current Brazilian rural electrification initiative. It addresses the question: ‘can Social Technology principles serve to identify concrete tasks to overcome the challenges of universal access in the Amazon? If so, how can they be effectively incorporated into the current Brazilian rural electrification initiative?’ We conclude with the identification of two concrete actions to achieve universal access in isolated areas. First, the recognition, compilation and systematization of local knowledge are important tasks ahead. Second, effective communication channels and methods are needed to spread local knowledge and support the design, implementation, and operation of innovative solutions. Participatory activities are crucial to enable these concrete actions. We highlight the role of the government at central and local levels for the purpose of setting up the appropriate environment for these changes to happen.

  • 16.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Delivering off-grid electricity systems in the Brazilian Amazon2011In: 6th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy Water And Environment Systems, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Gómez, Maria F
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Delivering off-grid electricity systems in the Brazilian Amazon2012In: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 155-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Brazil, more than 14 million people have benefited from the rural electrification program Luz Para Todos (LPT – Light for all), mainly through grid-extension. A new off-grid model is now required if remote areas in the Amazon region are to fully benefit from the program. In this paper, we explore the institutional and financial schemes that support LPT and their suitability for delivering off-grid solutions in the Amazon region. Our conclusions draw attention to the need for more local and site specific solutions, and new regulatory frameworks to allow the participation of new actors. We argue that the uniqueness of the Amazon region justifies renewable technologies focused on local needs and potential, adaptation of the LPT institutional framework and rethinking of funding channels. An off-grid approach will enhance the inclusion of remote areas in universal access goals while adjustments will help guarantee the sustainability of the electrification program.

  • 18.
    Gómez, Maria F
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Electricity access and human development in isolated communities of the Amazon region2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Rural electrification of the Brazilian Amazon - Achievements and lessons2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 10, p. 6251-6260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian government has the ambition to provide complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to promote development and reduce inequalities. Full coverage implies the provision of electricity to 15 million people in the country by the end of 2010 through the program Luz para Todos (LPT - light for all) launched in 2003. So far, 11 million people have benefited, 2 million of which live in the Amazon. In this paper, we analyze the linkages between development and rural electrification through the Human Development Index (HDI) and within the context of the Amazon. We examine the suitability of the HDI as a planning and monitoring tool for improving energy access and development. We show that the recognition of electricity access as a driver for development has led to concrete goals for electrification, actual action and welfare improvement. Our study serves to highlight the role of LPT in the development of the Amazon region, and the specific features and achievements of the Brazilian policy for universal electrification. We conclude that some challenges related to the electrification of isolated areas still lie ahead. We finalize with a discussion on the relevance of the Brazilian experience to other developing countries.

  • 20.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The Brazilian electrification program LPT (Light for All) – what lessons have been learnt?2010In: Renewable Energy for Development, ISSN 1101-8267, Vol. 23, no 1-2, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian government aims to provide complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to promote development. Between 2003 and 2009, 11 million people have benefited from the electrification program Light for All (LPT). The success of policies for electricity access cannot be measured only in terms of the number of connections. Instead, the impact of electrification on development must be determined as a way to justify resource allocation and confirm welfare improvement. Although two million people have been connected through grid extension, one million inhabitants still lack electricity access in the Amazon. The results of LPT can be considered a great achievement for a nation that has recently been considered as a developing country. However, one million people still lack electricity in the Amazon. Other challenges ahead include concerns on the economic and social sustainability of the electrification system being put in place.

  • 21.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The institutional dimension for off-grid rural electrification in the Amazon region2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress – Sweden, 8–13 May, 2011, Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Moshfegh, Bahram, Linköping University Electronic Press, Linköpings universitet , 2011, p. 3444-3451Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian government aims at providing complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to achieve development and reduce poverty. More than 2 million people living in the Amazon have benefited from the rural electrification program Luz Para Todos (LPT – Light for all), mainly through a grid-extension approach. Yet, there is general agreement on the need for an off-grid scheme in order to supply isolated areas. How can the actual institutional framework support the process of supplying electricity to these communities so that the trend of improving electricity access and quality of life continues? We aim at exploring the existing institutional dimension connected to LPT and identifying potential forms of organization for decentralized solutions in the Amazon region. Our analysis is based on current energy policy in Brazil, existing institutional framework, achievements of LPT and potentialities of the isolated areas in terms of resources. Our conclusions draw attention to potential approaches for the next step within LPT context. We argue that the off-grid approach must be based on the uniqueness of the isolated areas in the Amazon. We emphasize the relevance of renewable energy sources in the process of supplying electricity and securing inclusion of isolated areas in universal access.

