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  • 1. Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    Lüdtke, Maximilian
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Fortkamp, Uwe
    Ekengren, Östen
    Slamavvattning i kommunala reningsverk: Nuläget, begränsningar och perspektiv2014Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Hultman, Bengt
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Löwén, Monika
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Samverkan mellan avloppsvattenrening och slambehandling2004Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Bedömning av utsläpp av växthusgaser och andra luftföroreningar på Åland2003Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Conductivity measurements for controlling municipal waste-water treatment2010In: Research and application of new technologies in wastewater treatment and municipal solid waste disposal in Ukraine, Sweden and Poland: Proceedings of a Polish-Swedish-Ukrainian seminar / [ed] E. Plaza, E. Levlin, 2010, p. 51-62Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conductivity measurements can be used to monitor the processes in wastewatertreatment that causes changes in conductivity. The processes that in many treatment plants causechanges in conductivity are mainly biological nitrogen removal. Conductivity measurements fromtwo WWTP in Stockholm show no reduction of conductivity in the presedimentation and 21 and28% reduction in the activated sludge process. The conductivity in the inflowing wastewater toLotsbroverket WWTP in Mariehamn, Åland, during 2006 varies from 58 mS/m to 137 mS/m withabout 23% reduction of conductivity in the activated sludge process. At Duvbacken WWTP inGävle, which have biological phosphorus removal and no nitrogen removal, the conductivityvaried between 60 and 100 mS/m with no difference between influent and effluent. Biological Premovalwill give a reduction with 344 to 278 μSm2/g P. However, since the contribution ofphosphate ions can be calculated to about 1 % of measured conductivity phosphorus removal willnot give any decrease in conductivity. Since ammonium nitrogen and alkalinity, which is reducedat biological nitrogen removal, contributes to conductivity with about 33 % and 14 % respectively,it is the three WWTP with biological nitrogen removal that has a decrease in conductivity in thetreatment process. At chemical phosphorus precipitation phosphate will substituted with sulfateand no reduction in conductivity will be achieved. Reduction of conductivity due to biologicalnitrogen removal will consume alkalinity or hydroxide ions. If the amount of available alkalinity ishigh enough (one mole alkalinity per mole ammonia) biological N-removal through nitrificationfollowed by denitrification will give a decrease of conductivity with 842 μSm2/g N. Separationprocesses such as removal of suspended solids through sedimentation or filtration will give nochanges ion conductivity. Separation of nutrients through reverse osmosis will give large changesin conductivity and conductivity can thus be used for controlling the process.

  • 5.
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Förbehandling av bioslam för ökad biogasproduktion och Uppgradering av biogas2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förbehandling av bioslam för ökad biogasproduktion

    Eftersom bioslam från aktivslamsteget i reningsprocessen ger en lägre metanproduktion än primärslam bör förbehandlingen ske på bioslam. Effekten av olika förbehandlingsmetoder är dock svårbedömd och ofta erhålls inget positivt energiutbyte då energin av ökad produktion av biogas kan vara mindre än tillförd energi vid behandlingen. Vissa förbehandlingsmetoder som ozonering kan vid överdosering oxidera substrat och ge minskad biogasproduktion

     

    Litteraturstudien kompletterades med mätning av biometanpotential efter förbehandling av bioslam (Khayi, 2014). Som förbehandlingsmetoder valdes frysning (djupfryst och lättfryst) och uppvärmning. Vid 35 dagars rötning producerade djupfryst slam 221 Nml CH4/g VS, lättfryst 115 Nml CH4/g VS, det uppvärmt 181 Nml CH4/g VS och det obehandlade (referens) 148 Nml CH4/g VS (Nml, normalmilliliter är gasvolym omräknad till en atmosfärs tryck). Djupfrysning och uppvärmning ökade biogasproduktionen medan lättfrysning gav minskad biogasproduktion.

