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  • 1. Ammenberg, J.
    et al.
    Anderberg, S.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Biogas in the transport sector—actor and policy analysis focusing on the demand side in the Stockholm region2018In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 129, p. 70-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has ambitions to phase out fossil fuels and significantly increase the share of biofuels it uses. This article focuses on Stockholm County and biogas, with the aim to increase the knowledge about regional preconditions. Biogas-related actors have been interviewed, focusing on the demand side. Biogas solutions play an essential role, especially regarding bus transports and taxis. Long-term development has created well-functioning socio-technical systems involving collaboration. However, uncertainties about demand and policy cause hesitation and signs of stagnating development. Public organizations are key actors regarding renewables. For example, Stockholm Public Transport procures biogas matching the production at municipal wastewater treatment plants, the state-owned company Swedavia steers via a queuing system for taxis, and the municipalities have shifted to “environmental cars”. There is a large interest in electric vehicles, which is expected to increase significantly, partially due to suggested national policy support. The future role of biogas will be affected by how such an expansion comes about. There might be a risk of electricity replacing biogas, making it more challenging to reach a fossil-free vehicle fleet. Policy issues strongly influence the development. The environmental car definition is of importance, but its limited focus fails to account for several different types of relevant effects. The dynamic policy landscape with uncertainties about decision makers’ views on biogas seems to be one important reason behind the decreased pace of development. A national, long-term strategy is missing. Both the European Union and Sweden have high ambitions regarding a bio-based and circular economy, which should favor biogas solutions.

  • 2.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Biogas in the transport sector - a regional actor and policy analysis focusing on the demand sideManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Large-scale storage of hydrogen2019In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 44, no 23, p. 11901-11919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The large-scale storage of hydrogen plays a fundamental role in a potential future hydrogen economy. Although the storage of gaseous hydrogen in salt caverns already is used on a full industrial scale, the approach is not applicable in all regions due to varying geological conditions. Therefore, other storage methods are necessary. In this article, options for the large-scale storage of hydrogen are reviewed and compared based on fundamental thermodynamic and engineering aspects. The application of certain storage technologies, such as liquid hydrogen, methanol, ammonia, and dibenzyltoluene, is found to be advantageous in terms of storage density, cost of storage, and safety. The variable costs for these high-density storage technologies are largely associated with a high electricity demand for the storage process or with a high heat demand for the hydrogen release process. If hydrogen is produced via electrolysis and stored during times of low electricity prices in an industrial setting, these variable costs may be tolerable.

  • 4.
    Bojler Görling, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Moghaddam, Elham Ahmadi
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Hansson, Per-Anders
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences .
    Larsson, Mårten
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Nordberg, Åke
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences .
    Pre-study of biogas production from low-temperature production of biogas: Report from an f3 R&D project2013Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bryngelsson, Mårten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Möllersten, Kenneth
    CDM from Jevons’ perspective: Do emission reductions go together with increasing supply of energy, efficiency improvement and rapid development?2005Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Byman, Karin
    et al.
    ÅF-Process.
    Grundfelt, Ellenor
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    ÅF-Process.
    Stenkvist, Maria
    ÅF-Process.
    Konsekvenser av en höjd koldioxidskatt i den icke handlande delen av industrin2007Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Byman, Karin
    et al.
    ÅF-Consult.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    ÅF-Consult.
    Egerbo, Anders
    ÅF-Consult.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    ÅF-Consult.
    Survey on requirements for independent reviews and inspections of electrical and I&C equipment2009Report (Other academic)
  • 8. Cronholm, Lars-Åke
    et al.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Saxe, Maria
    Spillvärme från industrier och lokaler2009Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    All CO2 molecules are equal, but some CO2 molecules are more equal than others2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with some challenges related to the mitigation of climate change and the overall aim is to present and assess different possibilities for the mitigation of climate change by:

    • Suggesting some measures with a potential to abate net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions,

    • Discussing ideas for how decision-makers could tackle some of the encountered obstacles linked to these measures, and

    • Pointing at some problems with the current Kyoto framework and suggesting modifications of it.

