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  • 1. Armengaud, Eric
    et al.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Bourrouilh, Quentin
    Breunig, Michael
    Farfeleder, Stefan
    Hein, Christian
    Oertel, Markus
    Wallner, Alfred
    Zoier, Markus
    Integrated tool chain for improving traceability during the development of automotive systems2012In: ERTS2 2012 | Embedded Real Time Software and Systems, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tool integration is a key factor for improving development efficiency and product quality during the development of safety-relevant embedded systems. We present in this work a demonstrator based on the most recent outcomes of the CESAR project. The proposed integrated tool-chain aims at better linking development activities together, thus improving traceability during requirements engineering, system design, safety analysis and V&V activities using a model-based development approach. We analyze the proposed tool-chain from three different points of view: (1) tool integrator, (2) technology provider, and (3) end-user. These different points of view enable the description of the different technologies used at the different levels and the analysis of the benefits for the end-user.

  • 2.
    Armengaud, Eric
    et al.
    Virtual Vehicle Competence Center, Austria.
    Zoier, Markus
    Virtual Vehicle Competence Center, Austria.
    Baumgart, Andreas
    OFFIS E. V., Germany.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Chen, De Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Griessnig, Gerhard
    AVL List GmbH, Austria; Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Hein, Christian
    Fraunhofer FOKUS, Germany.
    Ritter, Tom
    Fraunhofer FOKUS, Germany.
    Tavakoli-Kolagari, Ramin
    Volvo Technology Corporation, Sweden.
    Model-based Toolchain for the Efficient Development of Safety-Relevant Automotive Embedded Systems2011In: SAE Technical Paper: Paper Number: 2011-01-0056, Society of Automotive Engineers, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced functionalities unthinkable a few decades ago are now being introduced into automotive vehicles through embedded systems for reasons like emission control, vehicle connectivity, safety and cooperative behaviors. As the development often involves stakeholders from different engineering disciplines and organizations, the complexity due to shared requirements, interdependencies of data, functions, and resources, as well as tight constraints in regards to timing, safety, and resource efficiency makes the system integration, quality control and assurance, reuse and change management increasingly more difficult. This calls for a more rigorous approach to the development of automotive embedded systems and components. This paper describes the CESAR reference technology platform (RTP) that supports the formalization of various engineering concerns in the development of safety-relevant embedded systems and thereby a model-based integration of various tools and methods to form seamless environments or toolchains for the development of such systems.

  • 3.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tool Integration Beyond Wasserman2011In: Advanced Information Systems Engineering Workshops / [ed] Camille Salinesi, Oscar Pastor, Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 2011, 270-281 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The typical development environment today consists of many specialized development tools, which are partially integrated, forming a complex tool landscape with partial integration. Traditional approaches for reasoning about tool integration are insufficient to measure the degree of integration and integration optimality in today’s complex tool landscape. This paper presents a reference model that introduces dependencies between, and metrics for, integration aspects to overcome this problem. This model is used to conceive a method for reasoning about tool integration and identify improvements in an industrial case study. Based on this we are able to conclude that our reference model does not detract value from the principles that it is based on, instead it highlights improvements that were not well visible earlier. We conclude the paper by discussing open issues for our reference model, namely if it is suitable to use during the creation of new systems, if the used integration aspects can be subdivided further to support the analysis of secondary issues related to integration, difficulties related to the state dependency between the data and process aspects within the context of developing embedded systems and the analysis of non-functional requirements to support tool integration.

  • 4.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Towards the Automated Qualification of Tool Chain Design2012In: SAFECOMP 2012 Workshops: Sassur, ASCoMS, DESEC4LCCI, ERCIM/EWICS, IWDE, Magdeburg, Germany, September 25-28, 2012, Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, 392-399 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of safety-critical embedded systems is supported by a number of development tools, which are increasingly integrated into automated tool chains. Safety standards require these tool chains to be qualified, which is costly and requires a large effort. To reduce cost and effort tool chains can be composed of pre-qualified tools and then themselves pre-qualified by identifying the parts of tool chain software that have an impact on safety more exactly. In this paper we propose the use of a modeling language to describe this tool chain composition. This allows us to reduce effort even further by automatically analyzing the tool chain model for safety issues. It also promises to reduce the effort and cost of later steps in the deployment of the tool chain by formalizing the communication of safety issues and automating the generation of code for tool chain software.

