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  • 1.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hertz, Hans
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Liquid-Metal-Jet Anode Electron-Impact X-Ray Source2003In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 83, p. 1483-1485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A liquid-metal-jet anode for improved brightness in compact electron-impact x-ray source was investigated. The generated x-ray flux and brightness was quantitatively measured in the 7-50 keV spectral region and found to agree with the theory. Applications such as mammography, angiography, and diffraction would benefit from a compact high-brightness source.

  • 2.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    The liquid-metal-jet anode x-ray source2004In: Proceedings of The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2004, p. 421-431Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a novel electron-impact x-ray source based on a high-speed liquid-metal-jet anode. Basic thermal power load calculations indicate that this new anode concept potentially could increase the achievable brightness in compact electron-impact x-ray sources by more than a factor 100 compared to current state-of-the-art rotating-anode or microfocus sources. A first, successful, low-power proof-of-principle experiment is described and the feasibility of scaling to high-brightness and high-power operation is discussed. Some possible applications that would benefit from such an increase in brightness are also briefly described.

  • 3.
    Hemberg, Oskar
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    A Liquid-Metal-Jet Anode X-Ray Tube2004In: Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, ISSN 0091-3286, E-ISSN 1560-2303, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 1682-1688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a novel electron-impact x-ray source based on a high-speed liquid-metal-jet anode. Thermal power load calculations indicate that this new anode concept potentially could increase the achievable brightness in compact electron-impact x-ray sources by more than a factor 100 compared to current state-of-the-art rotating-anode or microfocus sources. A first, successful, low-power proof-of-principle experiment is described and the feasibility of scaling to high-brightness and high-power operation is discussed. Some possible applications that would benefit from such an increase in brightness are also briefly

  • 4.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Bertilson, Michael C.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Chubarova, Elena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hofsten, Olov Von
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Holmberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Lindblom, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Lundström, Ulf
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Reinspach, Julia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Skoglund, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Takman, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Laboratory X-ray micro- and nano-imaging2009In: Frontiers in Optics (FiO) 2009, Optical Society of America, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We summarize recent progress in laboratory x-ray imaging systems based on compact high-brightness liquid-jet sources, including <25 nm soft x-ray zone-plate microscopy and <10 μm (lens-free) hard x-ray phase-contrast imaging.

  • 5.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Bertilson, Michael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Chubarova, Elena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Ewald, Johannes
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Gleber, S-C
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Henriksson, M.
    von Hofsten, Olov
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Holmberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Lindblom, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Mudry, Emeric
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Reinspach, Julia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Schlie, Moritz Gustav
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Skoglund, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Takman, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Thieme, J.
    Sedlmair, J.
    Tjörnhammar, Richard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vita, M.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Laboratory x-ray micro imaging: Sources, optics, systems and applications2009In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We summarize the recent progress in laboratory-scale soft and hard x-ray micro imaging in Stockholm. Our soft x-ray work is based on liquid-jet laser-plasma sources which are combined with diffractive and multilayer optics to form laboratory x-ray microscopes. In the hard x-ray regime the imaging is based on a liquid-metal-jet electron-impact source which provides the necessary coherence to allow phase-contrast imaging with high fidelity.

  • 6.
    Hertz, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Metod för alstring av röntgenstrålning genom elektronbestrålning av en flytande substans2006Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Jansson, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hansson, B. A. M.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Holmberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    De Groot, Jaco
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hertz, Hans
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Liquid-tin-jet laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet generation2004In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 84, no 13, p. 2556-2258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate the applicability of liquid-metal jets in vacuum as regenerative targets for laser-plasma generation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray radiation. This extends the operation of liquid jet laser-plasma,sources to high-temperature, high-Z, high-density, low-vapor-pressure materials with new spectral signatures. The system is demonstrated using tin (Sn) as the target due to its strong emission around lambdaapproximate to13 nm, which makes the material suitable for EUV lithography. We show a conversion efficiency of 2.5% into (2% BW x 2pi x sr) and report quantitative measurements of the ionic/atomic as well as particulate debris emission.

  • 8.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    A Compact High-Brightness Liquid-Metal-Jet X-Ray Source2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the development and characterization of a compact high-brightness liquid-metal-jet anode x-ray source. Initial calculations show that a source based on this concept could potentially lead to a >100-fold increase of the brightness compared to current state-of-the-art rotating-anode x-ray sources. This improvement is due to an increased thermal load capacity of the anode.

    A low-power proof-of-principle source has been built, and experiments show that the liquid-metal-jet anode can be operated at more than an order of magnitude higher power densities than modern solid-metal anodes. This brightness enhancement has been utilized to acquire in-line phase-contrast images of weakly absorbing objects with substantially shorter exposure times than previously reported. To be able to target different application areas different liquid-jet-anode materials have been tested. The Sn-jet anode could potentially be used in mammography examinations, whereas the Ga-jet could be utilized for, e.g., protein-structure determination with x-ray diffraction.

    Scaling to higher power and brightness levels is discussed and seems conceivable. A potential obstacle for further development of this source concept, the generation of a microscopic high-speed liquid-metal jet in vacuum, is investigated and is proven to be feasible. Dynamic-similarity experiments using water jets to simulate 30-μm, ~500-m/s tin and gallium jets show good coherence and directional stability of the jet. Other potential difficulties in the further source development, such as excessive debris emission and instabilities of the x-ray emission spot, are also investigated in some detail.