    The quantification of the net CO2 effect from a specific project, frequently referred to as emissions accounting, is an important tool to evaluate projects and strategies for mitigating climate change. This thesis discusses different emissions accounting methods. It is concluded that no single method ought to be used for generalisation purposes, as many factors may affect the real outcome for different projects. The estimated outcome is extremely dependent on the method chosen and, thus, the suggested approach is to apply a broader perspective than the use of a particular method for strategic decisions. The risk of losing the integrity of the Kyoto Protocol when over-simplified emissions accounting methods are applied for the quantification of emission credits that can be obtained by a country with binding emissions targets for projects executed in a country without binding emission targets is also discussed.

    Driving forces and obstacles with regard to energy-related co-operations between industries and district heating companies have been studied since they may potentially reduce net GHG emissions. The main conclusion is that favourable techno-economic circumstances are not sufficient for the implementation of a co-operation; other factors like people with the true ambition to co-operate are also necessary.

    How oxy-fuel combustion for CO2 capture and storage (CCS) purposes may be much more efficiently utilised together with some industrial processes than with power production processes is also discussed. As cost efficiency is relevant for the Kyoto framework, this thesis suggests that CCS performed on CO2 from biomass should be allowed to play on a level playing field with CCS from fossil sources, as the outcome for the atmosphere is independent of the origin of the CO2.

  • 10. Grönkvist, Stefan
    Specifika förutsättningar för koldioxidavskiljning i Sverige2010Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Bryngelsson, Mårten
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Westermark, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Oxygen efficiency with regard to carbon capture2006In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 31, no 15, p. 3220-3226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon capture is often discussed in the literature with the sole focus on power processes, despite the fact that carbon dioxide emissions from other sources are just as relevant for the impact on the atmosphere. Furthermore, some carbon capture methods are relatively inefficient when applied to power production processes. Carbon capture should preferably be performed where the cost is as low as possible, i.e. not necessarily from power production processes. As an example, carbon capture using combustion with pure oxygen is far more energy efficient if it is used together with lime kilns or cement kilns than together with power production processes. A new concept termed "oxygen efficiency" is introduced in this paper. It describes the amount of carbon dioxide that can potentially be captured per unit of oxygen. As such, the oxygen efficiency quantifies the value of a certain unit of oxygen for carbon capture reasons. The base concept is that the energy penalty for the production of one part of oxygen is the same no matter where it is produced; hence, if this unit of oxygen can be used to capture more carbon dioxide, it is more efficient. Typically, the oxygen efficiency would be five times greater for carbon capture when utilising pure oxygen together with cement kilns rather than together with methane-fired power plants. Furthermore, the concept of oxygen efficiency illustrates the importance of considering how carbon capture methods can be utilised in the most efficient way, in addition to evaluating which carbon capture method is the most suitable for a particular technology.

  • 12.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Bryngelsson, Mårten
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Westermark, Mats
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Oxygen efficiency with regards to carbon capture2004In: Energy-Efficient, Cost-Effective and Environmentally-Sustainable Systems and Processes, Vols 1-3 / [ed] Rivero, R; Monroy, L; Pulido, R; Tsatsaronis, G, MEXICO: INST MEXICANO DEL PETROLEO , 2004, p. 487-496Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon capture is often discussed in the literature with the sole focus on power processes, despite the fact that carbon dioxide emissions from other sources are just as relevant for the impact oil the atmosphere. Furthermore, some carbon capture methods are relatively inefficient when applied to power production processes. Carbon capture should preferably be performed where the cost is as low as possible, i.e. not necessarily from power production processes. As all example, carbon capture using combustion with pure oxygen is far more energy efficient if it is used together with lime kilns or cement kilns than together with power production processes. A new concept termed "oxygen efficiency" is introduced in this paper. It describes the amount of carbon dioxide that can potentially be captured per unit of oxygen. As such, the oxygen efficiency quantifies the value of a certain unit of oxygen for carbon capture reasons. The base concept is that the energy penalty for the production of one part of oxygen is the same no matter where it is produced; hence, if this unit of oxygen call be used to capture more carbon dioxide, it is more efficient. Typically, the oxygen efficiency would be five times greater for carbon capture when utilising pure oxygen together with cement kilns rather than together with methane-fired power plants. Furthermore, the concept of oxygen efficiency illustrates the importance of considering how carbon capture methods can be utilised in the most efficient way, in addition to evaluating which carbon capture method is the most suitable for a particular technology.