  • 5.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    Biehl, Matthias
    El-khoury, Jad
    Frede, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tool Integration, from Tool to Tool Chain with ISO 262622012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of innovative power sources in future cars has long-ranging implications on vehicle safety.  We studied these implications in the context of the guidance on software tool qualification in the then current ISO 26262 draft, when building an urban concept vehicle to participate in the 2011 Shell Eco-Marathon. While the guidance on tool qualification is detailed, the guidance in regard to tools integrated into tool chains is limited. It only points out that the environment that tools execute in needs to be taken into consideration.

    In this paper we clarify the implications of tool chains on tool qualification in the context of ISO 26262 by focusing on answering two questions; first, are there parts of the development environment related to tool integration that are likely to fall outside of tool qualification efforts as currently defined by ISO 26262; secondly, can we define if, and -if so- how, tool integration is affected by ensuring functional safety.

    We conclude by identifying two areas related to tool integration that are likely to fall outside the tool qualification efforts (data integrity and process logic) and describing how different constraints imposed by ISO 26262 in relation to tool qualification conflict when tool integration is improved (improvements aimed at supporting completeness, consistency and the safety lifecycle vs. tool qualification cost).

    We are able to make additional conclusions in relation to the State of the Art discussion on software tool qualification according to ISO 26262. First, reference tool chains and guidelines on which characteristics tool qualification should ensure for tool chains are needed to complement ISO 26262. Secondly, guidance on tool integration can be found in the completeness characteristic, the consistency characteristic and the ISO 26262 safety lifecycle process. Finally, qualification efforts should ideally target tool chains rather than individual tools.

  • 6.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    A Modeling Language for the Description and Development of Tool Chains for Embedded Systems2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of embedded systems is typically supported by a number of diverse development tools. To achieve seamless tool support throughout the embedded systems development process, tool chains are constructed as software solutions that integrate the development tools. Tool chains have grown from ad-hoc solutions to complex software systems, since they need to support distributed engineering, integration conventions, a specific set of tools and the complete product development process used in a company. In practice, the development of tool chains that fulfill these needs is difficult and time-consuming, since it is a largely unsupported, manual engineering task. In addition, tool chains are typically described using general purpose modeling languages or languages borrowed from other domains, which contributes to the accidental complexity of tool chain development. Due to the increasing sophistication and size of tool chains, there is a need for a systematic, targeted description and development approach for tool chains.

    This thesis contributes with a language for the systematic description of tool chains and semi-automated techniques to support their development.

    The Tool Integration Language (TIL) is a domain-specific modeling language (DSML) for tool chains that allows describing tool chains explicitly, systematically and at an appropriate level of abstraction. TIL concepts are from the domain of tool integration and express the essential design decisions of tool chains at an architectural level of abstraction. A TIL model serves as a basis for the development of a tailored tool chain.

    Semi-automated techniques for the specification, analysis and synthesis support the development of tool chains that are described as TIL models. Specification techniques support the creation and refinement of a tool chain model that is aligned to a given development process and set of tools. Domain-specific analysis techniques are used to check the alignment of the tool chain model with the supported process. Synthesis techniques support the efficient realization of the specified tool chain model as a software solution that conforms to integration conventions.

    Experiences from case studies are presented which apply TIL to support the creation of tool chains. The approach is evaluated, both qualitatively and quantitatively, by comparing it to traditional development methods for tool chains. The approach enables the efficient development of tailored tool chains, which have the potential to improve the productivity of embedded systems development.

