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  • 1. Andersson, C
    et al.
    Authén, S
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Increased user-friendliness and transparency in PSA models: Phase 1. Pre-study2010Report (Other academic)
  • 2. Andersson, C.
    et al.
    Authén, S.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT, Espoo, Finland.
    User-friendliness and transparency in PSA modelling2010In: Proc. of PSAM 10 — International Probabilistic Safety Assessment & Management Conference, 7–11 June 2010, Seattle, Washington, USA, IAPSAM — International Association of Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants were originally created to make conservative estimates of the core damage frequencies for internal events, which might occur during power operation. The PSA models have then been expanded to replace conservative estimates with more realistic assumptions and to include other types of initiating events, modes of operation and end states. The development has resulted in very large and detailed models, which are hard to understand completely, even for an experienced PSA engineer. Today, the trend to increase the level of detail and the scope of the PSA models continues as a consequence of regulatory requirements. Hence the Nordic PSA Group (NPSAG) has initiated a project with the aim of identifying methods to reduce the complexity of the PSA models. This paper presents and discusses the results of the first part of the project in which areas of importance for the user-friendliness and transparency of a PSA are identified.

  • 3. Authén, S.
    et al.
    Björkman, K.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Larsson, J.
    Guidelines for reliability analysis of digital systems in PSA context: Phase 1, Status Report2010Report (Other academic)
  • 4. Bengtsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rossi, Jukka
    Knochenhauer, Michael
    Probabilistic Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants; Phases 2-4: Final Report2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety goals are defined in different ways in different countries and also used differently. Many countries are presently developing them in connection to the transfer to risk-informed regulation of both operating nuclear power plants (NPP) and new designs. However, it is far from self-evident how probabilistic safety criteria should be defined and used. On one hand, experience indicates that safety goals are valuable tools for the interpretation of results from a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), and they tend to enhance the realism of a risk assessment. On the other hand, strict use of probabilistic criteria is usually avoided. A major problem is the large number of different uncertainties in a PSA model, which makes it difficult to demonstrate the compliance with a probabilistic criterion. Further, it has been seen that PSA results can change a lot over time due to scope extensions, revised operating experience data, method development, changes in system requirements, or increases of level of detail, mostly leading to an increase of the frequency of the calculated risk. This can cause a problem of consistency in the judgments.

    This report presents the results from the second, third and fourth phases of the project (2007–2009), which have dealt with providing guidance related to the resolution of some specific problems, such as the problem of consistency in judgement, comparability of safety goals used in different industries, the relationship between criteria on different levels, and relations between criteria for level 2 and 3 PSA. In parallel, additional context information has been provided. This was achieved by extending the international overview by contributing to and benefiting from a survey on PSA safety criteria which was initiated in 2006 within the OECD/NEA Working Group Risk.

    The results from the project can be used as a platform for discussions at the utilities on how to define and use quantitative safety goals. The results can also be used by safety authorities as a reference for risk-informed regulation. The outcome can have an impact on the requirements on PSA, e.g., regarding quality, scope, level of detail, and documen¬tation. Finally, the results can be expected to support on-going activities concerning risk-informed applications.

    The project provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art description and has contributed to clarifying the history of safety goals both nationally and internationally, the concepts involved in defining and applying probabilistic safety criteria, and the international status and trends in general. It has identified critical issues and the main problem areas. Finally, the project provides useful recommendations and guidance on the definition and application of criteria.

    Furthermore, the project makes it possible to define criteria stringently, improving the possibilities of argumentation on safety. Generally, this supports efficient use of criteria, yielding more useful PSA results. In this connection, the introduction of ALARP type criteria is judged to provide a very useful way of balancing stringency with the necessary flexibility. There is a possibility of making more active use of lower level criteria. This makes the connection to defence in depth more evident, and opens the perspective of increased control of defence in depth by use of probabilistic methods, including the use as design tools. There is an opportunity for comparison of risk of different NPPs, as well as of comparison of NPP risk with other risks in society. This is judged to provide an opportunity for improved communication on risks with non-PSA experts and with the public in general. However, a necessary condition for meaningful comparisons is to agree on the scope of PSA and methods applied.