  • 22.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The last mile in the Brazilian Amazon - A potential pathway for universal electricity access2015In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 82, p. 23-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian rural electrification initiative Luz Para Todos - LPT (Light for All) has attracted attention internationally due to its ambitious targets and significant achievements in the last decade. The initiative has proved effective in its first phase, which has been developed through the extension of the grid. Yet, there are still important challenges to provide the service to inhabitants of remote areas in the Brazilian Amazon. We identify these challenges within institutional, technology, and funding structures operating within LPT. In line with these challenges, we propose a pathway to facilitate the achievement of universal electricity access in remote areas of the region. The proposed pathway is based on three key leverage points: (i) rules guiding the relationship among new agents and communities; (ii) the implementation of small-scale power generation technologies based on local resources; and (iii) optimized subsidies. It has the potential to allow (i) a better dimensioning of off-grid solutions considering local resources and realities, (ii) the creation of adapted institutions capable of implementing and operating the required systems and, (iii) an effective operation of off-grid solutions.

  • 23.
    Gómez, Maria F
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    What is the role of renewable energy in the sustainable development of remote areas of the Amazon Region?2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Gómez, Maria F
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Téllez, A.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Exploring the effect of subsidies on small-scale renewable energy solutions in the Brazilian Amazon2015In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 83, p. 1200-1214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian government aims at universal electricity access. The national rural electrification initiative has provided electricity services to more than 14 million people since 2003, mainly through grid extension. However, the initiative has not been able to reach remote areas in the Amazon, thus requiring a review of conditions for small scale off-grid power generation projects. As a result, new rules established under the national rural electrification program address the design and implementation of off-grid power generation projects with an installed capacity up to 100kW. The objective of this paper is to explore the effects of the new set of rules on the levelized cost of electricity for different power generation solutions in the Amazon. Our study shows that the new rules may be beneficial to isolated communities, as they reduce the levelized cost of electricity, favor renewable energy technologies and may contribute to reduce CO2 emissions. In addition, the new rules may help engage new actors to provide rural electrification of the Amazon region. To fully take advantage of the current scheme, action at local level is required to define the most appropriate model for small-scale power generation projects and establish synergies between concessionaires and local energy providers.

  • 25.
    Harahap, Fumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Mesfun, Sennai
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The role of oil palm biomass to meet liquid biofuels target in Indonesia2019In: Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems / [ed] Wojciech Stanek, Paweł Gładysz, Sebastian Werle, Wojciech Adamczyk, Poland, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indonesia aims at reducing the dependence on oil import by liquid biofuels consumption (i.e., biodiesel and bio-ethanol) in industry, transport and power sectors. The palm oil industry has played significant role in the development of biodiesel in the country producing crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) based biodiesel. Opportunity exists for the industry to contribute to the development of bio-ethanol program by utilising the lignocellulosic biomass such as the empty fruit bunches (EFB). This study evaluates the potential of liquid biofuels production from oil palm biomass and the domestic demand for biofuels as per biofuel blending target set by the Indonesian government. The existing infrastructures as well as the investment opportunity of each type of biofuel are analyzed. While technology for biodiesel production is proven at large scale, the bio-ethanol production from EFB is not commercialized yet. The study shows that meeting the biodiesel blending target is at risk if Indonesia continues to solely reliance on the production of CPO and PFAD based biodiesel. Palm oil industry can produce nearly 7 billion litres biodiesel from CPO and PFAD in 2025 but the biodiesel domestic demand is 30% higher. The bio-ethanol program faces higher risk. EFB based ethanol through gasification and synthesis of alcohol can contribute to around 13% of the target in 2025, however the infrastructure is not ready yet. Feedstock diversification to produce liquid biofuels should be prioritized. We recommend a review of the current plan to a more achievable targets or prolong the timeline in order to secure domestic biofuels demand while continuing export. The study provides database for future modelling exercise on multi-period optimization study of palm biofuels supply chain in Indonesia in a geographically explicit way.

  • 26.
    Harahap, Fumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Sennai, Mesfun
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Opportunities to Optimize the Palm Oil Supply Chain in Sumatra, Indonesia2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant amounts of biomass residues were generated in Indonesia. While untreated, residues emit greenhouse gases during the decomposition process. On the other hand, if efficiently utilized, these residues could be used to produce value-added products. This study investigates opportunities for harnessing the full potential of palm oil residues (i.e., empty fruit bunches, kernel shells, fiber, and mill effluent). As far as we are aware, the study is the first attempt to model the palm oil supply chain in a geographically explicit way while considering regional infrastructures in Sumatra Island, Indonesia. The BeWhere model, a mixed integer linear programming model for energy system optimization, was used to assess the costs and benefits of optimizing the regional palm oil supply chain. Different scenarios were investigated, considering current policies and new practices leading to improved yields in small-scale plantations and power grid connectivity. The study shows that a more efficient palm oil supply chain can pave the way for the country to meet up to 50% of its national bioenergy targets by 2025, and emission reductions of up to 40 MtCO2eq/year. As much as 50% of the electricity demand in Sumatra could be met if residues are efficiently used and grid connections are available. We recommend that system improvements be done in stages. In the short to medium term, improving the smallholder plantation yield is the most optimal way to maximize regional economic gains from the palm oil industry. In the medium to long term, improving electricity grid connection to palm oil mills could bring higher economic value as excess electricity is commercialized.