  • 7.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Analysis of Tool Chains2011Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Documenting stepwise model refinement using executable design decisions2010In: International Workshop on Models and Evolution (ME2010), 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During model refinement a wealth of knowledge about the model under development is accumulated that is only partly represented by the model itself. Design decisions and the considered modeling alternatives are neither represented by the model nor are they documented. During later lifecycle stages this information is often not available any more, which reduces the understandability of the model and potentially leads to inconsistencies and erosion of the model. We propose an approach to capture and store the design decisions in model-driven development. We represent design decisions as model transformations and propose tool support that applies this representation to capture design decision with low effort. The captured design decisions provide a record of the model evolution and the rationale of the evolution.

     

  • 9.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Early Automated Verification of Tool Chain Design2012In: Computational Science And Its Applications - ICCSA 2012, PT IV / [ed] Murgante, B; Gervasi, O; Misra, S; Nedjah, N; Rocha, AMAC; Taniar, D; Apduhan, BO, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, 40-50 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tool chains are expected to increase the productivity of product development by providing automation and integration. If, however, the tool chain does not have the features required to support the product development process, it falls short of this expectation. Tool chains could reach their full potential if it could be ensured that the features of a tool chain are aligned with the product development process. As part of a systematic development approach for tool chains, we propose a verification method that measures the extent to which a tool chain design conforms to the product development process and identifies misalignments. The verification method can be used early in tool chain development, when it is relatively easy and cheap to perform the necessary corrections. Our verification method is automated, which allows for quick feedback and enables iterative design. We apply the proposed method on an industrial tool chain, where it is able to identify improvements to the design of the tool chain.

  • 10.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Literature study on design rationale and design decision documentation for architecture descriptions2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    In this document we provide an overview of the state of the art in documentation of design rationale and design decisions for architecture descriptions. We define the terminology of the area and compare the concept of rationale to similar concepts. We provide an overview of areas of contemporary research in design rationale. For each of the identified areas, we describe both the challenge and proposed solutions. Based on the findings from the literature we present evaluations of rationale and design decision documentation. The findings from this survey are promising and many open research questions with respect to rationale and design decision documentation need to be addressed. In the literature reviewed in this document it is for example not addressed how design decisions and design rationale should be represented, captured and used in model-based and model-driven development approaches. A need for further research in this area exists.

  • 11.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Literature study on the state of the art in model transformation technology2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Model transformation is a central concept in model-driven development approaches,  as it provides a mechanism for automating the manipulation of models. In this document we survey and classify existing model transformation technology. The classification differentiates between the problem space, i.e. characteristics of the problem to be solved by model transformation technology, and the mechanism, i.e. characteristics of the model transformation language. We show typical usage scenarios for model transformations and identify characteristics of the problems that can be solved with the help of model transformations. We synthesize a unifying classification scheme for model transformation languages based on several existing classification schemes. We introduce a selection of model transformation tools available today and compare them using our classification scheme.

  • 12.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Supporting model evolution in model-driven development of automotive embedded system2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovative functions in cars, such as active safety systems and advanced driver assistance systems, are realized as embedded systems. The development of such automotive embedded systems is challenging in several respects: the product typically has several crosscutting system properties, experts of diverse disciplines need to cooperate and appropriate processes and tools are required to improve the effciency and the complexity management of development. Model-driven development captures the architecture of the embedded system in the form of models with well-defined metamodels. Model-driven development provides a partial solution to some of the challenges of embedded systems development, but it also introduces new challenges. Models do not remain static, but they change over time and evolve. Evolution can change models in two ways: (1) by making design decisions and adding, deleting or changing model elements, or (2) by reusing models in different tools. We propose support for both aspects of model evolution. (1) When models are changed, the design decisions and the justification for the change are usually neither captured nor documented in a systematic way. As a result, important information about the model is lost, making the model more difficult to understand, which hampers model evolution and maintenance. To support model evolution, design decisions need to be captured explicitly using an appropriate representation. This representation reduces the overhead of capturing design decisions, keeps the model and the design decision documentation consistent and links the design decision documentation to the model. As a result, the captured design decisions provide a record of the model evolution and the rationale of the evolution. (2) Several models and views are used to describe an embedded system in different life cycle stages and from the viewpoints of the involved disciplines. To create the various models, a number of specialized development tools are used. These tools are usually disconnected, so the models cannot be transferred between different tools. Thus, models may become inconsistent, which hampers understandability of the models and increases the cost of development. We present a model-based tool integration approach that uses a common metamodel in combination with model transformation technology to build bridges between different development tools. We apply this approach in a case study and integrate several tools for automotive embedded systems development: A systems engineering tool, a safety engineering tool and a simulation tool. As a part of future work, we plan to extend the tool integration approach to exchange not only models but also the attached documentation of design decisions. As a result, the design decision documentation is linked consistently to corresponding model elements of the various tool-specific models, supporting model evolution across several development tools