    Obviously, there will also be challenges in the future definition and application of probabilistic safety criteria. These include very general aspects, such as the interpretation of the probability, quality aspects of PSA, and the definition of meaningful and consistent risk criteria for different usages. The need and usefulness of subsidiary criteria has been stressed in the project, but there is obviously also a challenge in defining a relevant set of criteria on different levels. Defining criteria for L(E)RF is complex, especially if release criteria are defined as subsidiary for societal and individual risk. Finally, it will be a challenge to develop coherent application procedures relative to the criteria defined.

  • 5. Bengtsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rossi, Jukka
    Knochenhauer, Michael
    Probabilistic Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants; Phases 2-4: Final Report.2010Report (Other academic)
  • 6. Bladh, K.
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT.
    Kahlbom, U.
    Nirmark, J.
    Sparre, E.
    An approach to analyse human reliability during refuelling outage of a nuclear power plant2007In: Proc. of Enlarged Halden Programme Group Meeting, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human reliability analysis (HRA) constitutes a central role in the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for the low power and shutdown period of a nuclear power plant. This is because a large number of operative and maintenance activities take place during a refuelling outage when the plant, to a great extent, is disassembled, maintained, and then reassembled back to operational mode. The paper presents the HRA approach used in the shutdown PSA for Forsmark 1/2 and 3 nuclear power units in Sweden. Challenges of the analysis comprises handling the large scope of activities to be analysed, development and use of a quantification method consistent with the full power PSA, and integration of HRA with the “technical” part of PSA. Experiences from the analysis and results will also be discussed.

  • 7. Bladh, K.
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Nirmark, J.
    Sandstedt, J.
    Shutdown PSA for Forsmark 1/2 and 32006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8. Bladh, K.
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Pyy, P.
    An evaluation of the enhanced Bayesian THERP method using simulator data2009In: SAFETY, RELIABILITY AND RISK ANALYSIS: THEORY, METHODS AND APPLICATIONS, VOLS 1-4 / [ed] Martorell, S; Soares, CG; Barnett, J, London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2009, p. 227-232Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Enhanced Bayesian THERP (Technique for Human Reliability Analysis) method has been successfully used in real PSA-studies at Finnish and Swedish NPPs. The method offers a systematic approach to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze operator actions. In order to better know its characteristics from a more international perspective, it has been subject to evaluation within the framework of the "HRA Methods Empirical Study Using Simulator Data." This paper gives a brief overview of the method with major findings from the evaluation work including identified strengths and potential weaknesses of the method. A number of possible improvement areas have been identified and will be considered in future development of the method.

  • 9. Bladh, Kent
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Oxstrand, Johanna
    Chalmers.
    Pyy, Pekka
    Enhanced Bayesian THERP: Experience from HRA method evaluation2010In: Proceedings of  European Safety and Reliability, ESREL 2010, London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Enhanced Bayesian THERP (Technique for Human Reliability Analysis) method uses as its basis the time-reliability curve introduced in the Swain’s human reliability analysis (HRA) handbook. It differs from the Swain's Handbook via a transparent adjustment of the time-dependent human error probabilities by use of five performance shaping factors (PSFs): (1) support from procedures, (2) support from training, (3) feedback from process, (4) need for co-ordination and communication, (5) mental load, decision burden. In order to better know the characteristics of the Enhanced Bayesian THERP from a more international perspective, the method has been subject to evaluation within the framework of the international “HRA Methods Empirical Study Using Simulator Data”. Without knowledge of the crews’ performances, several HRA analysis teams from different countries, using different methods, performed predictive analyses of four scenarios. This paper gives an overview of the method with major findings from the benchmarking. The empirical comparison gives confidence that the time reliability curve is a feasible and cost effective method to estimate human error probabilities when the time window is well defined and relatively short. The comparison of empirical observations with predictions was found as an useful exercise to identify areas of improvements in the HRA method.

