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  • 1. Farraj, Yousef
    et al.
    Grouchko, Michael
    Magdassi, Shlomo
    Koch, Fritz
    Wittkötter, Mirko
    Müller, Maik
    Reinhold, Ingo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zapka, Werner
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Ink-Jet Printed Copper Complex MOD Ink for Plastic Electronics2014In: International Conference on Non Impact Printing and Digital Fabrication, 2014, p. 191-193Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of highly conductive copper patterns on low-cost flexible substrates (PET, PEN, etc.) by inkjet printing is reported. Copper films were obtained from a metallo-organic decomposition (MOD) ink composed of a copper complex and suitable low-viscosity solvents. Upon heating the ink decomposed and was converted into metallic copper under nitrogen as inert atmosphere.Additionally samples were prepared using inkjet technology on various substrates. The required layer thickness for current conduction was assessed by printing on PET and sintering at 150 °C in a vacuum oven.

  • 2.
    Feng, Yi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Chen, Qiang
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mueller, Matthias
    Xaar Jet AB.
    Zapka, Werner
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Inkjet Printed UWB Impulse-based Wireless Sensor for Flexible Electronics2012In: Gigahertz Symposium, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Feng, Yi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Mueller, Matthias
    Xaar Jet AB.
    Liebeskind, Jens
    Xaar Jet AB.
    Chen, Qiang
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Schmidt, Wolfgang
    Felix Schoeller GmbH & Co. KG.
    Zapka, Werner
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Characterization of Inkjet Printed Coplanar Waveguides for Flexible Electronics2011In: NIP27: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies and Digital Fabrication 2011: TECHNICAL PROGRAMS, ABSTRACTS, AND CD PROCEEDINGS, IS & T , 2011, p. 454-457Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The low conductivity and thin layers of the inkjet-printed metal conductors have always been a big concern in paper-based printed electronics for high frequency applications. To provide the fundamental knowledge, the high frequency characteristics of inkjet-printed coplanar waveguides on paper substrate were studied experimentally in terms of characteristic impedance and conductor losses using the time domain reflectometry technique. The influences of different printing settings and of geometric parameters on the waveguide's properties were investigated. Considering the measurement accuracy in high frequency characterization, one sample with an impedance of 51.2Ω was achieved. The electrical stability of the samples was also studied and explained. In addition, one waveguide sample was printed in a way that the pattern area with the highest current density is thickened. This variable ink-layer thickness approach has successfully been proven as a promising solution to reduce the conductor losses and yet consuming less ink.

  • 4.
    Feng, Yi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mueller, Maik
    Xaar Jet AB.
    Lopez Cabezas, Ana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mantysalo, Matti
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Chen, Qiang
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zapka, Werner
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Fabrication and performance evaluation of ultralow-cost inkjet-printed chipless RFID tags2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the performance of inkjet-printed chipless RFID tags based on planar inductor-capacitor resonant circuits. Besides using double-sided printing, a sandwiching process is introduced to fabricate the tags in order to eliminate the need of through-substrate via and match roll-to-roll processing. Due to lower conductivity (~1.25E+7 S/m) and smaller thickness (~1.7μm) of printed conductors with silver nanoparticle ink, the resonant peaks of inkjet-printed tags exhibit around as twice of half-power bandwidth and 60% of maximum reading distance as the etched tags from bulk copper. Nevertheless, the inkjet-printed tag performance is sufficient for many applications, and it can be adjusted and improved by printing and sintering processes.

  • 5.
    Reinhold, Ingo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mecea, V.
    Armbrecht, L.
    Voit, W.
    Müller, M.
    Zapka, Werner
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Baumann, R. R.
    Measurement of mass of single inkjet drops with a quartz crystal microbalance QCM2012In: Int. Conf. Digit. Print. Technol., The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2012, p. 312-314Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring inkjet performance requires control of parameters such as drop velocity, direction and drop volume. Present methods to determine drop volume utilize optical vision systems or calculation of an average drop mass from large numbers of drops on a precision balance. An alternative technique based on QCM (Quartz Crystal Microbalance) was assessed to measure the mass of single drops. Low-cost plano-convex 6 MHz AT-cut quartz resonators were used to measure single inkjet drops. Since the footprint of these ink drops is of the order 100 μm the QCM detector was used in a 'localized spot' measurement mode in contrast to the typical large area detection mode. The sensitivity of an inner 0.5 mm circle was determined to be 5.46 x 10-10 g/Hz for solid silver films. Single drops of an oil-based ink of 50 pL nominal volume were jetted using a Xaar126 piezo inkjet printhead onto the QCM target area and produced signals with a SNR better than 70:1. This paper presents the technical challenges relating to liquid droplet volume measurements using higher frequency oscillators.

