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  • 1. Brooks, A.
    et al.
    Kaupp, T.
    Makarenko, A.
    Williams, S.
    Orebäck, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Orca: A component model and repository2007In: Software Engineering for Experimental Robotics, Springer, 2007, 231-251 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Chapter describes Orca: an open-source project which applies Component-Based Software Engineering principles to robotics. It provides the means for defining and implementing interfaces such that components developed independently are likely to be inter-operable. In addition it provides a repository of free re-useable components. Orca attempts to be widely applicable by imposing minimal design constraints. This Chapter describes lessons learned while using Orca and steps taken to improve the framework based on those lessons. Improvements revolve around middleware issues and the problems encountered while scaling to larger distributed systems. Results are presented from systems that were implemented.

  • 2. Brooks, A.
    et al.
    Kaupp, T.
    Makarenko, A.
    Williams, S.
    Orebäck, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Towards component-based robotics2005In: 2005 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS, 2005, 3567-3572 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives an overview of Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE), motivates its application to the field of mobile robotics, and proposes a particular component model. CBSE is an approach to system-building that aims to shift the emphasis from programming to composing systems from a mixture of off-the-shelf and custom-built software components. This paper argues that robotics is particularly well-suited for and in need of component-based ideas. Furthermore, now is the right time for their introduction. The paper introduces Orca - an open-source component-based software engineering framework proposed for mobile robotics with an associated repository of free, reusable components for building mobile robotic systems.

  • 3. Li, W.
    et al.
    Christensen, Henrik I.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Orebäck, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Architecture and its implementation for robots to navigate in unknown indoor environments2005In: Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering (English Edition), ISSN 1000-9345, Vol. 18, no 3, 366-370 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is discussed with the design and implementation of an architecture for a mobile robot to navigate in dynamic and unknown indoor environments. The architecture is based on the framework of Open Robot Control Software at KTH (OROCOS@KTH), which is also discussed and evaluated to navigate indoor efficiently, a new algorithm named door-like-exit detection is proposed which employs 2D feature of a door and extracts key points of pathway from the raw data of a laser scanner. As a hybrid architecture, it is decomposed into several basic components which can be classified as either deliberative or reactive. Each component can concurrently execute and communicate with another. It is expansible and transferable and its components are reusable.

  • 4. Li, W.
    et al.
    Christensen, Henrik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Orebäck, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Chen, D.
    An architecture for indoor navigation2004In: Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2004, no 2, 1783-1788 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with the design and implementation of a control architecture for a mobile robot that is to navigate in dynamic unknown indoor environments. It is based on the framework of Open Robot Control Software @ KTH, which is discussed and evaluated in this paper. As a hybrid architecture, it is decomposed into several basic components which can be classified as either deliberative or reactive. Each component can concurrently execute and communicate with another using unified communication interfaces. Scalability and portability and reusability are the goals of the design.

  • 5.
    Orebäck, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    A component framework for autonomous mobile robots2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The major problem of robotics research today is that there is a barrier to entry into robotics research. Robot system software is complex and a researcher that wishes to concentrate on one particular problem often needs to learn about details, dependencies and intricacies of the complete system. This is because a robot system needs several different modules that need to communicate and execute in parallel.

    Today there is not much controlled comparisons of algorithms and solutions for a given task, which is the standard scientific method of other sciences. There is also very little sharing between groups and projects, requiring code to be written from scratch over and over again.

    This thesis proposes a general framework for robotics. By examining successful systems and architectures of past and present, yields a number of key properties. Some of these are ease of use, modularity, portability and efficiency. Even though there is much consensus on that the hybrid deliberate/reactive is the best architectural model that the community has produced so far, a framework should not stipulate a specific architecture. Instead the framework should enable the building of different architectures. Such a scheme implies that the modules are seen as common peers and not divided into clients and servers or forced into a set layering.

    Using a standardized middleware such as CORBA, efficient communication can be carried out between different platforms and languages. Middleware also provides network transparency which is valuable in distributed systems. Component-based Software Engineering (CBSE) is an approach that could solve many of the aforementioned problems. It enforces modularity which helps to manage complexity. Components can be developed in isolation, since algorithms are encapsulated in components where only the interfaces need to be known by other users. A complete system can be created by assembling components from different sources.

    Comparisons and sharing can greatly benefit from CBSE. A component-based framework called ORCA has been implemented with the following characteristics. All communication is carried out be either of three communication patterns, query, send and push. Communication is done using CORBA, although most of the CORBA code is hidden for the developer and can in the future be replaced by other mechanisms. Objects are transported between components in the form of the CORBA valuetype.

    A component model is specified that among other things include support for a state-machine. This also handles initialization and sets up communication. Configuration is achieved by the presence of an XML-file per component. A hardware abstraction scheme is specified that basically route the communication patterns right down to the hardware level.

    The framework has been verified by the implementation of a number of working systems.

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