  • 13. Grönkvist, Stefan
    et al.
    Dahlberg, Linn
    Lundberg, Håkan
    Martinsson, Carina
    Stenkvist, Maria
    Analys av metoder för att öka incitament för spillvärmesamarbeten2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    et al.
    ÅF.
    et al.,
    Lagstiftnings- och acceptansfrågor av relevans för en etablering av CCS i Östersjöregionen2010Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    et al.
    ÅF.
    et al.,
    Systemstudie av möjligheter att etablera en infrastruktur för CCS i Östersjöregionen2010Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    et al.
    ÅF.
    Grundfelt, Ellenor
    ÅF.
    Sjögren, Helena
    ÅF.
    CO2-avskiljning i Sverige2008Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    et al.
    ÅF.
    Hylander, Bengt
    ÅF.
    Möjligheter för avskiljning och lagring av koldioxid i Sverige: Underlagsrapport till Vägval för framtidens teknikutveckling2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18. Grönkvist, Stefan
    et al.
    Liljeblad, Anna
    Nohlgren, Ingrid
    Söderblom, Johan
    Mapping the Baltic Sea on Technology Developments: compilation of questionnaires2010Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Marbe, Åsa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Möllersten, Kenneth
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Sundgren, David
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Fyra studier av energisamarbete i Sverige2001Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Möllersten, Kenneth
    Division of Energy Engineering, Department of Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Luleå University of Technology.
    Pingoud, Kim
    Finnish Forest Research Institute.
    Equal opportunity for biomass in greenhouse gas accounting of CO2 capture and storage: a step towards more cost-effective climate change mitigation regimes2006In: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN 1381-2386, E-ISSN 1573-1596, Vol. 11, no 5-6, p. 1083-1096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide capture and permanent storage (CCS) is one of the most frequently discussed technologies with the potential to mitigate climate change. The natural target for CCS has been the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil energy sources. However, CCS has also been suggested in combination with biomass during recent years. Given that the impact on the earth's radiative balance is the same whether CO2 emissions of a fossil or a biomass origin are captured and stored away from the atmosphere, we argue that an equal reward should be given for the CCS, independent of the origin of the CO2. The guidelines that provide assistance for the national greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting under the Kyoto Protocol have not considered CCS from biomass (biotic CCS) and it appears that it is not possible to receive emission credits for biotic CCS under the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, i.e., 2008-2012. We argue that it would be unwise to exclude this GHG mitigation alternative from the competition with other GHG mitigation options. We also propose a feasible approach as to how emission credits for biotic CCS could be included within a future accounting framework.

  • 21.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Peck, Philip
    Lund University.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Larsson, Mårten
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Khedkar, Prasad
    Lund University.
    Policy Instruments Directed at Renewable Transportation Fuels: An International Comparison2013Report (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Sandberg, Peter
    Tekniska högskolan vid Linköpings universitet.
    Driving forces and obstacles with regard to co-operation between municipal energy companies and process industries in Sweden2006In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 34, no 13, p. 1508-1519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating networks can technically enable energy-related co-operations between energy-intensive industries and municipal energy companies. The most common form of co-operation is to utilise industrial waste heat as the primary energy source in district heating networks. However, another type of co-operation is to jointly own a plant that produces both process steam for the industry and hot water for district heating. In this article, eight Swedish energy co-operations are studied and the main focus is on the process leading to co-operations of this kind. Different aspects of factors that facilitate or obstruct the start up and continuous daily operation of a co-operation are discussed. The main conclusion is that while the primary reasons for the foundation of such co-operations are favourable techno-economic factors, this is not enough for a co-operation to emerge. This study highlights the importance of people with a real ambition to co-operate in both parties in the co-operations.

  • 23.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Sjödin, Jörgen
    Linköping Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Energy Systems.
    Westermark, Mats
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Models for assessing net CO2 emissions applied on district heating technologies2003In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 601-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methodologies to assess the effects of energy projects on global carbon dioxide emissions will be an important feature of a future international carbon dioxide trading system. In this paper, we present and discuss four different models for assessing the net carbon dioxide emissions resulting from a certain energy project. These models are applied to different district heating technologies. To judge the mitigation performance of a project, the amount of carbon dioxide released in kilograms is expressed per megawatt-hour of useful district heating produced. All the models consider the marginal change caused by the project on the electric power system. The different model perspectives are discussed, and it is shown that the choice of model is very critical for assessing the net carbon dioxide emissions from an energy project.