  • 6.
    Reinhold, Ingo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Sitterberg, K.
    Müller, M.
    Abdulla, Mamat
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Voit, W.
    Zapka, Werner
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Analysis of formation of an individual droplet using a high-resolution multi-exposure imaging system2013In: NIP29: Digital fabrication 2013, 29th international conference on digital printing technologies, September 29-October 3, 2013, Seattle, Washington : technical program and proceedings, The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2013, p. 354-358Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Localized dispensing of precious functional materials has attracted considerable interest in the academic as well as the industrial society. While the number of publications show numerous fields of applications in printed electronics, photovoltaics, display technologies and thin functional coatings, the transition into the industrial sector is often hindered by challenges resulting from ink-printhead combinations and their implications on reliability and stability of the process, as well as side-effects such as mist accumulation in heavy duty printing equipment. While measuring equipment to quantify various rheological and interfacial parameters for fluid optimization has been developed with the accompanying mathematical models, the physical jetting experiment as well as high-duty printing trials cannot yet be substituted by these methods. In order to quantify the generation of a droplet alongside with its tailing behavior and mist formation as well as statistics based on cross-talk effects and relaxation-related effects, high-resolution and high-speed imaging are required. This paper examines the optical setup and outlines the required calculations for establishing sharp, high-resolution images using a combination of a high power laser diode with a resonant ME MS micro mirror with a theoretical resolution of 1.8 pm. The limitations of the setup regarding the achievable resolution as well as potential improvements are assessed. Furthermore, the experimental setup, including repetitive generation of nanosecond-pulses necessary for motion-blur-free images, will be discussed. Additionally, results from imaging a droplet formation process using a Xaar 126 printhead are discussed.

  • 7.
    Reinhold, Ingo
    et al.
    KTH. XaarJet AB, Sweden .
    Thielen, M.
    XaarJet AB, Sweden .
    Voit, Wolfgang
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Engineering Material Physics. XaarJet AB, Sweden .
    Zapka, Werner
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. XaarJet AB, Sweden .
    Götzen, R.
    Bohlmann, H.
    Electrical through-hole and planar interconnect generation in roll-to-roll LED lighting manufacturing using industrial inkjet printheads2011In: Mater Res Soc Symp Proc, 2011, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the availability of many high-volume and low-cost manufacturing processes for LED-based lighting applications, relying mainly on fixed patterns such as LED-backlights and RGB-pixelated displays, novel applications, such as "mood lighting" or interior wall displays call for more complicated and shaped LED arrangements. The presented work is based of a novel roll-to-roll (R2R) process to adaptively and cost-efficiently generate LED arrangements on RMPD® substrates. Inkjet printing of planar and though-hole electrical interconnections is of high importance to the process, as it provides a fully digital way of interconnecting devices electrically, accounting for the actual position of the component and spatially provide different ink film thicknesses. Xaar's industrial inkjet printheads are used to dispense defined volumes of 50 pL of a silver nanoparticle ink in order to provide high reliability and good positioning accuracy while maintaining low satellite drop densities. Specific printing strategies are investigated at a print speed of 0.1 m/s to allow for a reliable electrical connection in case of up to 50 μm deep via connections to the buried component. Due to the low glass-transition nature of the underlying substrates, low sintering temperatures are required to preserve the mechanical properties of the substrate. Low temperature oven sintering yielding sufficient conductivity to drive a current of 40 mA will be discussed. 

  • 8.
    Reinhold, Ingo
    et al.
    KTH. XaarJet AB, Sweden.
    Thielen, M.
    Voit, Wolfgang
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Engineering Material Physics. XaarJet AB, Sweden.
    Zapka, Werner
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. XaarJet AB, Sweden.
    Götzen, R.
    Bohlmann, H.
    Inkjet printing of electrical vias2011In: EMPC - Eur. Microelectron. Packag. Conf., Proc., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inkjet printing of planar and via (through-hole) electrical interconnections is developed to be incorporated into a roll-to-roll manufacturing line. The specific roll-to-roll machine uses rotary RMPD® technology, self-alignment of bare LED dies, and inkjet printing of the electrical connections to the LEDs dies. The key problem to be solved is the inkjet printing of electrical connections through via holes with vertical walls Xaar126-50pL industrial inkjet printheads were used to print silver nano particle ink at 0.1 m/s to connect through LED vias of 90 μm diameter and up to 50 μm depth. While high throughput sintering techniques are desirable for the specific roll-to-roll machine standard convection oven sintering was applied for the proof of principle described here. Sintering at temperatures as low as 135 °C for 30 min prevented damage to the substrate and LED dies and yielded electrical connections that allowed to drive LEDs with 20 mA at 3V under emission of bright green light.