  • 27.
    Harahap, Fumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Palmén, Carl
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Conditions for a sustainable development of palm-oil-based biodiesel in Indonesia2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The government of Indonesia sees bioenergy as an attractive option to promote socio-economic development and improve energy security. Modernization of bioenergy can add value to existing resources and serve to meet increasing energy demand, as well as create jobs and reduce poverty. Policy efforts have given direction to this development, promoting biodiesel production and use. Indonesia is the largest palm oil producer and exporter in the world. At the same time, palm oil is the basis for both food and biodiesel production in the country. A 30% mandatory biodiesel blending target has been set for 2025. To meet the target, palm oil production needs to increase or palm oil diverted from other uses to produce biodiesel. In addition, the development of biodiesel will have to address environmental impacts, particularly land use change, and the dynamics of palm oil trade. Land allocation affects the development of the agro-industrial sector, and the capacity to deliver the mandatory targets. We investigate the land issue through a cross-sectoral analysis of four policy areas, i.e. renewable energy/biofuel, agriculture, climate and forestry. Our study examines the potential land available for biodiesel feedstock production and the potential yields that can be obtained. Preliminary results indicate that the blending target could be met from palm oil obtained from 5-7 Mha land after meeting palm oil domestic demand for food production and other industrial non-food uses. Degraded land could be used and thus no threat needs to be posed to food security, deforestation and climate change. However, to guarantee the sustainability of the development process, inconsistencies need to be addressed in the sectoral policies, areas suitable for plantation expansion need to be clearly mapped, conditions for exploration more strictly defined, and complementary policy instruments need to be put in place to promote schemes with enhanced yields and upgrading technologies over time. This research is part of the on-going program INSISTs (Indonesian Swedish Initiative for Sustainable Energy Solutions), a joint research and innovation platform established between Sweden and Indonesia. 

  • 28.
    Harahap, Fumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Cost competitiveness of palm oil biodiesel production in Indonesia2019In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 170, p. 62-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates opportunities to improve the cost competitiveness of the palm oil biodiesel industry in Indonesia. It compares costs and revenues of standalone conventional palm oil and biodiesel production with an integrated system that includes utilisation of biomass residues. Economic metrics, viz. net income, NPV, IRR, payback period and biodiesel breakeven price are evaluated. Sensitivity analyses are carried out to verify how parameter changes affect net income. The results show that the integrated concept with upgraded CPO and biodiesel processing plant (Biorefinery), which simultaneously produces biodiesel, electricity, heat and biofertiliser, can obtain an additional income of 14 USD/t-FFB compared to the Conventional System. The biorefinery system helps to reduce dependency on government subsidy for biodiesel production, and lowers the industry vulnerability to fluctuation of fossil diesel prices. The shift to modern facilities with value chain integration provides a pathway to enhance the share of renewable energy in Indonesia through increased biodiesel production and electricity generation from palm biomass residues. It may also promote resource efficiency and climate change mitigation through reduced emissions from untreated residues and fossil energy carriers. The analysis enhances understanding about potential gains and consequences of more stringent policy implementation in the country.

  • 29.
    Harahap, Fumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Integrated biorefinery vs. stand alone biodieselproduction in Indonesia – an economic analysis2017In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuel policy instruments have largely steered the expansion of the biodiesel industry in Indonesia,promoting investments and creating fuel markets. Despite the growth, biodiesel use has not yet reached thedeployment targets set by the government. Low profitability and dysfunctional markets forces some plants to operatefar below the installed production capacity, which results in a deficit of biodiesel supply for domestic markets. At thesame time, biodiesel is being exported. The current production configuration of biodiesel in a standalone biodieselplant is perceived to be unprofitable without government subsidy. Therefore, we propose a comparative economicanalysis for biodiesel production in Indonesia using two configurations: the standalone production system typicallyused at present, and an integrated bio-refinery plant. The results show that the biodiesel production cost in thebiorefinery is 13% higher compared to the production cost in a standalone plant. However, due to higher revenuesgenerated in the biorefinery (16% higher than standalone system), biorefinery concept offers more profits to theindustry. Under current economic conditions, the integrated biorefinery concept brings advantages throughimprovement of efficiency in the biodiesel production system and higher production of other valuable products suchas electricity.

  • 30.
    Harahap, Fumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Land allocation to meet sectoral goals in Indonesia – An analysis of policy coherence2017In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 61, p. 451-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land is a scarce resource affecting the implementation of many sectoral policies. In Indonesia, the expansion of palm oil plantations has led to non-sustainable land use practices in past years, particularly deforestation. More recently, the government has set ambitious targets for the adoption of biodiesel which will require expansion of oil palm plantations, thus putting further pressure on land. Meanwhile, the need to guarantee food supply, forest conservation and climate change mitigation also imply challenges when it comes to land allocation and use. This paper examines the role that land plays in the implementation of sectoral policies in Indonesia, exploring the availability of land to satisfy the multiple goals defined in national policies. We explore land competition resulting from allocations made in official policy documents starting with biofuel policy. The analysis of policy goals and coherence when it comes to land allocation is made in relation to agriculture, climate and forestry policies. We conclude that adjustments need to be made in the policies to avoid overlappings and misinterpretations when it comes to land allocation. The area made available for meeting each sectoral policy goal when taking into account cross sectoral interactions is: 14.2 Mha for agriculture, 43 Mha for climate mitigation measures, 9.2 Mha for forestry, and 20.9 Mha for biofuels. A more uniform land classification and development of a common reference database will increase transparency on land allocation and use, and help to monitor land use change, ultimately supporting the achievement of multiple national goals.