  • 10. Cronvall, O.
    et al.
    Männistö, I.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT, Finland.
    Pulkkinen, U.
    Development and application of risk informed in-service inspection analysis procedures2006In: SAFIR, The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2003–2006: Final Report, VTT Research Notes 2363, VTT. Espoo 2006, VTT , 2006, p. 92-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Characteristics and development of risk informed in-service inspection (RI-ISI) methodology for nuclear piping systems are examined in this report. This involves applying the combination of probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) and Markov system analyses, and by refining an existing and commonly applied risk analysis procedure. The applicability of the developed risk matrix approach was examined as a pilot study performed to a piping system in an existing Finnish nuclear power plant (NPP).

  • 11. De Gelder, Pieter
    et al.
    Hessel, Philippe
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finlan.
    Lanore, Jeanne-Marie
    Macsuga, Geza
    Homma, Toshimitsu
    Muramatasu, Ken
    Sung, Key-Yong
    Lee, Chang-Ju
    Amri, Abdallah
    Pyy, Pekka
    Kovàcs, Zoltan
    Schoen, Gerhard
    Knochenhauer, Michael
    Chao, Chun-Chn
    Kao, Tsu-Mu
    Gomez-Cobo, Anna
    Monninger, John
    Siu, Nathan
    Probabilistic Risk Criteria and Safety Goals: NEA/CSNI/R(2009)16, OECD, Nuclear Energy Agency, Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations, Paris, 20092009Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Hessel, Phillippe
    et al.
    Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT.
    Knochenhauer, Michael
    Relcon Scandpower.
    Amri, Abdallah
    OECD Nuclear Energy Agency.
    Status and Experience with the Technical Basis and Use of Probabilistic Risk Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants2010In: Proc. of PSAM 10: International Probabilistic Safety Assessment & Management Conference, International Association of Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management, paper 47, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Probabilistic safety criteria, including safety goals, have been progressively introduced byregulatory bodies and utilities. They range from high level qualitative statements to technical criteria.They have been published in different ways, from legal documents to internal guides. They can beapplied as legal limits down to “orientation values”. The OECD/NEA Working Group on Risk(WGRISK) prepared a questionnaire on the probabilistic risk criteria for nuclear power plants.Answers were received from 13 nuclear safety organizations and 6 utilities. The reported probabilisticr i s k c r i t e r i a c a n b e g r o u p e d i n t o 4 c a t e g o r i e s , i n r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e t o o l s t o b e u s e d f o r a s s e s s i n gcompliance: core damage frequency, releases frequency, frequency of doses and criteria oncontainment failure. Introduction of probabilistic safety criteria is generally considered to result insafety improvements. Opinion is widespread on the benefits of using probabilistic safety criteria forcommunication with the public, ranging from bad to good experiences. The responses to thequestionnaire suggested that more work should be considered in the definition of releases frequencies:some regulators include a time range (generally 24 hours) in the criterion while others do not limit thet i m e t o b e c o n s i d e r e d . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t , i n t h e f i r s t c a s e , t h e e x i s t i n g P S A s s h o u l d b e r e v i s i t e d t oassess if long development accident sequences were considered

  • 13.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    PPRISMA summary report2004In: SAFIR, The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2003–2006: Interim report, VTT Research Notes 2272 / [ed] H. Räty, E K Puska, Espoo , 2004, p. 266-272Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT, Finland.
    Principles and practices of risk-informed safety management (PPRISMA)2006In: SAFIR, The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2003–2006: Final Report, VTT Research Notes 2363. VTT. Espoo 2006 / [ed] H. & Puska, E.-K, VTT , 2006, p. 353-360Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The PPRISMA project deals with both risk-informed decision making and methods for risk assessment. Approaches have been developed to support maintenance and operability planning, management of fire situations and safety classification. Methods for the reliability assessment of computer-based systems and long term mission reliability analysis have been developed. In addition, the research activities are carried through international co-operation.