     

  • 13.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tool Integration Language (TIL)2011Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    De-Jiu, Chen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Integrating safety analysis into the model-based development tool chain of automotive embedded systems2010In: ACM SIGPLAN Notices, ISSN 0362-1340, Vol. 45, no 4, 125-132 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry has a growing demand for the seamless integration of safety analysis tools into the model-based development tool chain for embedded systems. This requires translating concepts of the automotive domain to the safety domain. We automate such a translation between the automotive architecture description language EAST-ADL2 and the safety analysis tool HiPHOPS by using model transformations and by leveraging the advantages of different model transformation techniques. By means of this integration, the safety analysis can be conducted early in the development process, when the system can be redesigned to fulfill safety goals with relatively low effort and cost.

  • 15.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frédéric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A Domain Specific Language for Generating Tool Integration Solutions2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-based development of complex systems requires toolsupport for the dierent phases of the system life cycle. To allow for anecient development process, the involved tools need to be integrated.Despite the availability of modern tool integration platforms and frameworks,it is complex, labor-intensive and costly to build tool integrationsolutions. For managing the growing complexity of tool integration solutions,a need for systematic engineering arises. A missing piece is thehigh-level architectural description of tool integration solutions. We proposethe domain specic language TIL for describing tool integrationsolutions at a high level of abstraction. We propose an approach thattakes advantage of modeling technologies to systematize and automatethe process of building tool integration solutions. By automatically generatingintegration solutions from a TIL model, we can reduce the manualimplementation eort.

  • 16.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Loiret, Frédéric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    On the modeling and generation of service-oriented tool chains2014In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 13, no 2, 461-480 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tool chains have grown from ad-hoc solutions to complex software systems, which often have a service-oriented architecture. With service-oriented tool integration, development tools are made available as services, which can be orchestrated to form tool chains. Due to the increasing sophistication and size of tool chains, there is a need for a systematic development approach for service-oriented tool chains. We propose a domain-specific modeling language (DSML) that allows us to describe the tool chain on an appropriate level of abstraction. We present how this language supports three activities when developing service-oriented tool chains: communication, design and realization. A generative approach supports the realization of the tool chain using the service component architecture. We present experiences from an industrial case study, which applies the DSML to support the creation of a service-oriented tool chain. We evaluate the approach both qualitatively and quantitatively by comparing it with a traditional development approach.

  • 17.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    High-Level Specification and Code Generation for Service-Oriented Tool Adapters2012In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Science (ICCSA2012), 2012, 35-42 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of complex systems requires tool support for the different phases of the system life cycle. To allow for an efficient development process, the involved tools need to be integrated, e.g. by exchanging tool data or providing trace ability between the data. Despite the availability of tool integration platforms and frameworks, it is labor-intensive and costly to build tool integration solutions. Industrial tool integration initiatives such as OSLC (Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration) demand complex configurations and the adherence to integration standards. This further complicates building an integration solution. We propose an approach that uses formalized specifications to systematize tool integration and specialized code generators to automate the process of building tool adapters. We evaluate our approach with the implementation of a code generator that creates service-oriented tool adapters conforming to the OSLC industry initiative.