  • 31.
    Henrique, Pacini
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Consumer choice between Ethanol and Gasoline: Lessons from the Cases of Brazil and Sweden2010In: Conference proceedings 3rd International Scientific Conference on “Energy systems with IT” / [ed] Erik Dahlquist, Jenny Palm, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Howells, Mark
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Rogner, Holger
    Strachan, Neil
    Heaps, Charles
    Huntington, Hillard
    Kypreos, Socrates
    Hughes, Alison
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    DeCarolis, Joe
    Bazillian, Morgan
    Roehrl, Alexander
    OSeMOSYS: The Open Source Energy Modeling System An introduction to its ethos, structure and development2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 5850-5870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the design and development of the Open Source Energy Modeling System (OSeMOSYS). It describes the model's formulation in terms of a 'plain English' description, algebraic formulation, implementation-in terms of its full source code, as well as a detailed description of the model inputs, parameters, and outputs. A key feature of the OSeMOSYS implementation is that it is contained in less than five pages of documented, easily accessible code. Other existing energy system models that do not have this emphasis on compactness and openness makes the barrier to entry by new users much higher, as well as making the addition of innovative new functionality very difficult. The paper begins by describing the rationale for the development of OSeMOSYS and its structure. The current preliminary implementation of the model is then demonstrated for a discrete example. Next, we explain how new development efforts will build on the existing OSeMOSYS codebase. The paper closes with thoughts regarding the organization of the OSeMOSYS community, associated capacity development efforts, and linkages to other open source efforts including adding functionality to the LEAP model.

  • 33.
    Johnson, Francis X
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The transition to modern bioenergy: historical dimensions and strategic perspectives2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass is the oldest form of energy used by mankind, but in some ways it is also the newest, due to the tremendous diversity of applications that have emerged for deploying modern bioenergy systems around the world. Bioenergy can be explored in multiple scales, but carries a local dimension that links it to livelihoods and patterns of social organization. At the same time, other demands on biomass resources—food, feed and fibre—have been growing rapidly due to population and resource pressures. The historical evolution of biomass for energy therefore will differ from future paths based on the structural changes in end-uses in combination with the shift to biomass as a multidimensional resource. The role of biomass as a carbon sink also becomes a fundamental element of future biomass energy resource development.

    In this paper the strategic elements of bioenergy are examined by reference to the historical shifts in the way that biomass has been used for energy since the industrial revolution. The factors driving the shifts away from (traditional) bioenergy can then be considered in relation to the factors behind the shift towards (modern) bioenergy. The variables of special interest include the timeframe, changes in energy density and changes in carriers and markets. The approach is based on analysis of quantitative energy data sets for several countries and regions together with some key qualitative indicators. The transformative nature of biomass resources and their variation in scale and scope are also important elements in the transition process. The historical shift away from traditional biomass can offer clues as to how the return to biomass as an energy source will unfold in different world regions.

  • 34.
    Johnson, Francis Xavier
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden .
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Pioneer countries in the transition to alternative transport fuels: comparison of ethanol programmes and policies in Brazil, Malawi and Sweden2014In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, E-ISSN 2210-4232, Vol. 11, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efforts to develop alternative transport fuels and vehicles are found in countries varying tremendously in their level of economic development. In this paper, we compare the alternative fuels transition, focusing on ethanol, in three countries: Brazil, Malawi and Sweden. Each can be described as a pioneer in developing the physical and institutional infrastructure and stimulating innovation towards alternative transport fuels. We assess the transition in these pioneer countries based on niche formation and interaction with regime and landscape levels. Particular reference is made to spatial and temporal path dependencies and to the significance of cross-scale and cross-sector effects that impact the innovation process. As other countries and regions develop programmes to address the twin challenges of energy security and climate change, they can benefit from a better understanding of linkages between techno-economic and socio-technical factors in transition paths of pioneer countries, across different scales and different stages of economic development.