  • 24.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    et al.
    ÅF.
    Stenkvist, Maria
    ÅF.
    Paradis, Hanna
    ÅF.
    Nordeuropeisk energikarta2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25. Larsson, M.
    et al.
    Mohseni, F.
    Wallmark, C.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Alvfors, Per
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Energy system analysis of the implications of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in the Swedish road transport system2014In: 20th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, WHEC 2014, 2014, p. 2084-2091Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus on pathways to reduce the use of fossil fuels in the transport sector is intense in many countries worldwide. Considering that biofuels have a limited technical production potential and that battery electric vehicles suffer from technical limitations that put constraints on their general use in the transport sector, hydrogen-fuelled fuel cell vehicles may become a feasible alternative. Introduction of hydrogen in the transport sector will also transform the energy sector and create new interactions. The aim of this paper is to analyse the consequences and feasibility of such an integration in Sweden. Different pathways for hydrogen, electricity and methane to the transport sector are compared with regard to system energy efficiency. The efficiencies for hydrogen and electricity are used for estimating the energy resources needed for hydrogen production and electric vehicles for a future Swedish transport sector based on renewable fuels. The analysis reveal that the well to wheel system efficiencies for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are comparable to those of methane gas vehicles, even when methane gas is the primary energy source. The results further indicate that an increased hydrogen demand may have a less than expected impact on the primary energy supply in Sweden.

  • 26.
    Larsson, Mårten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Factors that influence the development of biogas: Report from an f3 R&D project2013Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Larsson, Mårten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Alvfors, Per
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Barriers and drivers for upgraded biogas in Sweden2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Larsson, Mårten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Alvfors, Per
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Synthetic fuels from electricity for the Swedish transport sector: comparison of well to wheel energy efficiencies and costs2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 1875-1880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthetic fuels based on electricity, water, and carbon dioxide (CO2) may be necessary to cover the fuel demand in a sustainable transport sector based on renewable energy sources. The aim of this paper is to compare hydrogen, methane, methanol and diesel produced in this way. The main parameters for the analysis are well to wheel energy efficiency and costs, and the fuels are analysed in a Swedish context. The results indicate that methane and diesel could have the potential to be cost competitive in the near term, at least if common incentivesfor renewable transportation fuels are applied. Moreover, that hydrogen is the best option in terms of well to wheel energy efficiency, and that it in the longer term also may be cost competitive to the other fuels.

  • 29.
    Larsson, Mårten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Alvfors, Per
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Upgraded biogas for transport in Sweden: effects of policy instruments on production, infrastructure deployment and vehicle sales2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 112, p. 3774-3784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is a leading country in the development of upgraded biogas for use in the transport sector. The introduction of a new vehicle fuel is complex when the production, infrastructure, and vehicle fleet must be developed simultaneously. The aim of this article is to present and analyse the development of upgraded biogas in the Swedish transport sector in relation to policy instruments and the availability of a natural gas grid. Plausible implications for the future development of the biogas system are also analysed.

    The development of upgraded biogas in Sweden's transport sector is heavily influenced in several ways by domestic policy instruments. Investment support schemes and exemptions from energy and carbon dioxide taxes have been key instruments in initiating the construction of new biogas production facilities and infrastructure. The study of the biogas development in relation to the natural gas grid presented in this article indicates that it may not be necessary to construct a comprehensive network of pipelines for methane (natural gas) to develop the market – at least not initially. In Sweden and elsewhere the biogas volumes will still be quite small in the near future and it is possible to achieve biogas development without an available methane gas grid.

    Public procurement, investment schemes and reduced fringe benefit tax have likely been important policy instruments in the introduction of biogas vehicles, whereas the support for private biogas cars has been short-sighted in some ways, and not sufficient to achieve a competitive cost of ownership for biogas cars in relation to diesel cars.

    The future strategy for biogas should be based on a realistic potential for using biogas in the transport sector; this would determine whether further market expansion is necessary or if incentives should be focused on development of the production side to cover the current demand for vehicle gas.

    The development of biogas production likely depends on continued tax exemptions, which are currently available only until the end of 2015; it is uncertain whether they will remain in place. If biogas should be promoted further among private car owners, more visible incentives for private cars are needed together with incentives for expanding the fuelling infrastructure network.