     

    Uppgradering av biogas

    Vid uppgradering separeras koldioxid från biogasen varvid metangas erhålles.  Uppgradering kan ske genom att koldioxiden absorberas av ett fast (PSA-teknik med zeoliter eller aktivt kol) eller flytande medium (vattenskrubber, polyetylenglykol eller monoetanolamin) eller med membranteknik. Investeringskostnaden för uppgradering är starkt beroende av storleken på anläggningen snarare än av vilken teknik som används, men vid små är investeringskostnaden för membranteknik något lägre.

     

    Genom intern metananrikning i rötkammaren kan metanhalten i den producerade biogasen ökas. Detta åstadkommes genom att koldioxid avdrivs från slam som sedan återförs till rötkammaren.

  • 6.
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Maximazing sludge and biogas production for counteracting global warming2010In: Research and application of new technologies in wastewater treatment and municipal solid waste disposal in Ukraine, Sweden and Poland: Proceedings of a Polish-Swedish-Ukrainian seminar / [ed] E. Plaza, E. Levlin, 2010, p. 95-104Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Can wastewater treatment contribute to counteract global warming? Increased biogasproduction for substituting fossil fuel is one possibility. However, using maximum amount of thecarbon source for biogas production there will be no carbon source for biological nutrient removal.This will need development of new methods for nutrient removal without carbon source, for whichstruvite precipitation and can anammox be used. Ozone treatment of digested sludge afterdegassing of CO2 with recycling back to the digestion is a promising method to increase biogasproduction from sludge digestion.At anaerobic digestion half of the energy is utilized as biogas and half remains as organic materialin the digested sludge. To eliminate emission of greenhouse gases from digested sludge, allorganic content in the sludge should be oxidized. At Super Critical Water Oxidation SCWO allorganic content is oxidized and the energy can be utilized.The possibility to use sewage sludge to counteract global warming by recycling carbon to deep seesediments should be studied.

  • 7.
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Maximering av slam och biogasproduktion för att motverka global uppvärmning2010In: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 67-73Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Can wastewater treatment contribute to counteract global warming? Increased biogas production for substitutingfossil fuel is one possibility. However, an active sludge process with biological nitrogen and phosphorus removalconsume organic material, gives a sludge with less digestibility and need energy for aeration. The amountof produced sludge corresponds to half of the organic material in the sewage water. If the degree of digestion is40 % it means that 20 % of the organic content have been transformed to biogas. Anaerobic digestion of thesewage water can give 60 to 80 % conversion of organic material in the sewage water to biogas and thereby 3 to4 times larger biogas production. However, if maximum amount of the carbon source is used for biogas productionthere will be no carbon source for biological nutrient removal. Therefore new methods for nutrient removalwithout carbon source has to be developed, for which struvite precipitation and can anammox be used. Thepilot plant Hammarby Sjöstadsverk is a unique resource owned by KTH and IVL Swedish EnvironmentalInstitute,which can be used for these studies. Also the possibility to use sewage sludge to counteract globalwarming by recycling carbon to deep see sediments should be studied.

  • 8.
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Maximizing biogas production and phosphorus recovery by ion exchange2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Nutrient removal without carbon source for achieving maximum biogas production and phosphorus recovery2009In: Proceedings of the IWA 2nd Specialized Conference Nutrient Management in Wastewater Treatment Processes, 2009, p. 1161-1163Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge: Two-step leaching process with acid and base2007In: Integration and optimisation of urban sanitation systems: Proceedings of Polish-Swedish seminars / [ed] E. Plaza, E. Levlin, 2007, p. 71-80Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In earlier studies sludge incineration ash and SCWO-residues have been leached with acid andbase. Acid leaching gives a high degree of recovery but releases besides phosphate also the mainpart of other metals (including heavy metals). Leaching with base (NaOH) gives a less dissolutionof metals however with lower degree of recovery (up to about 50 %). When leaching with base,the calcium content in the sludge probably binds phosphorus as calcium phosphate.In this study a two-step leaching process has been tested. Ash and SCWO-residues are in the firststep leached with acid, with the main purpose to dissolve calcium. After leaching experiments withhydrochloric acid and acetic acid at different pH-levels from 3 to 6 leaching with acetic acid at pHlevel4 was chosen as the first leaching step. With a weak acid the dissolution reaction can occur atthe desired pH-level without limitation caused by insufficient amount of acid. In the secondleaching step the solid products was leached with 1 M sodium hydroxide. Two-step leaching gavefor SCWO-residue 23% higher leaching of phosphate and for sludge incineration ash 11 % higherleaching. However, aluminium was also dissolved in the second leaching step, and has to beseparated from the phosphate in a third process step.