  • 35.
    Khan, Ershad Ullah
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Techno-economic analysis of small scale biogas based polygeneration systems: Bangladesh case study2014In: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, ISSN 2213-1388, E-ISSN 2213-1396, Vol. 7, p. 68-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to electricity, clean energy, and safe drinking water services are genuine needs of the rural poor for their welfare. These needs can be addressed either individually or in an integrated approach. Biogas digesters are promising in the rural setting and integration of biogas production with power generation and water purification is an innovative concept that could be applied in remote areas of Bangladesh. This paper presents a new concept for integrated biogas based polygeneration and analyzes the techno-economic performance of the scheme for meeting the demand of electricity, cooking energy and safe drinking water of 30 households in a rural village of Bangladesh. The specific technologies chosen for the key energy conversion steps are as follows: plug-flow digester; internal combustion engine; and air-gap membrane distillation. Mass flows and energy balance, levelized cost of producing electricity, cooking gas and safe drinking water as well as the payback period of such a polygeneration system were analyzed. The results indicate that this polygeneration system is much more competitive and promising (in terms of levelized cost) than other available technologies when attempting to solve the energy and arsenic-related problems in Bangladesh. The payback period of such system is between 2.6 and 4 years.

  • 36.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Drabik, Dusan
    Agricultural Economics and Rural Policy Group, Wageningen University, the Netherlands.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Harahap, Fumi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Analyzing the economics of palm oil biodiesel production in Indonesia2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Indonesia is the largest palm oil producer and exporter in the world and the palm oil industry has contributed significantly to the national economy and socioeconomic development. Of the total palm oil production, 69% is exported (the third most important traded commodity in the country), 17% is used in the domestic food industry, and 11% is used in biodiesel production. Aiming at reducing fossil oil dependency, diversifying energy sources, and promoting socioeconomic development, the country has enacted several rules and regulations for biofuel production. The most important is the 30% biodiesel target for transportation by 2025. The government of Indonesia also provides subsidies to palm oil feedstock producers, processing industries, and consumers. Other regulations include a new funding mechanism for biofuel subsidies, a levy on palm oil exports, and the creation of a ‘plantation fund’. Despite increased amount of palm oil feedstock production, the stipulated biodiesel mandates have not been achieved due to a lack of competitiveness and ineffective policies. Volatile international prices of petroleum, international trade/exports of palm oil, and fossil fuel subsidies have hindered the development of a domestic market for biodiesel. This study examines the economics of palm oil biodiesel production and use in Indonesia in connection with government policies, production costs, fossil fuel substitution, and market prices of liquid fuels (i.e., biodiesel and diesel). We develop a novel biofuel economic model that captures the complexities of the palm oil-biodiesel sector in Indonesia.

  • 37.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    Ecosystems Services & Management (ESM) program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    McCallum, Ian
    Ecosystems Services & Management (ESM) program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Optimizing ethanol and bioelectricity production in sugarcane biorefineries in Brazil2016In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 85, p. 371-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sugarcane biorefineries, the lignocellulosic portion of the sugarcane biomass (i.e. bagasse and cane trash) can be used as fuel for electricity production and/or feedstock for second generation (2G) ethanol. This study presents a techno-economic analysis of upgraded sugarcane biorefineries in Brazil, aiming at utilizing surplus bagasse and cane trash for electricity and/or ethanol production. The study investigates the trade-off on sugarcane biomass use for energy production: bioelectricity versus 2G ethanol production. The BeWhere mixed integer and spatially explicit model is used for evaluating the choice of technological options. Different scenarios are developed to find the optimal utilization of sugarcane biomass. The study finds that energy prices, type of electricity substituted, biofuel support and carbon tax, investment costs, and conversion efficiencies are the major factors influencing the technological choice. At the existing market and technological conditions applied in the upgraded biorefineries, 300 PJ y-1 2G ethanol could be optimally produced and exported to the EU, which corresponds to 2.5% of total transport fuel demand in the EU. This study provides a methodological framework on how to optimize the alternative use of agricultural residues and industrial co-products for energy production in agro-industries considering biomass supply chains, the pattern of domestic energy demand, and biofuel trade.

  • 38.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Palmén, Carl
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Evaluating the palm oil demand in Indonesia: Production trends, yields, and emerging issues2018In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the development of domestic and international demand for Indonesian palm oil, in line with national biofuel mandates and established export markets. Domestic demand for palm oil for (i) achieving biodiesel targets and (ii) meeting food and industrial uses reaches 20 million tonnes by 2025, equivalent to 61% of Indonesian production in 2014. Thus, it is possible for Indonesia to be self-sufficient, reaching the biodiesel targets without increasing plantation areas. However, to meet both domestic and international demand, a total 51 million tonnes of crude palm oil will be needed in 2025. This requires additional land up to 6 million hectares with current yields. The expansion of oil palm plantations in Indonesia has led to debates related to deforestation, threatened biodiversity, and greenhouse gas emissions. We show that increasing agricultural yields could serve the purpose, benefiting biodiesel production while reducing the need for new land. Therefore, we recommend that the ambitious Indonesian biodiesel mandates are pursued in combination with a strategy for increased productivity in palm oil production, utilization of degraded land to contain greenhouse gas emissions, and use of palm oil biomass residues for energy production.