  • 30.
    Larsson, Mårten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Jansson, Mikael
    Innventia, Sweden.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Alvfors, Per
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Techno-economic assessment of anaerobic digestion in a typical Kraft pulp mill to produce biomethane for the road transport sector2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 104, p. 460-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable waste-based fuels may decrease the resource use and environmental impact of the road transport sector; one of the options is biogas produced via anaerobic digestion of waste streams from pulp and paper mills. This paper describes process simulation and economic assessments for two options for integrating anaerobic digestion and production of liquid biogas in a typical Nordic Kraft pulp mill: (1) a high-rate anaerobic reactor in the wastewater treatment, and (2) an external anaerobic stirred tank reactor for the treatment of primary and secondary sludge as well as Kraft evaporator methanol condensate. The results revealed an annual production potential of 26-27 GWh biogas in an average Nordic Kraft pulp mill, which is equivalent to a daily production of 7600 L of diesel in terms of energy, and the production cost was estimated to (sic)0.47-0.82 per litre diesel equivalent, comparable with the Swedish price of (sic)0.68 per litre diesel.

    However, for the cases with liquid biogas (LBG), a discounted payback period of about 8 years may not be considered profitable by the industry. Other pre-requisites may, however, improve the profitability: a larger mill; production of compressed biogas instead of liquid biogas; or, for case 1, a comparison with the alternative cost for expanding the wastewater treatment capacity with more process equipment for activated sludge treatment. The results reveal that anaerobic digestion at pulp mills may both expand the production of renewable vehicle fuel but also enable increased efficiency and revenue at Kraft pulp mills.

  • 31.
    Larsson, Mårten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Mosheni, Farzad
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Wallmark, Cecilia
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Alvfors, Per
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Energy system analysis of the implications of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in the Swedish road transport system2015In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 40, no 35, p. 11722-11729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus on pathways to reduce the use of fossil fuels in the transport sector is intense in many countries worldwide. Considering that biofuels have a limited technical production potential and that battery electric vehicles suffer from technical limitations that put constraints on their general use in the transport sector, hydrogen-fuelled fuel cell vehicles may become a feasible alternative. Introduction of hydrogen in the transport sector will also transform the energy sector and create new interactions. The aim of this paper is to analyse the consequences and feasibility of such an integration in Sweden. Different pathways for hydrogen, electricity and methane to the transport sector are compared with regard to system energy efficiency. The well-to-wheel energy efficiencies for hydrogen and electricity are used for estimating the energy resources needed for hydrogen production and electric vehicles for a future Swedish transport sector based on renewable fuels. The analysis reveal that the well-to-wheel system efficiencies for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are comparable to those of methane gas vehicles, even when biomethane is the energy source. The results further indicate that an increased hydrogen demand may have a less than expected impact on the primary energy supply in Sweden.

  • 32.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Forest-derived methane in the Swedish transport sector: A closing window?2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 105, p. 440-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest-derived methane could complement biogas from anaerobic digestion as a transport fuel. The conditions for a systemic transition have been analyzed in this article. The analysis contains three blocks: the vehicle gas development, the policy framework, and commercial projects to produce methane from forest biomass. The results reveal that several conditions for a systemic transition are in place. There is established infrastructure for feedstock supply and biofuels distribution. Infrastructure development is an important albeit not determining factor. Private and public actors have advanced plans for commercial scale plants, technological know-how, and experience from a demonstration plant. However, a major barrier for a systemic transition is the low predictability of Swedish policy instruments. The Swedish government is not free to design policy instruments but must consider compatibility with the EU framework and has changed the energy tax on biofuels several times to avoid overcompensation according to the EU regulation. This has contributed to the low predictability. The interviewees have suggested several concrete policy instruments. However, they have also emphasized that the exact design of the policy instruments is less important than the predictability of the support. 

  • 33.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    How can forest-derived methane complement biogas from anaerobic digestion in the Swedish transport sector?2016Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest-derived methane may contribute significantly to a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels by 2030. At present, there is sufficient technical knowledge about energy conversion methods and several Swedish actors have investigated and prepared investments in production facilities, but the technology is not commercially mature yet and it needs support during a development period. Investments in the technology have become less favorable because of the drop in the oil price in 2014. In addition, the predictability of the policy instruments supporting production and use of renewable energy are perceived as low by investors. This report emphasize that these factors combined are major reasons why potential investments are postponed.