  • 18.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Gu, Wenqing
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Loiret, Frédéric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Model-based Service Discovery and Orchestration for OSLC Services in Tool Chains2012In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): Volume 7387 LNCS, 2012, 283-290 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally distributed development of complex systems relies on the use of sophisticated development tools but today the tools provide only limited possibilities for integration into seamless tool chains. If development tools could be integrated, development data could be exchanged and tracing across remotely located tools would be possible and would increase the efficiency of globally distributed development. We use a domain specific modeling language to describe tool chains as models on a high level of abstraction. We use model-driven technology to synthesize the implementation of a service-oriented wrapper for each development tool based on OSLC (Open Services for Lifecyle Collaboration) and the orchestration of the services exposed by development tools. The wrapper exposes both tool data and functionality as web services, enabling platform independent tool integration. The orchestration allows us to discover remote tools via their service wrapper, integrate them and check the correctness of the orchestration.

  • 19.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Hong, Jiarui
    Loiret, Frederic
    A Generative Approach for Developing Data Exchange in Tool Chains2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Hong, Jiarui
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Automated Construction of Data Integration Solutions for Tool Chains2012In: ICSEA 2012 : The Seventh International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, 2012, 102-111 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern software development relies increasingly on the orchestrated use of development tools in the form of seamless, automated tool chains. Tool chains are becoming complex software systems themselves, however, the efficient development of tool chains is a largely unsupported, manual engineering task. We propose both a domain specific modeling language for systematically specifying tool chains and generators for efficiently realizing the tool chain as software. Tool chain software consists of diverse components, such as service-oriented applications, models and model transformations, which we produce by different generative techniques. We study both the separate generative techniques and the dependencies between the generated artifacts to ensure that they can be integrated. We evaluate the approach both quantitatively and qualitatively, and show in a case study that the approach is practically applicable when building a tool chain for industrially relevant tools.

  • 21. Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    Löwe, Welf
    Automated Architecture Consistency Checking for Model Driven Software Development2009In: ARCHITECTURES FOR ADAPTIVE SOFTWARE SYSTEMS, 2009, 36-51 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When software projects evolve their actual implementation and their intended architecture may drift apart resulting in problems for further maintenance. As a countermeasure it is good software engineering practice to check the implementation against the architectural description for consistency. In this work we check software developed by a Model Driven Software Development (MDSD) process. This allows us to completely automate consistency checking by deducing information from implementation, design documents, and model transformations. We have applied our approach on a Java project and found several inconsistencies hinting at design problems. With our approach we can find inconsistencies early, keep the artifacts of an MDSD process consistent, and, thus, improve the maintainability and understandability of the software.

  • 22.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Sjöstedt, Carl-Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A modular tool integration approach: experiences from two case studies2010In: 3rd Workshop on Model-driven tool and Process Integration (MDTPI2010), 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    In the model-driven development process of automotive embedded systems a number of specialized tools are used to support various development tasks. Each tool needs to work seamlessly with artifacts created by other tools to increase the efficiency of development. We identify desirable properties for integrating the data of different tools. We then propose an approach for decomposing the data integration into modular steps that fulfill these properties. We report our experiences from applying this approach to integrate simulation capabilities and functionality for safety analysis into a model-based development environment.

  • 23.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Sosa, J. D.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Diaz, O.
    Efficient construction of presentation integration for web-based and desktop development tools2013In: 2013 IEEE 37th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops (COMPSACW), New York: IEEE , 2013, 697-702 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The engineering of software-intensive systems is supported by a variety of development tools. While development tools are traditionally desktop tools, they are more and more complemented and replaced by web-based development tools. The resulting blend of desktop and web-based tools is difficult to integrate into a seamless tool chain, which supports product development by data, control and presentation integration. Moreover, the construction of such tool chains is a significant engineering challenge. We propose an approach for the efficient, automated construction of tool chains, which integrate both web-based and desktop development tools; and provide a proof of concept of the approach in a case study. Our approach suggests that companies can selectively take advantage of hosted web-based development tools, while maintaining a seamless flow of integration with legacy desktop tools.