  • 39.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Scheer, Jannik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Egeskog, Ylva
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Analyzing the lifecycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of palm oil biodiesel production in Indonesia2016In: 15th World Renewable Energy Congress, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study performs sustainability analysis of palm oil biodiesel production systems in Indonesia. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach is used to evaluate the net GHG emissions (climate change impact) and energy inputs (resource consumption) in the entire production chain. The main aim of the study is to investigate the energy and environmental aspects of the palm oil biodiesel production chain. The worthiness of biodiesel production and use in terms of GHG emissions is compared with conventional diesel. The system boundary includes the mass and energy flows during the cultivation, harvesting, palm oil milling, and bio-refining phases. Energy inputs and emissions due to agricultural activities such land preparation, seedling, application of fertilizers/chemicals, and planting are considered in the analysis. The scope of the study also includes collection and transport of palm oil feedstock, fresh fruit brunch (FFB) and crude palm oil (CPO) for biodiesel production. Assessment of climate change impact is also performed when it comes to improvements of agricultural practices and alternation of soil carbon stocks due to land use change.

    The study examines the utilization of co-products (e.g. kernel oil, glycerol), palm oil residues, and waste water (effluents) generated during the palm biodiesel production system. Palm kernel and glycerol are important commodities/products which have high market values. The use of biomass residues (e.g. fibres and shells) for energy production in efficient cogeneration, and different waste management options for the treatment of palm oil milling effluent (POME) are also explored. Sensitivity analysis is performed for the most influencing parameters such as palm oil yield, the rate of fertilizer application, plant conversion efficiencies while determining the environmental and energy gains. Since the palm oil biodiesel production systems involve multiple co-products and services, it is of utmost importance to use appropriate allocation methods in order to divide environmental burdens and resource inputs. We use allocation by energy content and economic values, and system expansion considering the substitution of fossil based power by bioelectricity derived from biomass cogeneration plants and/or electricity generation using biogas produced from POME treatment. The study finds that bioelectricity generation from surplus biomass residues and biogas from POME, and their use for fossil fuel substitution can significantly help improve energy and environmental gains. The study also compares important results with other relevant international LCA studies and discusses issues related to land use on climate change impact. Recommendations are made for the appropriate utilization of palm oil, its co-products, and residues for the both energy and climate benefits.  

  • 40.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory, Brazil.
    Seabra, Joaquim
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Walter, Arnaldo
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Accounting greenhouse gas emissions in the lifecycle of Brazilian sugarcane bioethanol: Methodological references in European and American regulations2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 47, p. 384-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses four European and American regulatory schemes designed for accounting lifecycle GHG emissions in relation to the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol. The objective is to critically examine the methodologies and associated parameters used in existing regulatory schemes for calculating GHG emissions, and to explore methodological convergences. The issues related to direct lifecycle and indirect land use change emissions have been addressed. It is found that there are commonalities between the European Renewable Energy Directive (EU-RED) and the UK's Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation (UK-RTFO), but the US-EPA's Renewable Fuel Standard (US-EPA) and the Low Carbon Fuel Standard of the California Air Resources Board (CA-CARB) vary greatly not only among themselves, but also in relation to the European regulations. Agricultural practices (especially soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics), co-product credits from surplus electricity and uncertainties around economic modeling approaches for indirect land use change are the major areas where methodological divergences exist. Incorporation of domestic agricultural practices, sugarcane mills operations, and realistic modeling of indirect impacts of land use change using regional models could provide more coherence in estimations of GHG emissions. Furthermore, the Brazilian trend of novelty in all phases of sugarcane bioenergy systems should be considered when projecting GHG emissions.

  • 41.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Seabra, Joaquim
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Walter, Arnaldo
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Methodologies for accounting greenhouse gas emissions of bioethanol production in Brazil2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have performed life cycle assessment for evaluating GHG balances of biofuels. However, the result of life-cycle GHG emissions varies significantly, depending on LCA approach used, type and characteristics of biomass feedstocks, system boundaries, functional unit, reference energy systems, conversion technologies, treatment of co-products, direct/indirect land-use change, among others. This study shows how these issues have been addressed in the regulatory schemes for accounting GHG emissions. The objective is to review and critically discuss the methodologies and associated parameters used in existing regulatory schemes in the context of developing a unified methodology for calculating GHG emissions. Four regulatory schemes on biofuels are scrutinized in order to compare the GHG calculation methodologies. The European Commission’s Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and the Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation (RTFO) of UK describe methodologies for calculation of life-cycle GHG emissions of biofuels, including common biofuel production pathways such as the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol. In the US, the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program under the Energy Independence and Security Act has introduced the threshold of life-cycle GHG emissions of different biofuels in transport, while the California Air Resource Board has enacted the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) to increase the share of low carbon fuels. European (e.g. RED and RTFO) and US (e.g. RFS and LCFS) regulatory schemes have proposed different methodologies for estimating GHG balances. This paper provides an overview of these four accounting methodologies, depicting commonalities and differences among them. We use the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol pathway as reference for the comparison. The comparative analysis helps identify common ground for the development of a unified methodology for sugarcane bioethanol.