  • 15.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    VTT.
    Authén, S.
    Failure modes taxonomy for digital I&C systems: common framework for PSA and I&C experts2011In: Proc. of Nordic PSA Conference - Castle Meeting 2011, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Failure modes taxonomy is a framework of describing, classifying and naming failure modes associated with a system. Main uses of failure modes taxonomies are in the performance of reliability analyses and in the collection of operating experience (failure data) of technological systems. The Nordic NKS/NPSAG/SAFIR financed project DIGREL and the parallel OECD/NEA Working Group RISK activity DIGREL aim at developing technically sound and feasible failure modes taxonomy for reliability assessment of digital I&C systems for probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), and to provide guidelines on the use of taxonomy in modelling, data collection and quantification of digital I&C reliability.The scope of the taxonomy will include both protection and control systems of a nuclear power plant (with primary focus on protection systems) and both hardware and software related failure modes. The taxonomy will be developed jointly by PSA and I&C experts which have slightly different views and needs on defining the failure modes. The PSA experts’ perspective follows the needs of PSA modelling in order to capture relevant dependencies and to find justifiable reliability parameters. I&C experts are focused on failure mechanisms and their recovery means, e.g. V&V measures. An important aspect in the development of the taxonomy is for PSA and I&C experts to define the “meeting point” for the two perspectives.The paper will describe results of the DIGREL activity so far and discuss the commonalities and differences in PSA and I&C experts’ perspectives on failure modes.

  • 16.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Björkman, K.
    Hellström, P.
    Methods for risk follow-up and handling of CCF events in PSA applications2009Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Björkman, K.
    Rossi, J.
    Knochenhauer, M.
    He, X.
    Persson, A.
    Gustavsson, H.
    Probabilistic Safety Goals. Phase 2: Status Report2008Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Bladh, K
    Oxstrand, J
    Pekka, P
    The Application of the Enhanced Bayesian THERP in the HRA Methods Empirical Study Using Simulator Data2008In: Proc. of PSAM 9 — International Conference on Probabilistic Safety Assessment & Management, 18–23 May 2008, Hong Kong, China, IAPSAM — International Association of Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    PSAM 9. International Conference on Probabilistic Safety Assessment & Management. Hong Kong, China, 18 - 23 May 2008. Paper 0180 The enhanced Bayesian THERP (Technique for Human Reliability Analysis) method is based on the use of the time-reliability curve introduced in the Swain's human reliability analysis (HRA) handbook and on adjustment of the time-dependent human error probabilities with five performance shaping factors (PSFs): (1) support from procedures, (2) support from training, (3) feedback from process, (4) need for co-ordination and communication, (5) mental load, decision burden. In the enhanced Bayesian THERP, the PSFs are elicited by expert judgments, which are then aggregated in a Bayesian manner. This approach has been successfully used in real PSA-studies, where the plant operators have been the experts assessing the levels of the PSFs. The method has proven to be a systematic way to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze operator actions. This paper presents the application of the enhanced Bayesian THERP in an international study "HRA Methods Empirical Study Using Simulator Data." The enhanced Bayesian THERP (Technique for Human Reliability Analysis) method is based on the use of the time-reliability curve introduced in the Swain's human reliability analysis (HRA) handbook and on adjustment of the time-dependent human error probabilities with five performance shaping factors (PSFs): (1) support from procedures, (2) support from training, (3) feedback from process, (4) need for co-ordination and communication, (5) mental load, decision burden. In the enhanced Bayesian THERP, the PSFs are elicited by expert judgments, which are then aggregated in a Bayesian manner. This approach has been successfully used in real PSA-studies, where the plant operators have been the experts assessing the levels of the PSFs. The method has proven to be a systematic way to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze operator actions. This paper presents the application of the enhanced Bayesian THERP in an international study "HRA Methods Empirical Study Using Simulator Data