  • 24.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    A cost-efficiency model for tool chains2012In: Global Software Engineering Workshops (ICGSEW), 2012 IEEE Seventh International Conference on, IEEE , 2012, 6-11 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The seamless integration of development tools can help to improve the productivity of software development and reduce development costs. When tool chains are used in the context of global software engineering, they are deployed as globally distributed systems. Tool chains have the potential to bring productivity gains but they are also expensive to realize. The decision to introduce a tool chain is often made based only on a qualitative analysis of the situation. More precise analysis of the trade-offs would be possible if a quantitative model describing the cost-efficiency of tool chains would be available. We apply the COCOMO model for cost analysis in combination with the TIL model for tool chain design to create a generic quantitative estimation model for predicting the cost-efficiency of tool chains. We validate the cost-efficiency model with a case study of an industrial tool chain.

  • 25.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    An Estimation Model for the Savings Achievable by Tool Chains2012In: Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops (COMPSACW), 2012 IEEE 36th Annual, 2012, 488-492 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tool chains are sought after by industry due to their promise to improve the productivity of software development by reducing costs. Despite these promises, there are few attempts to quantify costs and productivity improvements achievable with a tool chain. The decision for or against realizing a tool chain design requires a quantitative analysis of the economic benefits achievable with a tool chain. We apply the COCOMO model for cost estimation to create a quantitative model for predicting the cost-savings of tool chains. The cost-savings model can provide support for practitioners and decision makers when facing the decision to create a new tool chain.

  • 26.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    An executable design decision representation using model transformations2010In: Proceedings - 36th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2010, Lille, 2010, 131-134 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Design decisions are often tacit knowledge of an architecture and consequently they are easily lost during software evolution, a phenomenon known as knowledge vaporization. As a countermeasure design decisions can be documented explicitly. However, documenting design decision is expensive because they need to be captured in addition to the changes in the architecture. We propose an executable representation for design decisions using model transformations which is independent of a particular component model or architectural description language. As a result we get all the advantages of explicitly captured design decisions such as the potential to reduce knowledge vaporization while preventing the high capturing cost since the corresponding architectural change can be computed automatically. The approach is illustrated by a case study in the context of embedded software architectures.

  • 27.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Constructing Tool Chains based on SPEM Process Models2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of embedded systems requires a number of tools and it is widely believed that integrating the tools into an automated tool chain can improve the productivity of development. However, tool chains are not accepted by practitioners if they are not aligned with the established development culture, processes and standards. Process models exist for a variety of reasons, i.e., for documenting, planning or tracking progress in a development project and SPEM is the standardized formalism by the OMG for this purpose. We explore in how far a SPEM process models can be used for creating the skeleton of a tool chain, which is aligned with the process. We identify a number of relationship patterns between the development process and its supporting tool chain and show how the patterns can be used for constructing a tool chain. In two case studies, we examine the practical applicability of the patterns, when tailoring the design of a tool chain to a development process.

  • 28.
    El-khoury, Jad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A Roadmap Towards Integrated CPS Development Environments2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber Physical System (CPS) development is highly heterogeneous, involving many stakeholders, each of which interacts with its development artifacts through a variety of tools, and within several engineering processes. Successful CPS development requires these tools to be well-integrated into a Development Environment (DE) in order to support its many stakeholders and processes. In this paper we identify the main challenges facing DE development for CPSs, and presents a roadmap to meet these challenges. We here take the position that focus should be redirected from trying to achieve a single, one-size-fits-all solution to such a heterogeneous problem. Instead, focus should be placed on supporting the development of highly-customized DEs, which readily can be applied to industrial development. Such a highly-customized DE should fit the needs of a particular development organization, while at the same time taking advantage of relevant standardization efforts.