    We have conducted a literature study and an interview study with three industry actors to answer the question “How can forest derived methane complement biogas from anaerobic digestion in the Swedish transport sector?” Interviews were mostly conducted in situ and in co-operation with the f3 project “Examining systemic constraints and drivers for production of forest-derived transport biofuels” (f3 2014-002370). The literature study included the recent development of renewable transport fuels in Sweden, existing and proposed policy instruments, and possible technical pathways from forest biomass to transport fuels.

    Sweden has accomplished a high share of renewables in the transport sector – 12 % based on energy content or 17 % when accounting in accordance with the EU Renewable Energy Sources Directive (RES). Thus, Sweden has the highest share of renewables in the transport sector among the member states and has with a good margin accomplished the EU-RES target of 10 % renewables by 2020. The use of electricity in plug-in electric vehicles is not included in these figures and the number of electric vehicles is increasing rapidly.

    The most common biofuels in transport are biodiesel, ethanol, and biogas. Biodiesel increases rapidly, mainly through low blend-in, and is now the most common biofuel in the Swedish transport sector. The majority is HVO (Hydrotreated Vegetable Oils), but the share of FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Esters) is still considerable. The use of ethanol peaked during 2008 and has been decreasing since then. Ethanol is distributed through both low and high blend-in (E5 and E85).

    The use of upgraded biogas in the transport sector has increased continuously since its introduction 1996. Upgraded biogas is complemented by natural gas to meet the vehicle gas demand. A voluntary agreement among the distributors maintains a minimum biogas share that corresponds to 50 %. The biogas share is much higher today (74 % by volume, average Jan.-Aug. 2015) and some large end-users use pure upgraded biogas. Upgraded biogas is mainly distributed in compressed form through gas cylinders (79 %), but also through injection to the natural gas grid (21 %). Very little biogas is distributed in liquid form (LBG).

    Studies of the practical production potential shows that the current vehicle gas demand could be met entirely with upgraded biogas. However, an increased demand will eventually require other production pathways based on other feedstocks. Gasification of forest biomass is one such pathway. One alternative is that an increased demand is met with natural gas, resulting in fossil lock-in effects. Another alternative is a stagnated vehicle gas market.

    Production of upgraded biogas and use in the transport sector have been promoted in different ways, e.g., demand on handling of waste that will promote anaerobic digestion, investment support to production facilities, support to distribution infrastructure, environmental car premiums, and exemptions of energy and CO2 taxes. The tax exemptions are only granted until the end of 2015 but the Swedish government has applied for permission to the European Commission for a tax exemption until the end of 2020. A biofuel may only be compensated to a certain level to comply with rules set by the European Commission. If the renewable alternative is cheaper because of tax exemptions or tax reductions it is considered as overcompensation and illegal state aid and the compensation has to be adjusted. This has in Sweden occurred for FAME, E5 and E85, but since the cost for biogas is almost twice that of natural gas, it is not likely that the tax exemptions for biogas will be considered as illegal state aid. 

    Among the suggested policy instruments in the FFF inquiry are the price premium model and the quota obligation. The government prepared for a quota obligation but it was later withdrawn because the European Commission considered it as illegal state aid when combined with Sweden´s current CO2 tax. These changes decrease the predictability for potential investors. The actors that we have interviewed propose different policy instruments to promote production of transport fuels from forest biomass: the price premium model, a quota obligation, or a system inspired by the tradable green certificate system. However, more important than the type of policy instrument is that the support is substantial and predictable during the pay back period of the investment.

    There is a large potential in forest biomass for transport fuel production in Sweden. Different pathways, which result in different transport fuels, compete not only for the feedstock and the end-users, but also for financing, research & development funds, and the policy makers’ attention. This study suggests that:

    • In order to attract investments in forest-derived methane, the vehicle gas market must continue to increase.  Increased policy support directed at the demand may be needed. This is because the gasification technology is sensitive to economies of scale and the size of the facilities that have been considered are equivalent to the entire market for upgraded biogas. To invest in such a facility implies too large a risk given the size of the current demand and the uncertainties of the future market.
    • If methane should be able to play an increasingly important role in a future transportation sector, the gasification technology need policy support during a development period.
    • The predictability of policy support is perceived as low. The predictability is more important than the specific type of policy instrument to attract investments. The interviewees in this report suggest the following policy instruments for the support of forest-derived methane: the price premium model, a quota obligation, or a system inspired by the tradable green certificate system.
    • The current low oil price decreases the likelihood for investments. Policy instruments that compensate for the oil price risk are needed, e.g. the price premium model.
    • Swedish industry actors can realize the potential in forest biomass through production of transport fuels if beneficial conditions are given. Such a development does not only contribute to a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels but also to regional development.
  • 34.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Birbue, Juan Cristóbal
    Olsson, Jesper
    Espinosa, Cecilia
    Thorin, Eva
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Gómez, María F.
    Large-scale biogas generation in Bolivia – a stepwise reconfiguration2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 180, p. 494-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable energy is well recognized not only as resource that helps to protect the environment for future generations but also as a driver for development. Waste-to-energy systems can provide renewable energy and also improve sustainability in waste management. This article contributes a case study of stepwise reconfiguration of the waste management system in a developing country to the literature of transitions. The conditions for a systemic transition that integrates large-scale biogas generation into the waste management system have been analyzed. The method included a multi-criteria evaluation of three development steps for biogas, an economic analysis, and an institutional and organizational analysis. The results revealed economic as well as institutional and organizational barriers. Clearly, public and private sectors need to engage in sustainability. There is also a lack of pressure – mainly because of fossil fuel subsidies – that prevents a transition and creates a lock-in effect. To break the lock-in effect the municipality's institutional capacity should be strengthened. It is possible to strengthen biogas economically by integrated waste management services and sales of biofertilizer. A stepwise reconfiguration would be initiated by adopting technologies that are already established in many developed countries but are novelties in a Bolivian context – as a response to sustainability challenges related to waste management. The article focuses on the main challenges and the potential for biogas technology in Bolivia and a pathway towards a new, more sustainable system is suggested.

  • 35. Moellersten, Kenneth
    et al.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    All CO2 is equal in the atmosphere - A comment on CDM GHG accounting standards for methane recovery and oxidation projects2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 3675-3680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting with respect to two categories of methane recovery and oxidation activities (coal bed or coal mine methane recovery and landfill gas (LFG) recovery) within the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is analysed. It is found that baseline methodologies approved by the CDM Executive Board apply systematically inconsistent assumptions concerning the global warming impact of carbon dioxide emissions from the oxidation of methane. One important implication of the results is that applying the baseline methodologies approved for project activities involving LFG recovery will lead to overestimation of the net GHG abatement effect of such CDM project activities.

  • 36.
    Olsson, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Lind, M.
    Yan, Jinyue
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    The elephant in the room - A comparative study of uncertainties in carbon offsets2016In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 56, p. 32-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The clean development mechanism (CDM) is a flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol, which makes it possible for developed countries to offset their emissions of greenhouse gases through investing in climate change mitigation projects in developing countries. When the mitigation benefit of a CDM project is quantified, measurable uncertainties arise that can be minimised using established statistical methods. In addition, some unmeasurable uncertainties arise, such as the rebound effect of demand-side energy efficiency projects. Many project types related to land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) have been excluded from the CDM in part because of the high degree of statistical uncertainty in measurements of the carbon sink and risk of non-permanence. However, recent discussions within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have opened up for the possibility of including more LULUCF activities in the future. In the light of this discussion, we highlight different aspects of uncertainties in LULUCF projects (e.g. the risk of non-permanence and the size of the carbon sink) in relation to other CDM project categories such as renewables and demand-side energy efficiency. We quantify the uncertainties, compare the magnitudes of the uncertainties in different project categories and conclude that uncertainties could be just as significant in CDM project categories such as renewables as in LULUCF projects. The CDM is a useful way of including and engaging developing countries in climate change mitigation and could be a good source of financial support for LULUCF mitigation activities. Given their enormous mitigation potential, we argue that additional LULUCF activities should be included in the CDM and other future climate policy instruments. Furthermore, we note that Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) are currently being submitted to the UNFCCC by developing countries. Unfortunately, the under-representation of LULUCF in comparison to its potential is evident in the NAMAs submitted so far, just as it has been in the CDM. Capacity building under the CDM may influence NAMAs and there is a risk of transferring the view on uncertainties to NAMAs.