  • 19.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    VTT Statens tekniska forskningscentral.
    Bladh, Kent
    Vattenfall Power Consultant.
    Oxstrand, Johanna
    Ringhals AB.
    Pyy, Pekka
    Teollisuuden Voima Oy.
    Enhanced Bayesian THERP: Lessons learnt from HRA benchmarking2010In: Proc. of PSAM 10 — International Probabilistic Safety Assessment & Management Conference, 7–11 June 2010, Seattle, Washington, USA, IAPSAM — International Association of Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management, International Association for Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Managemen , 2010, p. 52-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Enhanced Bayesian THERP (Technique for Human Reliability Analysis) method usesas its basis the time-reliability curve introduced in the Swain’s human reliability analysis (HRA)handbook. It differs from the Swain's Handbook via a transparent adjustment of the time-dependenthuman error probabilities by use of five performance shaping factors (PSFs): (1) support fromprocedures, (2) support from training, (3) feedback from process, (4) need for co-ordination andcommunication, (5) mental load, decision burden. In order to better know the characteristics of theEnhanced Bayesian THERP from a more international perspective, the method has been subject toevaluation within the framework of the international “HRA Methods Empirical Study Using SimulatorData”. Without knowledge of the crews’ performances, several HRA analysis teams from differentcountries, using different methods, performed predictive analyses of four scenarios. This paper givesan overview of the method with major findings from the benchmarking. The empirical comparisongives confidence that the time reliability curve is a feasible and cost effective method to estimatehuman error probabilities when the time window is well defined and relatively short. The comparisonof empirical observations with predictions was found as a useful exercise to identify areas ofimprovements in the HRA method.

  • 20.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    VTT Statens tekniska forskningscentral.
    Hellström, Per
    Scandpower AB.
    Development of methods for risk follow-up and handling of CCF events in PSA applications2010In: Proc. of PSAM 10 — International Probabilistic Safety Assessment & Management Conference, 7–11 June 2010, Seattle, Washington, USA, IAPSAM — International Association of Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management, International Association for Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management , 2010, p. 53-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk follow-up aims at analysis of operational events from their risk point of view usingprobabilistic safety assessment (PSA) as the basis. Risk follow-up provides additional insight tooperational experience feedback compared to deterministic event analysis. Even though thisapplication of PSA is internationally widely spread and tried out for more than a decade at manynuclear power plants, there are several problematic issues in the performance of a retrospective riskanalysis as well as in the interpretation of the results.An R&D project sponsored by the Nordic PSA group (NPSAG) has focused on selected issues in thistopic. The main development needs were seen in the handling of CCF and the reference levels forresult presentation. CCF events can be difficult to assess due to possibilities to interpret the eventdifferently. Therefore a sensitivity study with varying assumptions is recommended as a generalapproach. Reference levels for indicators are proposed based on the survey of criteria usedinternationally. The paper summarizes the results.

  • 21.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    VTT Statens tekniska forskningscentral.
    Hukki, Kristiina
    VTT Statens tekniska forskningscentral.
    Interdisciplinary expert collaboration method (IECM) for supporting human reliability analysis in fire PSA2005In: Proc. of International Topical Meeting on Probabilistic Safety Analysis. San Francisco , CA, 11–15 Sept. 2005, American Nuclear Society , 2005, p. 1056-1061Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Interdisciplinary Expert Collaboration Method (IECM) has been developed for contributing to the development of risk-informed management of fire situations at nuclear power plants. The IECM provides a systematic practice and shared conceptual tool for the co-operation of experts from different domains, related to the management of fire situations. It is used for improving support for the management, but it can also contribute to the fire risk analysis by improving the realism of the human reliability analysis (HRA). The paper compares the IECM with the recommendations of the NUREG-1792 document (Good Practices for Implementing Human Reliability Analysis). Even though the method does not yet support the quantification of human error probabilities, it can be utilized in HRA in several manners.