  • 42.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Seabra, Joaquim
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Walter, Arnaldo
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Power generation from sugarcane biomass - A complementary option to hydroelectricity in Nepal and Brazil2012In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 241-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the complementarity between hydroelectricity and surplus electricity from sugarcane biomass based cogeneration plants in sugarcane mills. The paper investigates opportunities and barriers in the context of governments' initiatives, institutions and prevailing regulatory frameworks in Brazil and Nepal. The paper finds that bioelectricity from cogeneration can be a good complementary option for hydroelectric power, helping foster diversification on the generation side and enhance security of electricity supply based on local resources. Bioelectricity potential from sugarcane biomass is estimated to be in the range of 209 - 313 GWh for Nepal and 62 -93 TWh for Brazil. In Nepal, the grid connected bioelectricity can provide power for operating industries, and support local development through rural electrification. In Brazil, the biomass potential can be further enhanced through a better utilization of the biomass in the sugar-ethanol industry to balance hydropower availability. This comparative study offers a reflection on the need for better planning and policies to address the barriers which are hindering the development of bioelectricity even in places where the potential is large.

  • 43.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Seabra, Joaquim
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Walter, Arnaldo
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Power generation from sugarcane biomass: a complementary option to hydroelectricity in Nepal and Brazil2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the complementarity between hydroelectricity and surplus electricity from sugarcane biomass based cogeneration plants in sugarcane mills. The paper investigates opportunities and barriers in the context of governments’ initiatives, institutions and prevailing regulatory frameworks in Brazil and Nepal. The paper finds that bioelectricity from cogeneration can be a good complementary option for hydroelectric power, helping foster diversification on the generation side and enhance security of electricity supply based on local resources. Bioelectricity potential from sugarcane biomass is estimated to be in the range of 209 – 313 GWh for Nepal and 62 – 93 TWh for Brazil. In Nepal, the grid connected bioelectricity can provide power for operating industries, and support local development through rural electrification. In Brazil, the biomass potential can be further enhanced through a better utilization of the biomass in the sugar-ethanol industry to balance hydropower availability. This comparative study offers a reflection on the need for better planning and policies to address the barriers which are hindering the development of bioelectricity even in places where the potential is large.

  • 44.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Assessing the sustainability of bioethanol production: Key criteria and methodological improvements2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Greenhouse gas balances of molasses based ethanol in Nepal2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 13, p. 1471-1485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) balances in production and use of molasses-based ethanol (EtOH) in Nepal. The total life cycle emissions of EtOH is estimated at 432.5 kgCO(2eq) m(-3) ethanol (i.e. 20.4 gCO(2eq) MJ(-1)). Avoided emissions are 76.6% when conventional gasoline is replaced by molasses derived ethanol. A sensitivity analysis was performed to verify the impact of variations in material and energy flows, and allocation ratios in the GHG balances. Market prices of sugar and molasses, amount of nitrogen-fertilizers used in sugarcane production, and sugarcane yield per hectare turn out to be important parameters for the GHG balances estimation. Sales of the surplus electricity derived from bagasse could reduce emissions by replacing electricity produced in diesel power plants. Scenario analysis on two wastewater processes for treatment of effluents obtained from ethanol conversion has also been carried out. If wastewater generated from ethanol conversion unit is treated in pond stabilization (PS) treatment process, GHG emissions alarmingly increase to a level of 4032 kgCO(2eq) m(-3) ethanol. Results also show that the anaerobic digestion process (ADP) and biogas recovery without leakages can significantly avoid GHG emissions, and improve the overall emissions balance of EtOH in Nepal. At a 10% biogas leakage, life cycle emissions is 1038 kgCO(2eq) m(-3) ethanol which corresponds to 44% avoided emissions compared to gasoline. On the other hand, total emissions surpass the level of its counterpart (i.e. gasoline) when the leakage of biogas exceeds 23.4%.

  • 46.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Net energy balance of molasses based ethanol: The case of Nepal2009In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 2515-2524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates life cycle energy analysis of molasses based ethanol (MOE) in Nepal. Net energy value (NEV), net renewable energy value (NREV) and energy yield ratio are used to evaluate the energy balance of MOE in Nepal. Total energy requirements in sugarcane farming, cane milling and ethanol conversion processes are estimated and energy allocation is made between co-products (molasses and sugar) as per their market prices. The result shows negative NEV (−13.05 MJ/L), positive NREV (18.36 MJ/L) and energy yield ratio (7.47). The higher positive value of NREV and energy yield ratio reveal that a low amount of fossil fuels are required to produce 1 L of MOE. However, negative NEV reveals that the total energy consumption (both fossil and renewables) to produce the ethanol is higher than its final energy content. Nevertheless, the renewable energy contribution amounts to 91.7% of total energy requirements. The effect of the increased price of molasses and reduced energy consumption in the sugarcane milling and ethanol conversion are found to be significant in determining the energy values and yield ratio of MOE. In addition, there are clear measures that can be taken to improve efficiency along the production chain. Finally, energy security, scarcity of hard currency for importing fossil fuels and opportunities for regional development are also strong reasons for considering local renewable energy options in developing countries.