  • 11.
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Phosphorus recovery with acid and base from inorganic sewage sludge residues2006In: Proceedings IWA Specialized Conference: Sustainable sludge management, 2006, p. 612-619Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Phosphorus recovery with acid and base from inorganic sewage sludge residues2007In: Water Practice and Technology, ISSN 1751-231X, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphate recovery from sludge incineration ash and sludge residues from Super Critical Water Oxidation, SCWO through leaching with acid HCl and base NaOH was studied. Leaching with base gives a selective dissolution of phosphorus but a low degree of recovery compared to leaching with acid. The high per cent of leached phosphorus compared to leached metals at leaching with acid, and the lower cost for acid makes leaching with acid less expensive. The cost for HCl is estimated to 0.32 Euro/kg P and upward. Since calcium may bind phosphorus at leaching with base, a two-step process was tested. A first leaching step with acid at pH-level 4 to dissolve calcium was followed by a second leaching step with base. Two-step leaching gave more leaching of phosphate, however, not as high as for leaching with acid. The cost for chemicals for two-step leaching was estimated to 1.2 Euro/kg P and upward.

  • 13.
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Sustainable and integrated sewage and organic waste handling with global warming impact, a case study of Åland and energy recovery by SCWO or anaerobic digestion2004In: Integration and optimisation of urban sanitation systems: Proceedings of a Polish-Swedish seminar / [ed] E. Plaza, E. Levlin, B. Hultman, 2004, p. 1-8Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Levlin, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    EXERT extended sludge retention process with sludge recirculation to increase biogas production2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Levlin, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Hassan Zadeh, Reza
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water Resources Engineering.
    Soh, Raymond
    Hultman, Bengt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    A pilot-plant research facility in Stockholm: Possibilities to test new treatment processes as magnesium salt addition to meet requirements for the future2009In: Proceedings of the IWA 2nd Specialized Conference Nutrient Management in Wastewater Treatment Processes, 2009, p. 1159-1160Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Levlin, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Hultman, Bengt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Konduktivitetsmätningar som mät- och kontrollmetod vid kommunala avloppsanläggningar2008Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Levlin, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Hultman, Bengt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge: Ideas for further studies to improve leaching2007In: Integration and optimisation of urban sanitation systems: Proceedings of Polish-Swedish seminars / [ed] E. Plaza, E. Levlin, 2007, p. 61-70Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of methods to recover phosphorus will make handling of sewage sludge moresustainable. In earlier studies sludge incineration ash and SCWO-residues have been leached withacid and base. Acid leaching gives a high degree of recovery but releases besides phosphate alsothe main part of other metals (including heavy metals). This gives a large separation problem andgives a complicated process technology. Leaching with base (NaOH) gives a lower degree ofrecovery (up to about 50 %) however with less dissolution of metals. When leaching with base, thecalcium content in the sludge probably binds phosphorus as calcium phosphate.To improve leaching different possibilities can be studied such as use of a two-step leachingprocess. In a first step acid leaching dissolves calcium and magnesium. Treating the leachate withsulphuric acid, calcium sulphate (gypsum) is precipitated and phosphoric acid is obtained.Remaining ash or SCWO-residual product can afterwards be treated by alkaline leaching. Anotheralternative is to study leaching at anaerobic conditions. Since ferrous iron(II) phosphate is moresoluble than ferric iron(III) phosphate the phosphate is more easily dissolved and the heavy metalcontamination will be lower.