  • 22.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Knochenhauer, M.
    Challenges in the Application of Probabilistic Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants2009In: 20th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology (SMiRT 20) / [ed] Vuori, Seppo; Rintamaa, Rauno, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Knochenhauer, M.
    Guidance for the Definition and Application of Probabilistic Safety Criteria2010Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland), Espoo, Finland.
    Knochenhauer, M.
    Probabilistic Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants: Status in Sweden and Finland2007In: RISK, RELIABILITY AND SOCIETAL SAFETY, VOLS 1-3: VOL 1: SPECIALISATION TOPICS; VOL 2: THEMATIC TOPICS; VOL 3: APPLICATIONS TOPICS / [ed] Aven & Vinnem, London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2007, p. 1383-1390Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes the results from the first phase of an ongoing Nordic research project titled "The Validity of Safety Goals". The focus in this phase is on describing the status and experiences of safety goals in Sweden and Finland. The work has clarified the basis for the evolvement of safety goals for nuclear power plants in Sweden and Finland and of experiences gained, and resulted in a multi-faceted picture of the interpretation of existing safety goals, and of views regarding the usage of the goals and of perceived development needs. To provide further perspective, crucial references related to the formulation and use of safety goals were identified and reviewed. The second phase will be carried out during 2007, and is planned to include a more general international overview, including a comparison with safety goals used in other industries as well as detailed studies of specific issues, e.g., the relationship between probabilistic and deterministic acceptance criteria.

  • 25.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Knochenhauer, M.
    Probabilistic Safety Goals. Phase 1: Status and Experiences in Sweden and Finland2007Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Knochenhauer, M.
    Rossi, J.
    Criteria for assessment of results from level 2 PSA2008In: Proc. of PSAM 9 — International Conference on Probabilistic Safety Assessment & Management, 18–23 May 2008, Hong Kong, China, IAPSAM — International Association of Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Probabilistic criteria are used to judge the acceptability of PSA results. Highest levelcriteria set limits to acceptable societal risk, which requires performance of level 3 PSA. In manycountries — including e.g. Finland and Sweden — performance of level 3 PSA is not required, andprobabilistic decision criteria (limits or targets) are defined only at core damage frequency and largerelease frequency level. The definition of probabilistic criteria for level 2 PSA has been one of the keyissues discussed in the Nordic study on validation of safety goals. There is a need to discuss and definemore precisely the decision criteria related to unacceptable releases, as they seem to be understooddifferently in different organizations. For instance, the inclusion or exclusion of long-term effectsmakes a big difference as well as the inclusion or exclusion of the affected population in neighboringcountries. This paper presents the summary and conclusions from the Nordic study with respect toprobabilistic criteria for level 2 PSA. In addition, the interpretation of the release criteria (<100 TBq,Cesium-137) defined in the Finnish regulatory guide YVL 2.8 will be presented by means of off-siteconsequences. Such assessments of the environmental consequences can be used as references tovalidate safety goals related to CDF and large releases as surrogates of societal risk.

  • 27.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Knochenhauer, Michael
    Probabilistic Safety Goals: Phase 3 Status Report2009Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    VTT Statens tekniska forskningscentral.
    Kuusela, Pirkko
    VTT Statens tekniska forskningscentral.
    Analysis of Probability of Defects in the Disposal Canisters2011Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Männistö, I.
    Risk-informed categorisation2006In: SAFIR, The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2003–2006: Interim report, VTT Research Notes 2272 / [ed] H. Räty, E K Puska, Espoo , 2006, p. 273-280Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk-informed categorisation is based on utilising PSA information in a consistent wayto select most cost-effective methods to control risk associated with systems, structuresand components. In the presented method, an item’s risk significance is broken in twoparts: probability of failure and the consequence of failure. Higher value in either willpossibly mean a higher risk category, depending on the limit values for each category.Risk categorisation aims at identification of items for improved reliability or addedredundancy, versus the mostly reliability enhancing measures in safety classification.