  • 9.
    Reinhold, Ingo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Voit, W.
    Rawson, I.
    Martin, K.
    Pope, D.
    Farnsworth, S.
    Zapka, Werner
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Munson, C.
    Novel developments in photonic sintering of inkjet printed functional inks2013In: NIP29: Digital fabrication 2013, 29th international conference on digital printing technologies, September 29-October 3, 2013, Seattle, Washington : technical program and proceedings, The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2013, p. 476-478Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inkjet printing of electrical tracks in roll-to-roll applications was hampered for a long time since nano-particle inks required thermal sintering at temperatures greater than 120 °C for several minutes. Among a large number of potential R2R compatible techniques, photonic sintering of inkjet-printed metal-based inks was shown to enable very fast sintering times and providing high quality of structural integrity and low electrical resistance [1]. While the above investigations were carried out with a low dutylow frequency irradiation source, novel developments allow for pulse shaping on the timescale of several microseconds and, therefore, the combination of drying and sintering pulses into a single piece of equipment. In this contribution the photonic sintering process was investigated numerically and experimentally for the case of inkjetprinted aqueous copper oxide ink and a Pulse Forge®3200 X2 tool, both implemented onto a NovaCentrix roll-to-roll machine. Our finding support the assumption, that pulse shaping and, therefore, energy tailoring as a function of time, is essential for efficient conversion of wet copper oxide deposits into conductive copper with no impact on the underlying substrate. The paper presents and discusses the resulting electrical resistances of features processed with a conventional hybrid solution using IRradiation for pre-drying as well as a single step drying and sintering using a single radiation source.

  • 10.
    Shao, Botao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Weerasekera, Roshan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Woldegiorgis, Abraham Tareke
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Liu, Ran
    Zapka, Werner
    High Frequency Characterization and Modelling of Inkjet Printed Interconnects On Flexible Substrate for Low-Cost RFID Applications2008In: ESTC 2008: 2ND ELECTRONICS SYSTEM-INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, VOLS 1 AND 2, PROCEEDINGS, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2008, p. 695-699Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the characterization and modeling of inkjet printed interconnects on flexible polyimide substrate using nano-paticle silver ink for low-cost RFID applications. Then TDR/TDT and S-parameter measurements are performed at high frequency from 30 kHz to 6 GHz. A Jumped equivalent circuit and distributed parameter model of the printed interconnects have been developed for the realization of the full printed RFID tags. Additionally the related electrical properties of the printed interconnects are extracted.

  • 11.
    Ungureanu, George
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Reinhold, Ingo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zapka, Werner
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Parallel software design enabling high-speed reliability testing of inkjet printheads2013In: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies, 2013, p. 60-65Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With new functional applications emerging in the digital printing industry, the need for quantitative knowledge of the reliability of drop-on-demand inkjet printheads increases. Continuous ink circulation using TF Technology™and the resulting channel self-recovery is one of the technologies which decrease the down-time of a single nozzle, but in turn increase the difficulty of an accurate reliability test. Current measuring techniques, namely the a-posteriori verification of printouts on paper proved to be inappropriate. This paper proposes a novel software approach, exploiting signal processing techniques, strong control loops and powerful system design methodologies in order to allow for the correct detection of single missing droplets at run-time. This new system is meant to relieve the effects of the indefinite environment and sources of human error. Preliminary results and the proof-ofconcept demonstrates both the system's and the design method's versatility and potential.

  • 12. Voit, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Jackson, Nick
    Preckel, Katrin
    Iqbal, Sohail
    Reinhold, Ingo
    Zapka, Werner
    Evaluation of Crosstalk Effects in Inkjet Printing with Xaar 10012011In: NIP27: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies and Digital Fabrication 2011, 2011, p. 97-100Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of crosstalk-induced dot placement errors were conducted with the Xaar1001 printhead printing in 3-phase mode using multiple different print patterns containing active pixels from nine neighboring channels on both sides of the monitored channel and including pixels from four earlier print cycles. The test data attributed a 'crosstalk weight factor' to each pixel proportional to its effect on the drop velocity of the monitored channel. The largest crosstalk effect was exerted by the nearest phase neighbor channels, and they reduced the drop velocity from the monitored channel. The 'crosstalk weight factors' of the other pixels was typically one order of magnitude smaller, and they were partially positive or negative, i.e. that they increase or decreased the drop velocity, respectively. The test results further proved that the total crosstalk effect of large print pattern as calculated by a linear superposition of the individual 'crosstalk weight factors' of the active pixels was within 4% of the measured data . The evaluation of crosstalk was further supported by measurements of the meniscus motion within the nozzle in real time. This provided the possibility to measure the pressure variations within printing and non-printing channels, and thus enable to monitor the 'pure' effect of crosstalk from neighboring channels.

  • 13.
    Voit, Wolfgang
    et al.
    XaarJet AB.
    Reinhold, Ingo
    XaarJet AB.
    Zapka, Werner
    XaarJet AB.
    Gaiser, Dietmar
    H.C. Starck Clevios GmbH.
    Deposition of PEDOT-PSS Dispersions with Industrial Inkjet Printheads2010In: Proceedings 4th International Symposium Technologies for Polymer Electronics - TPE 10, 2010, p. 131-137Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Zapka, Werner
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Voit, Wolfgang
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Reinhold, Ingo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Drucken jenseits der Farbe2013In: Elektronik, no 12, p. 34-39Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 14 of 14
CiteExportLink to result list
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Citation style
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  • harvard1
  • ieee
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  • vancouver
  • Other style
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