  • 18.
    Levlin, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Hultman, Bengt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Löwén, Monika
    Tvåstegslakning med syra och bas för fosforutvinning ur slam efter superkritisk vattenoxidation eller förbränning2005Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Levlin, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Löwén, Monica
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Stark, Kristina
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Hultman, Bengt
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Effects of phosphorus recovery requirements on Swedish sludge management2002In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 46, no 4-5, p. 435-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expected requirements of phosphorus recovery, restrictions on sludge disposal on landfill, and difficulties in obtaining consensus on sludge use on agricultural land has led to several development works in Sweden to change sludge management methods. Especially sludge fractionation has gained interest including following steps to recover products and separate transfer of toxic substances into a small stream. Commercial systems are offered based on technology by Cambi/KREPRO and BioCon and other companies and many other methods are under development. Iron salts are widely used in Sweden as precipitation agents for phosphorus removal and this technology has some disadvantages for phosphorus recovery compared with the use of biological phosphorus removal. The amount of chemicals needed for a KREPRO or a BioCon system was calculated for a treatment plant which has an addition of iron salt resulting in 1,900 mole Fe per tonne DS. The result was compared with the chemical consumption of recovery systems installed at plants with lower use of iron for precipitation. The chemical consumption in equivalents per tonne DS was found to be 5,000 + 6,000 * (molar ratio iron to phosphorus).

  • 20.
    Levlin, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Löwén, Monika
    Stark, Kristina
    Lakning av slamrest från förbränning och superkritisk vattenoxidation2004Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Levlin, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Löwén, Monika
    Stark, Kristina
    Phosphorus recovery from sludge incineration ash and Supercritical Water Oxidation residues with use of acids and bases2004In: Integration and optimisation of urban sanitation systems: Proceedings of a Polish-Swedish seminar / [ed] E. Plaza, E. Levlin, B. Hultman, 2004, p. 19-28Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Levlin, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Fosforåtervinning från avloppsrening med sidoströmshydrolys2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus can be extracted from side stream hydrolysis in treatment plants with biological phosphorus removal. Soluble phosphate released during the hydrolysis of return sludge is anaerobic treatment where the carbon source is produced from sludge. Different variants for recycling, from the side stream, for example, PhoStrip process in which phosphorus is recovered from the return sludge of phosphorus rich sludge from the activated sludge processes with biological phosphorus removal. Another alternative is to recover phosphorus from a side stream withdrawn from the anaerobic active sludge process, where phosphorus is released to the solution. Phosphorus recovery from phosphorous partial side stream is expected to give a phosphorus recovery of 60-65%. Experiments have been carried out with sludge from side stream hydrolysis at a process with biological phosphorus removal. After separation of the aqueous phase phosphorous was precipitated with both magnesium and calcium, which gave a precipitation of phosphorus at 79 to 100%. At precipitation with magnesium struvite (MgNH4PO4) was formed and calcium phosphate (Ca 10 (OH)2(PO4)6) with calcium. Analysis of the sludge before (100 mg P/l) and the sludge after the hydrolysis shows that 20% phosphorus 20 mg P/l is released to the water phase. With 124 tons per year phosphorus in the incoming sewage and a release of 20 % be in the sludge hydrolysis, the phosphorus recovery potential should be 25 tons per year. However, with a flow of 54 m3/h through the sludge hydrolysis is phosphorus recovery potential will be 9.5 tons per year.