  • 30.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    VTT Statens tekniska forskningscentral.
    Männistö, Ilkka
    VTT Statens tekniska forskningscentral.
    Risk-informed classification of systems, structures and components2008In: Rakenteiden mekaniikka (Journal of Structural Mechanics), ISSN 0783-6104, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 90-98Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    VTT Statens tekniska forskningscentral.
    Nirmark, Jan
    Vattenfall Power Consultant.
    Risk-informed assessment of defence in depth, LOCA example: Phase 1: Mapping of conditions and definition of quantitative measures for the defence in depth levels2008Report (Other academic)
  • 32. Hukki, K.
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Development of co-operation between on-site and off-site fire brigades, control room crew and other parties of fire situations2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33. Hukki, K
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Development of Management of Nuclear Power Plant Fire Situations2004In: .), Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management 2004: Proceedings of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Conference PSAM 7 – ESREL ’04, London: Springer London, 2004, p. 376-382Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34. Hukki, K.
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT, Finland.
    Interdisciplinary development of risk-informed management of fire situations2006In: SAFIR, The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2003–2006: Final Report, VTT Research Notes 2363. VTT. Espoo 2006 / [ed] Räty, H. & Puska, E.-K, VTT , 2006, p. 361-370Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A method has been developed for supporting risk-informed management of fire situations at the plants. One purpose of the method is to enable the integration of relevant expertise from different domains related to the management. The method provides a shared frame of reference that facilitates crossing the disciplinary boundaries and, therefore, enhances mutual understanding. Another purpose is to gain more understanding of the controllability of fire situations by identifying the possible problems and difficulties of the management and to contribute to the development of adequate support for the management. A scenario analysis method has been created for the design and analysis of different fire situations. It includes identification of critical assessment tasks and analysis of possibilities of the various actors (the control room operators, fire fighters and other relevant parties) to make the critical assessments in a fire situation. A systemic network analysis method has been developed for considering the controllability of fire situations from the co-operational point of view. The way the different parties interact has been regarded as an important factor influencing controllability and, therefore, the way safety is constructed in the management. The analyses have been developed in co-operation with Loviisa and Olkiluoto plants by utilizing interdisciplinary expert group work available at the plants.

  • 35. Hukki, K.
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Systeeminen näkökulma ydinvoimalaitoksen palotilanteiden riskitietoiseen hallintaan: Vuoden 2005 työraportti. VTT-R-06-000742006Report (Other academic)
  • 36. Hukki, K.
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT Systems Research, Espoo, Finland.
    Systemic approach to development of risk-informed management of fire situations at nuclear power plants2007In: 2007 IEEE 8TH HUMAN FACTORS AND POWER PLANTS AND HPRCT 13TH ANNUAL MEETING, 2007, p. 118-122Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a methodological approach aiming at supporting risk-informed management of fire situations at nuclear power plants: A conceptual framework has been developed for the analysis of the management as a co-operational whole. The development has been made by utilizing interdisciplinary expert group work in co-operation with Loviisa and Olkiluoto plants in Finland. The object of the analysis provided by the framework is the controllability of the fire situations from the co-operation point of view. The interaction of the responsible different parties in the accomplishment of the most important co-operational control tasks of the operational management is conceptualized. The approach takes a systemic view on the management by focusing on the interdependencies at the different parties' task interfaces. The framework provides a shared frame of reference that facilitates crossing the disciplinary boundaries and enhancing mutual understanding at the plants. The shared understanding of the co-operational factors that deteriorate the controllability of the situation and of the risk impact of these factors lays the basis for the development of riskinformed and integrated procedures and training for the parties.