  • 29. Mian, Zhibao
    et al.
    Bottaci, Leonardo
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    System dependability modelling and analysis using AADL and HiP-HOPS2012In: 14th IFAC Symposium on Information Control Problems in Manufacturing, IFAC , 2012, 1647-1652 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) is gaining widespread acceptance in aerospace, automobile and avionics industries for designing dependability-critical systems. The design process of dependable systems must address both cost and dependability (safety, reliability, availability, maintainability) concerns. This requires translating concepts of the design domain to the dependability analysis domain. We automate such a translation between AADL and the dependability analysis tool HiP-HOPS by using model transformation techniques. A generic primary-standby example system is used to show the mechanics of the transformation and the potential for highlighting problems and assisting design work using this technology.

  • 30.
    Nilsson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Center for Useroriented IT Design, CID.
    Palmér, Matthias
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Center for Useroriented IT Design, CID.
    Semantic Web Meta-data for e-Learning: Some Architectural Guidelines2002In: Proceedings of the 11th World Wide Web Conference (WWW2002), Hawaii, USA, 2002, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Meta-data is the fundamental building block of the Semantic Web. However, the meta-data concept is too loosely defined to provide architectural guidelines for its use. This paper analyzes important uses of meta-data in the e-learning domain, from a pedagogical and philosophical point of view, and abstracts from them a set of fundamental architectural requirements for Semantic Web meta-data. It also describes some flexible generic techniques for working with meta-data, following these requirements. Finally, the paper describes a Semantic Web-based e-learning architecture based in these requirements and techniques currently under development at the Knowledge Management Research Group at CID (Centre for user oriented IT Design) at KTH, the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. This architecture builds on Edutella, a peer-to-peer meta-data exchange network, and a technique called conceptual modeling using the Conzilla concept browser, a new kind of knowledge management tool for conceptual navigation and exploration. The architecture provides an inquiry-based e-learning system that fits into the Semantic Web philosophy, and is based on a pedagogical framework called the knowledge manifold.

  • 31.
    Persson, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Bonnet, Stéphane
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
    Chen, De-Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Zverlov, Sergey
    KTH/TU München.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Laurent, Odile
    AIRBUS Operations SAS.
    Mitschke, Andreas
    EADS Deutschland GmbH.
    Shawky, Marcus
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
    Architecture Exploration2013In: CESAR: Cost-efficient Methods and Processes for Safety-relevant Embedded Systems, Springer, 2013, 145-178 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we will explain and concretise the concept of architecture exploration as an approach to architecture design of distributed embedded safety-critical systems. Architecture design involves the mapping of behaviour to structure, or functions to components. Alternative behaviours, structures and mappings are possible, and it is the subject of the architecture design to make a well-informed choice about which alternative(s) are preferable. Architecture design can be seen as an iterative process, as illustrated by Fig. 4.1

  • 32.
    Persson, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Loiret, Frédéric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Westman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Chen, De-Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Multi-Viewed Components2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, we present a concept for generic multi-viewed component models based on modular  and (de)composable viewpoints.   By decomposing systems not only along component but also viewpoint borders, a family of multi-viewed component models is proposed. Semantic relations between the viewpoints are modeled in order to be able to ensure e.g. consistency between separate but semantically partly  overlapping views.  We also characterize different types of relations between viewpoints in order to see how the choice of viewpoints in the component model influences the complexity of multi-viewed components. Finally we provide an example and describe how the concepts presented can be applied in practice.

     

  • 33. Persson, Magnus
    et al.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Qamar, Ahsan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Westman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Tripakis, Stavros
    Vangheluwe, Hans
    Denil, Joachim
    A Characterization of Integrated Multi-View Modeling for Embedded SystemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded systems, with their tight technology integration, andmultiple requirements andstakeholders, are characterized by tightly interrelated processes, information and tools.Embedded systems will as a consequence be described by multiple, heterogeneous andinterrelated descriptions such as for example requirements documents, design and analysismodels, software and hardware descriptions. We refer to a system designed this way as amulti-view (MV) system.

    The main contribution of this paper is a characterization of model-based approachesto MV systems. The characterization takes three main perspectives: semantic relationsbetween views (content), relations over time (process), and manipulation of views (operations).We complement these perspectives by investigating MV system challenges and bya survey of related approaches. The characterization aims to provide a basis for a betterunderstanding, design and implementation of MV systems, and thereby to overcome thecurrent fragmented points of view on integrated multi-view modeling (MVM).

