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  • 1.
    Cui, Qing
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Tracing Copper from society to the aquatic environment: Model development and case studies in Stockholm2010Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper remains at elevated levels in the aquatic environment of Stockholm due to diffuse urban sources. Management of these diffuse sources requires their quantification but they cannot be measured directly by field observations. The working hypothesis of this thesis was that Copper levels in the sediments of urban lakes would reflect diffuse emissions within their catchment areas. In order to test this hypothesis, a source – transport – storage conceptual model was developed for tracing the urban diffuse sources of Copper to the sediment in the urbanised catchment. A substance flow analysis (SFA) approach was taken in the source module and a fate, mass-balance model was applied in the lake module. Five separate urban lakes (Judarn, Laduviken, Långsjön, Råcksta Träsk and Trekanten) within the Stockholm area and a main water flow pathway from Lake Mälaren to the inner archipelago of the Baltic Sea, through Stockholm, were selected as case studies.

     In comparison to actual source strength data in the literature for the five case study lakes, the SFA approach gave similar results to previous models, but with reduced uncertainty. The SFA approach was also able to indicate the actual sources of urban copper, which was not accomplished by the other approaches and which is a great advantage in managing the sources. For the five lakes in Stockholm, traffic and copper roofs were found to be major contributors of Copper. For the three more polluted lakes, good agreement was obtained between simulated sediment copper contents and independent field observations, thereby supporting the applicability of the model in such cases. Furthermore, simulation results showed sediment copper content to be linearly dependent on the urban load. While this suggests that the urban copper sediment level reflects the urban load, considerable integration of this load over time (decade(s)) was suggested by the simulation results, so time must be allowed in order to detect a change in the urban load by field monitoring of the sediments.

     Published data on the main water flow pathway from Lake Mälaren to the archipelago showed a peak in sediment copper content close to the city centre, confirming a considerable urban influence. An approach to quantitatively follow Cu from its urban source through such a complex, aquatic system was developed and applied to Stockholm. The compliance of future quantitative model results with monitoring data may help test the choices made in this conceptual model and the applicability of the model. Data availability proved to be a major obstacle to achieving a quantitative model, particularly as several municipalities with different levels of data availability surround the main water flow pathway studied.

     Finally, the applicability of the quantitative, coupled source – transport – storage was demonstrated in a simplified scenario analysis. The ability of the model to estimate the copper load to air and soil and to the urban aquatic environment was also demonstrated.

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  • 2.
    Cui, Qing
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Sediment metal contents as indicators of urban metal flows in Stockholm2009Ingår i: Proceedings of ConAccount 2008 'Urban Metabolism: Measuring the Ecological City', 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Cui, Qing
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Sinha, Rajib
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Copper content in lake sediments as a tracer of urban emissions: evaluation through a source-transport-storage model2010Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, nr 13, s. 2714-2725Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A coupled source-transport-storage model was developed to determine the origin and path of copper from materials/goods in use in the urban drainage area and the fate of copper in local recipient lakes The model was applied and tested using five small lakes in Stockholm, Sweden. In the case of the polluted lakes Racksta Trask, Trekanten and Langsjon, the source strengths of copper identified by the model were found to be well linked with independently observed copper contents in the lake sediments through the model. The model results also showed that traffic emissions, especially from brake linings, dominated the total load in all five cases Sequential sedimentation and burial proved to be the most important fate processes of copper in all lakes, except Racksta Trask, where outflow dominated The model indicated that the sediment copper content can be used as a tracer of the urban diffuse copper source strength, but that the response to changes in source strength is fairly slow (decades) Major uncertainties in the source model were related to management of stormwater in the urban area, the rate of wear of brake linings and weathering of copper roofs The uncertainty of the coupled model is in addition affected mainly by parameters quantifying the sedimentation and bury processes, such as particulate fraction, settling velocity of particles, and sedimentation rate As a demonstration example, we used the model to predict the response of the sediment copper level to a decrease in the copper load from the urban catchment in one of the case study lakes (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved

  • 4.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Rolli, Valentina
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Cui, Qing
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Sources and fates of heavy metals in complex, urban aquatic systems: modelling study based on Stockholm, Sweden2009Ingår i: ECOSYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT VII   , 2009, Vol. 122, s. 83-96Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite management of point sources, heavy metals today remain at an elevated level in the urban environment, with diffuse sources dominating the emissions. In order to manage these pollutants, it is necessary to understand the coupling between the urban sources of heavy metals and their monitored, environmental levels, for example in aquatic sediments. In this work, we suggest a simple approach to quantitatively model Cu from its urban sources through a complex aquatic system. We apply the proposed model to Stockholm, situated between Lake Malaren and the archipelago of the Baltic sea, and discuss data availability along with conceptual difficulties. Using literature data, we show that Cu occurs at elevated levels in the aquatic sediment close to the centre of Stockholm, Sweden.

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