  • 37. Hukki, K
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Ydinvoimalaitoksen palotilanteiden riskitietoinen hallinta: Hallinnan analysointi- ja arviointimenetelmän soveltaminen uuteen paloskenaarioon2004Report (Other academic)
  • 38. Karanta, I.
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Maskuniiitty, M.
    Reliability analysis of digital I&C systems in nuclear power plants2009In: SAFIR2010, The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007–2010, Interim Report, VTT Research Notes 2466, VTT, Espoo, 2009 / [ed] Puska, E-K, VTT , 2009, p. 485-494Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39. Karanta, I.
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Männistö, I.
    Challenges in risk-informed safety management (CHARISMA), summary report2009In: SAFIR2010, The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007–2010, Interim Report, VTT Research Notes 2466, VTT, Espoo, 2009 / [ed] Puska, E-K, VTT , 2009, p. 474-484Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40. Knochenhauer, M
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Guidance for the Definition and Application of Probabilistic Safety Criteria: paper 2452010In: Proc. of PSAM 10 — International Probabilistic Safety Assessment & Management Conference,: IAPSAM —International Association of Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41. Knochenhauer, M
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Nordic Project "The Validity of Safety Goals"  : Status after Phase 2, paper TU5_42008In: Proc. of Castle Meeting 2008: Fortum Nuclear Services, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42. Knochenhauer, M
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Probabilistische Sicherheitsanalysen in der Kerntechnik: PSA in der SÜ – und in Zukunft?2011In: Symposium ’11. Heidelberg, Germany, May 26–27 2011, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43. Knochenhauer, M
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Gustavsson, H
    Consistency of Judgement in the Usage of Probabilistic Safety Goals: paper 04282008In: Proc. of PSAM 9 — International Conference on Probabilistic Safety Assessment & Management, 18–23 May 2008, Hong Kong, China: IAPSAM — International Association of Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management,, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44. Knochenhauer, M
    et al.
    Persson, A
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    He, X
    Comparison of Risk Criteria in Safety-Critical Industries: paper 172010In: Proc. of PSAM 10 — International Probabilistic Safety Assessment & Management Conference, 7–11 June 2010, Seattle, Washington, USA: IAPSAM — International Association of Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45. Knochenhauer, Michael
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Probabilistic safety goals for nuclear power plants2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46. Knochenhauer, Michael
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hultqvist, Göran
    Ingemarson, Ingemar
    The validity of safety goals: Paper number PSAM-01622006In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management (PSAM 8), NY, USA: ASME , 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47. Männistö, I.
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Long mission time reliability, pre-study2006Report (Other academic)
  • 48. Simola, Kaisa
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    Cronvall, Otso
    Männistö, Ilkka
    Vepsä, Ari
    RI-ISI pilot study of the Shut-down cooling system of the Olkiluoto 1/2 NPP units: Research report BTUO72-0513182005Report (Other academic)
  • 49. Sivertsen, Terje
    et al.
    Fredriksen, Rune
    Thunem, Atoosa P-J
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    VTT Industrial Systems.
    Valkonen, Janne
    Ventä, Olli
    Andersson, Jan-Ove
    The TACO approach for traceability and communication of requirements2005In: COMPUTER SAFETY, RELIABILITY, AND SECURITY, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Winther, R; Gran, BA; Dahll, G, Springer-Verlag GmbH , 2005, p. 317-329Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper outlines the main achievements of the TACO project. The overall objective of the TACO project was to improve the knowledge about principles and best practices related to the issues concretised in the TACO preproject. On the basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project aimed at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities.

  • 50. Sivertsen, Terje
    et al.
    Fredriksen, Rune
    Thunem, Atoosa P-J
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    Valkonen, Janne
    Ventä, Olli
    Andersson, Jan-Ove
    Traceability and communication of requirements in digital I&C systems development: Final report 20052005Report (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 54
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