  • 23.
    Levlin, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Stark, Kristina
    Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge after incineration or Supercritical Water Oxidation2004In: The first Conference on the Volarization of Phosphates and Phosphorous Compounds COVAPHOS 1: Abstracts, O6-03, 2004, p. 262-264Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Levlin, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Tjus, Kåre
    Fortkamp, Uwe
    Ek, Mats
    Barasel, Christian
    Ljung, Emilie
    Palm, Ola
    Metoder för fosforåtervinning ur avloppsslam2014Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Levlin, Erik
    Morling, Stig
    Falk, Lina
    Pilotförsök med MABR på Ekeby avloppsreningsverk: Teknisk rapport av ESEM, KTH & Sweco2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This pilot project with membrane aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) was performed at Ekeby sewage treatment plant in Eskilstuna, Sweden. Ekeby faces a future challenge with growing population, where higher processing capacity is needed and new requirements for total nitrogen <10 mg/L in the discharge, according to the new standard. MABR, a newly developed technology with simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, was chosen as a promising technique to cope with the challenge. The trials were conducted for a 230 days period from July 12, 2017 to February 28, 2018.The pilot was designed as an activated sludge process with pre-denitrification with first an anaerobic tank where Zeelung membrane modules were placed, followed by an aerobic tank and finally a sedimentation unit where the return sludge was returned to the inlet. The feed water for the pilot comes from the treatkment plant's pre-sedimentation. Several analyzes were made on the inflow to the MABR reactor, in the volume with the Zeelung module, in the aerated volume and in outflow from the sedimentation tank. Ammonium content in incoming flow was 27 mg/L at the start of the trial to decrease to an average of 16 mg/L after day 60. Temperature in the inflow decreased during the experiment from 20 °C to 10 °C at day 124, to then stabilize on 12 °C. The reduction of organic material, such as BOD7, decreased from 90% at the start to 60% at the end of the trial, which is attributable to a lack of sludge separation in the final sedimentation.Nitrogen separation increased from 32 % at the start of the trial to an average of 53 % at the end of the trial. Nitrification in the Zeelung module increased from 27 % of oxidized nitrogen at the start of the experiment to 45 % at the end of the experiment. Along with the nitrification in the air volume, the nitrification of ammonium was almost total until day 175, January 3, when it fell sharply to the minimum 40 % on January 23, day 195, due to a combination of load and sludge from the sedimentation stage resulting in a shortened and insufficient sludge age. When the availability of organic carbon for denitrification was considered insufficient to cope with operation at low water temperature, and in combination with low levels of dissolved COD in incoming sewage, acetate was added from day 121. Prior to the addition of carbon source, the denitrification rate was on average 40% after the addition of carbon source, go up to 60% at the end of the test. The processes in the Zeelung module showed better operational stability than in the subsequent aerobic reactor.

  • 26.
    Stark, Kristina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Hultman, Bengt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    New system technology for combined phosphorus removal and recovery2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Stark, Kristina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge treated with supercritical water oxidation or incineration2005In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Stark, Kristina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Hultman, Bengt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Development of phosphorus recovery technologies in European countriesIn: Journal of resourcesArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Tomczak-Wandzel, Renata
    et al.
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ekengren, Östen
    Barasel, Christian
    Biogas production from fish wastes in co-digestion with sewage sludge2013In: IWA 2013 Holistic Sludge Management Conference, May 6-8, 2013 Västerås, Sweden, Svenska miljöinstitutet (IVL) , 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic digestion of biomass is a commonly used process utilizing troublesome waste for producing biogas. Biogas plants use various types of organic residues including sewage sludge, food industry residues and municipal solid waste. Anaerobic digestion of fish wastes is also possible but is currently not so much used. The amount of fish wastes (by-products and by-catch) depends on fish species, size, season and catch methods. The by-products are generated during fish pretreatment (gutting, heading and filleting).

    Depending on the efficiency of the production process, even 40-50 percent of total fish catch goes for wastes. Fish wastes have great potential as a source of high valued organic carbon for methane production but also have limitation (high content of ammonia nitrogen). Anaerobic treatment of fish wastes is possible with co-digestion. The main issue for co-digestion process lies in balancing several parameters in the co-substrate mixture: macro- and micronutrients, C:N ratio, pH, toxic compounds, biodegradable organic matter and dry matter. The aim of this work is to find optimal co-digestion substrates to enhance biogas production from fish wastes by determining the most proper ratios of different co-substrates. This work examines the potential for methane production from anaerobic co-digestion fish wastes, grass and sewage sludge (a mixture of primary and secondary).

    The experiments were carried out in mesophilic temperature with using Automatic Methane Potential Test System (AMTPS II). This equipment automatically measures methane production from batch test. For batch test inoculum is needed and different source for inoculum were used (different SRT). Initial results showed that sludge together with fish intestings produced 0.5 Nm3 CH4/kg VS compared to 0.3 Nm3 CH4/kg VS for grass and fish meat. Sludge and fish as well as grass and fish intestings produced 0.4 Nm3 CH4/kg VS.