  • 47.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Scenarios for bioethanol production in Indonesia: How can we meet mandatory blending targets?2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, ISSN ISSN: 0360-5442, Vol. 119, p. 351-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the potential of bioethanol production and fossil fuel substitution using sugarcane feedstock in Indonesia. Current production practices, government biofuel policies (esp. mandatory blending targets), and sugar self-sufficiency are simulated to project the total potential of fuel ethanol and land requirements in the timeframe between 2015 and 2025. At present conditions, 450 million liters bioethanol can be annually produced in Indonesia using sugarcane molasses, a low-value co-product. This gives only a marginal contribution equivalent to 1% of the total gasoline consumption in 2015. The study examines the ethanol production potential after domestic sugar self-sufficiency is achieved by 2020. In 2015, 0.71 Mha land were required for sugarcane cultivation in order to meet a 2% blend mandate i.e. 0.68 billion liters (BL) ethanol using only cane-molasses. Juice ethanol is needed to meet the blending targets set for 2020 (i.e., 4.45 BL ethanol) and 2025 (i.e., 11.48 BL ethanol). This translates into sugarcane feedstock obtained from 1.60 Mha and 2.76 Mha land, respectively. The study also evaluates how improved resource efficiency can be achieved, exploring the bioelectricity production potential from sugarcane biomass, improvements in yields, and modernization of sugarcane mills. The results highlight how the use of established technologies and production methods can help develop agro-industries in the sugar ethanol segment of Indonesia.

  • 48.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Johnson X., Francis
    Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) Africa Centre, c/o ICRAF, United Nations Avenue, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya.
    Energy production from sugarcane feedstock: Assessing fossil fuel substitution and climate change mitigation potential in Indonesia2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the potential for energy (i.e. bioethanol and bioelectricity) production and fossil fuel substitution in Indonesia based on sugarcane feedstock. Indonesia is one of the top ten cane producers in the world, and has huge potential to produce bioethanol and bioelectricity. Current agricultural practices, industrial milling operations, supply-chain management, and feedstock (i.e. sugarcane) supply and main/co-products (i.e. sugar, molasses, and bagasse) production and their demand/utilization are identified. At present conditions, around 350 million litres bioethanol can be annually produced in Indonesia using sugarcane molasses (a low-value co-product). In addition, approximately 400 MW surplus bioelectricity can be generated and connected to the grid using the state-of-the-art or efficient bagasse cogeneration technologies in sugar mills. The substitution of fuel ethanol in transport helps reduce the imports of subsidised oil products while bioelectricity substitutes coal based electricity in the nation. Associated climate benefits, i.e. climate change mitigation potential, will also be estimated. The study also explores the potential of fuel ethanol and power production considering the improvement of cane yield and the expansion of sugarcane field as the country wants to modernize sugarcane sector and expand the cultivation areas aiming at achieving sugar self-sufficiency. Indonesia has set differentiated and time-bound mandatory biofuel targets, and sugarcane is one of the main feedstocks for bioethanol production. Therefore, it is vital to scrutinize how sugarcane bioethanol could help meet the target in synergy with agricultural, industrial and energy development in a sustainable way.

  • 49.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Sylvain, Leduc
    Ecosystems Services & Management (ESM) program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    McCallum, Ian
    Ecosystems Services & Management (ESM) program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Optimizing second generation bioethanol production in sugarcane biorefineries in Brazil2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Venkata K., Bharadwaj
    World Bioenergy Association, Holländargatan 17, 111 60 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Johnson X., Francis
    Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) Africa Centre, c/o ICRAF, United Nations Avenue, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya.
    Energy and GHG balances of ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 164, p. 756-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the sustainability of fuel ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed to evaluate the net emissions (climate change impact) and energy inputs (resource consumption) in the production chain. The lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the production and use of ethanol are estimated at 29 gCO2eq per MJ of ethanol produced which is a 67% reduction in comparison to gasoline emissions. Net Energy Value (NEV) and Net Renewable Energy Value (NREV) are -7 MJ/l and 17.7 MJ/l, while the energy yield ratio (ER) is 6.1. Economic allocation is chosen for dividing environmental burdens and resource consumption between sugar (i.e. main product) and molasses (i.e. co-product used for fuel production). Sensitivity analysis of various parameters is performed. The emissions and energy values are highly sensitive to sugarcane yield, ethanol yield, and the price of molasses. The use of sugarcane biomass residues (bagasse/trash) for efficient cogeneration, and different waste management options for the treatment of spent wash (effluent of distilleries) are also explored. Surplus bioelectricity generation in the efficient cogeneration plant, biogas recovery from wastewater treatment plant, and their use for fossil fuel substitution can help improve energy and environmental gains. The study also compares important results with other relevant international studies and discusses issues related to land use change (LUC) impact.

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