    Download full text (pdf)
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  • 9.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Liquid-metal-jet anode for high-brightness hard-X-ray generation2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 10.
    Otendal, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hemberg, Oskar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Microscopic High-Speed Liquid-Metal Jets in Vacuum2005In: Experiments in Fluids, ISSN 0723-4864, E-ISSN 1432-1114, Vol. 39, p. 799-804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a novel electron-impact x-ray source based on a high-speed liquid-metal-jet anode. Thermal power load calculations indicate that this new anode concept potentially could increase the achievable brightness in compact electron-impact x-ray sources by more than a factor 100 compared to current state-of-the-art rotating-anode or microfocus sources. A first, successful, low-power proof-of-principle experiment is described and the feasibility of scaling to high-brightness and high-power operation is discussed. Some possible applications that would benefit from such an increase in brightness are also briefly

  • 11.
    Otendal, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Touhimaa, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    A 9 keV electron-impact liquid-gallium-jet x-ray source2008In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 016102-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a high-brightness compact 9 keV electron-impact microfocus x-ray source based on a liquid-gallium-jet anode. A similar to 30 W, 50 kV electron gun is focused onto the similar to 20 m/s, 30 mu m diameter liquid-gallium-jet anode to produce an similar to 10 mu m full width at half maximum x-ray spot. The peak spectral brightness is >2 x 10(10) photons/(s mm(2) mrad(2) x 0.1% BW). Calculation and experiments show potential for increasing this brightness by approximately three orders of magnitude, making the source suitable for laboratory-scale x-ray crystallography and hard x-ray microscopy.

  • 12.
    Otendal, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Status of the liquid-metal-jet-anode electron-impact x-ray source2004In: X-RAY SOURCES AND OPTICS / [ed] MacDonald, CA; Macrander, AT; Ishikawa, T; Morawe, C; Wood, JL, BELLINGHAM: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2004, Vol. 5537, p. 57-63Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have demonstrated a new electron-impact hard-x-ray source based on a liquid-metal-jet anode in a proof-of-principle experiment. Initial calculations show that this new anode concept potentially allows a >100x increase in source brightness compared to today's compact hard-x-ray sources. In this paper we report on the scale up of the system to medium electron-beam power resulting in a brightness comparable to current state-of-the-art sources. The upgraded system combines a similar to20-mum diameter liquid-tin jet operating at similar to60 m/s with a 50 kV, 600 W electron beam focused to similar to150 mum FWHM. We describe the properties of the current system, experimental results, as well as a brief discussion of key issues for future high-power scaling.

  • 13.
    Otendal, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Stability and debris in high-brightness liquid-metal-jet-anode microfocus x-ray sources2007In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 101, no 2, p. 026102-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the x-ray spot stability and the debris emission in liquid-metal-jet anode electron-impact x-ray sources operating in the 10-100 W microfocus regime. The x-ray spot size is 15-23 mu m in diameter and the electron-beam power density is up to similar to 210 kW/mm(2), an order of magnitude higher than for conventional microfocus sources. In the power range of the investigation the source is stable in terms of spot size and position. The debris emission rate increases exponentially with the applied electron-beam power but may be reduced by combining larger and faster target jets with smaller e-beam foci and by mitigation schemes. It is concluded that the investigated factors will not limit the performance and function of liquid-metal-jet-anode electron-impact microfocus sources when operating in this high-brightness regime.

  • 14.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    High-intensity electron beam for liquid-metal-jet anode hard x-ray generation2005In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 5918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on our progress towards the experimental realization of a liquid-metal-jet-anode x-ray source with high brightness. We have previously shown that this electron-impact source has potential for very high x-ray brightness by combining small-spot high-flux operation of the electron beam with high-speed operation of the regenerative liquid-metal-jet anode. In the present paper we review the system and describe theoretical calculations for improving the 50 kV, 600 W electron-beam focussing to ∼30 μm spot size. With such a system the power density on the liquid-metal-jet would be ∼400 kW/mm 2, i.e., more than an order of magnitude higher than the power density on a state-of-the-art rotating anode.

  • 15.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with a liquid-metal-jet-anode microfocus source2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 91, no 7, p. 074104-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phase-contrast methods increase contrast, detail, and selectivity in x-ray imaging. Present compact x-ray sources do not provide the necessary spatial coherence with sufficient power to allow the laboratory-scale high-resolution phase-contrast imaging with adequate exposure times. In this letter, the authors demonstrate phase-contrast imaging with few-micron detail employing a compact similar to 6.5 mu m spot liquid-metal-jet-anode high-brightness microfocus source. The 40 W source is operated at more than ten times higher electron-beam power density than present microfocus sources and is shown to provide sufficient spatial coherence as well as scalability to high power, thereby enabling the application of phase-contrast x-ray imaging with short exposure times in clinics and laboratories.

  • 16.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    X-Ray Imaging with an Electron- Impact Liquid-Metal-Jet-Anode SourceIn: Radiology, ISSN 0033-8419, E-ISSN 1527-1315Article in journal (Other academic)
1 - 16 of 16
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  • apa
  • ieee
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