  • 34.
    Persson, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Qamar, Ahsan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Westman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Tripakis, Stavros
    Vangheluwe, Hans
    Denil, Joachim
    A characterization of integrated multi-view modeling in the context of embedded and cyber-physical systems2013In: 2013 Proceedings of the International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT), IEEE , 2013, 6658588- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded systems, with their tight technology integration, and multiple requirements and stakeholders, are characterized by tightly interrelated processes, information and tools. Embedded systems will as a consequence be described by multiple, heterogeneous and interrelated descriptions such as for example requirements documents, design and analysis models, software and hardware descriptions. We refer to a system designed this way as a multi-view (MV) system. The main contribution of this paper is a characterization of model-based approaches to MV systems. The characterization takes three main perspectives for the relations between viewpoints: semantic relations (content), relations over time (process), and manipulation of views (operations). We complement these perspectives by investigating MV system challenges and by a survey of related approaches. The characterization aims to provide a basis for a better understanding, design and implementation of MV systems, and thereby to overcome the current fragmented points of view on integrated multi-view modeling (MVM).

  • 35. Seng, Olaf
    et al.
    Bauer, Markus
    Biehl, Matthias
    Pache, Gert
    Search-based Improvement of Subsystem Decompositions2005In: GECCO 2005: Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, Vols 1 and 2, 2005, 1045-1051 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The subsystem decomposition of a software system degrades gradually during its lifetime and therefore it gets harder and harder to maintain. As a result this decomposition needs to be reconditioned from time to time. The problem is to determine a suitable subsystem decomposition that can be used as a basis for future maintenance tasks. This paper describes a new methodology that computes such a subsystem decomposition by optimizing metrics and heuristics of good subsystem design. The main idea is to treat this task as a search problem and to solve it using a genetic algorithm.

  • 36.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Qamar, Ahsan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Integrating viewpoints in the development of mechatronic products2014In: Mechatronics (Oxford), ISSN 0957-4158, E-ISSN 1873-4006, Vol. 24, no 7, 745-762 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of mechatronic products involves multiple stakeholders which have different viewpoints and therefore use different concepts, models and tools to deal with their concerns of interest. This paper argues that an increased emphasis needs to be placed on the relations between viewpoints to be able to deal with the evolving scope and requirements on mechatronic products. We study relations between viewpoints at the levels of people, models and tools, and present solutions that are used to formally and explicitly capture such relations. Viewpoint contracts are used to define the vocabulary, assumptions and constraints required for ensuring smooth communication between stakeholders (people level). Dependency models capture relations between product properties belonging to different viewpoints, and how such dependencies relate to predictions and decisions (model level). Tool integration models describe the relations between tools in terms of traceability, data exchange, invocation and notifications (tool level). A major contribution of this paper is a unification approach, elaborating how these solutions can be used synergetically to integrate viewpoints. An industrial robot case study is utilized to illustrate the challenges and solutions with respect to relations between viewpoints, including the unification approach.

  • 37. Zhang, Weiqing
    et al.
    Møller-Pedersen, Birger
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A light-weight tool integration approach: From a tool integration model to OSLC integration services2012In: ICSOFT 2012 - Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Software Paradigm Trends, 2012, 137-146 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing tool integration approaches integrate various tools directly through tool proprietary APIs. This kind of integration lacks standardization and are different case by case. Integration based upon common tool metamodels also turns to be too complicated and hard to maintain. In this paper we provide an approach which integrates tools based on a combination of tool metamodels and an integration model. Tool element representatives (Artifacts) are defined to make integrations more standardized and flexible compared to direct tool APIs. The approach links the tool integration model to the various tool metamodels, and provides mechanism by which the common integration properties and the various tool metamodels are related. An industrial case study has been performed to validate the approach with both scenarios of traceability and exchange of data based upon common data definitions.

1 - 37 of 37
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