  • 30.
    Trela, Jozef
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Hultman, Bengt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Fernandez, I.
    Mätteknik för att styra och optimera deammonifikation2009Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Trela, Jozef
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Hultman, Bengt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Cema, Grzegorz
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Bosander, Jan
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Utvärdering av enstegsprocess för deammonification2008Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Trela, Jozef
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Yang, Jingjing
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Nitritation/anammox-processen för rejektvattenbehandling2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Deammonification, based on partial nitritation combined with anammox, is a more environmental friendly nitrogen removal technology compared to conventional nitrification/denitrification, due to decreased energy need, less use of chemicals and low emissions of CO

    2 and N2O. Treatment of supernatant from dewatering of digested sludge with this technology can decrease nitrogen load to wastewater treatment plants and gives better possibilities to meet future stringent effluent requirements.

    The objective of this study was to investigate strategies for controlling and monitoring the deammonification process in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and evaluate the influence of different aeration strategies on the process performance and efficiency. Experiments were carried out, both in laboratory scale and in a pilot plant at Hammarby Sjöstadsverk.

    A significant parameter influencing the nitrogen removal rate and activity of different microorganisms is dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration which has to be high enough to allow ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to produce a sufficient amount of NO

    2-N for anammox reaction, but not too high to cause inhibition of anammox bacteria and increased activity of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB).

    The investigations were made with continuous and intermittent aeration with different DO concentrations and different ratios between non-aerated and aerated phase duration (R). The activity of different microorganisms in the biofilm was measured by specific anammox activity (SAA), oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and nitrate utilization rate (NUR) tests. On-line measurement of pH, conductivity and redox potential were useful to monitor the process.

    The highest nitrogen removal rate and efficiency was obtained when DO was 3.5 mg/l and R equaled to 1/3. Activity tests showed that anammox bacteria and AOB played the dominating roles in the biofilm. The average and maximum values of SAA were 3.0 g N/m

    2 × d and 4.3 g N/m2 × d, respectively. An average value of 4.0 g O2/m2 × d and the maximum value of 5.1 g O2/m2 × d was obtained in the OUR test for AOB activity.

    Intermittent aeration reduced energy usage and improved process efficiency. Introduction of anaerobic phases and high nitrogen load enhanced the activity of anammox bacteria and NOB activity was limited. Nitrite production was the bottleneck of the one stage deammonification process.

    Monitoring of N

    2O emissions in the pilot plant showed that 0.4–2 % of nitrogen load was converted into N2O gas. N2O production was related to the nitrogen load, DO concentrations and ratio between non-aerated phase and aerated phase (R).

    The results showed that redox potential (ORP) can be used as control parameter for operation of one stage deammonification process. At experiments using ORP for controlling air flow, the highest nitrogen removal rate and efficiency were obtained when the set point for ORP was 0 mV.

  • 33.
    Yang, Jingjing
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), Sweden.
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), Sweden.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Wahlberg, Olle
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) as a control parameter in a single-stage partial nitritation/anammox process treating reject water2015In: Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology (1986), ISSN 0268-2575, E-ISSN 1097-4660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BBACKGROUND: Redox potential value (or pE) can be used as a monitoring parameter for deammonification processes treating reject water. In this study its use as a control parameter was investigated. Experiments were carried out with a one-stage partial nitritation/anammox process in a 200 L moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) with 40% filled Kaldnes biofilm carriers. RESULTS: Tests on different combinations of nitrogen loads (1.8-3.3 gN m-2 d-1) and pE values (-1, 0, 1) revealed that process performance was stable and nitrogen removal efficiency >80% was achieved at all tested pE values except pE=-1. A value close to pE=0 was the most suitable in terms of process performance at 25°C at all tested pE values. With a fixed redox potential value (pE=0) used in the system, the air supply adjusted automatically under different nitrogen loads and maintained a high nitrogen removal efficiency. Theoretical calculations showed that pE>0.15 (at pH=7) provides conditions for nitrite conversion into nitrate at 25°C. CONCLUSION: Redox control turned out to be a suitable control parameter for operation of a partial nitritation/anammox process. A redox value of 0 was a suitable value under different nitrogen loads in this pilot-scale study. 

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