  • 37.
    Peck, Philip
    et al.
    International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE) at Lund University.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Hansson, Julia
    Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL).
    Voytenko, Yulija
    International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE) at Lund University.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Investigating socio-technical and institutional constraints to development of forest-derived transport biofuels in Sweden: A Study design2015In: EUBSE 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest industry portfolio diversification into transport fuels is important for Swedish climate and energy policy goal achievement, and for Swedish forest industry competitiveness. This paper presents the research background and methodology for a project that examines constraints/drivers to the expansion of Swedish forest-derived transport biofuels. It focuses on the interaction of innovation niches with the incumbent socio-technical regime, and the interplay of innovators as they seek to advance their technology systems. The study is on going and about to enter field interviews using this preparatory work as a base. Literature reviews, interviews and web-survey(s) are to deliver improved understanding of the positions/views and activities of transportation biofuel producers, heavy transport motor platform developers, and incumbent petrochemical industry actors. The investigation addresses a) synergies or competition for resources or political support; b) proponent strategies in forest, biofuel and petrochemical sectors; c) general ‘viability perceptions’ for leading fuel-engine systems/pathways. It is to provide improved knowledge for decision-making to policy makers, industry, and researchers, regarding the structural function of important regime level drivers and constraints – and where policy interventions are a help/hinder to desired progress. This article delivers the theoretical considerations, research approach, and a mapping of research targets.

  • 38.
    Persson, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Drivers for and barriers to low-energy buildings in Sweden2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 109, p. 296-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From the perspective of construction companies, this paper investigates the existence and significance of barriers and driving forces for the implementation of energy-efficient houses in Sweden. Here, eleven construction companies that build low-energy buildings comparable in performance with passive houses have been interviewed. One conclusion is that there is not one specific barrier that keeps energy-efficient housing from taking off. Instead, the barriers include a whole range of issues that have to be considered. Internal pressure has been a strong contributor to the onset of passive house constructions within the companies and the results indicate that personal commitment is central and perhaps the strongest driver. A general reflection from the interviews is that there is a need to show both construction companies and potential customers that it is possible to build passive houses and that they exist. Unlike the national building regulations, which are not considered to be relevant when it comes to energy consumption, the future building regulations from the European Union are identified as a regulatory driver. Moreover, life-cycle thinking is reported to increase among actors, but that it would be beneficial if banks as well as real estate agents could develop a comprehensive view and become better at considering energy and LCC in their capital budgeting templates. Even if the interest for passive houses is considered low among the public, the market is identified as promising among the construction companies recently actually large enough to become a driver in itself.

  • 39.
    Persson, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Predictions of the heat consumption in a low-energy building usingan artificial neural networkManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Pingoud, Kim
    et al.
    Finnish Forest Research Institute.
    Schlamadinger, Bernhard
    Joanneum Research, Austria.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Brown, Sandra
    Winrock International, USA .
    Cowie, Annette
    State Forests of New South Wales, Australia .
    Marland, Gregg
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA.
    Approaches for inclusion of harvested wood products in future GHG inventories under the UNFCCC, and their consistency with the overall UNFCCC inventory reporting framework2004Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Sjödin, Jörgen
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping Inst. of Technology.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Emissions accounting for use and supply of electricity in the Nordic market2004In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 32, no 13, p. 1555-1564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the deregulated Nordic electricity market, countries have varying kinds of power generation. In Norway, hydropower generation dominates. while the Swedish electricity production largely consists of equal shares of hydro and nuclear power production. There is a larger share of fossil fuel power generation in Finland and, especially, in Denmark. Cross-border trade between the countries is considerable. Increased use of electricity anywhere in the region may thus entail augmented emissions of greenhouse gases. The amount of increased emissions due to additional electricity usage will depend on the type of generation supplying the additional electricity. Similarly, a decrease in electricity usage may involve reduced greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper. we discuss some different ways to account for changes in greenhouse gas emissions because of a changed use or supply of electricity. A comprehensive accounting scheme should provide an accurate link between various types of energy measures and their related emissions in order to facilitate cost-effective carbon dioxide mitigation procedures.

  • 42.
    Åkesson, Hans
    et al.
    ÅF.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    ÅF.
    Värdering av elmodellen på den svenska gasmarknaden2007Report (Other academic)
1 - 42 of 42
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