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  • 1. Cotte Poveda, A.
    et al.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inez
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    CO2 emissions in German, Swedish and Colombian manufacturing industries2013In: Regional Environmental Change, ISSN 1436-3798, E-ISSN 1436-378X, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 979-988Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates and compares the trends in CO2 emissions for the manufacturing industries of three countries: two developed countries (Germany and Sweden) that have applied several measures to promote a shift towards a low-carbon economy and one developing country (Colombia) that has shown substantial improvements in the reduction of CO2 emissions. This analysis is conducted using panel data cointegration techniques to infer causality between CO2 emissions, production factors and energy sources. The results indicate a trend of producing more output with less pollution. The trends for these countries' CO2 emissions depend on investment levels, energy sources and economic factors. Furthermore, the trends in CO2 emissions indicate that there are emission level differences between the two developed countries and the developing country. Moreover, the study confirms that it is possible to achieve economic growth and sustainable development while reducing greenhouse gas emissions, as Germany and Sweden demonstrate. In the case of Colombia, it is important to encourage a reduction in CO2 emissions through policies that combine technical and economic instruments and incentivise the application of new technologies that promote clean and environmentally friendly processes.

  • 2. Cotte Poveda, Alexander
    et al.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inés
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA): An application for the industry2013In: Quality and quantity, ISSN 0033-5177, E-ISSN 1573-7845, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 1315-1321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the management in Colombian industrial sectors using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). This method conceptualizes cases as combinations of attributes and use Boolean algebra to derive simplified expressions of combinations that lead to a specific outcome. In this analysis, we show the value of this method for studying the management in the industrial from different approaches.

  • 3. Cotte Poveda, Alexander
    et al.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inés
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Trends in economic growth, poverty and energy in Colombia: long-run and short-run effects2011In: Energy Systems, Springer Verlag, ISSN 1868-3967, E-ISSN 1868-3975, Vol. 2, no 3-4, p. 281-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research analyses the long run and short run relationships among economic growth, poverty and energy using the Colombian case. In this study, we use the time-series methodologies. The results regarding the relationship among economic growth, poverty and energy show that increases in gross domestic product and energy supply per capita should lead a decrease of poverty, which should demonstrate that access to modern and adequate energy services help to decrease poverty and to increase economic growth. Moreover, the improvements in energy efficiency have contributed to increase economic growth from an approach of sustainable development. These results are important for the adequate design, formulation and application of policies and strategies that encourage a better energy use to improve economic growth and decrease poverty, especially in developing countries.

  • 4.
    Pardo Martinez, Clara Inez
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    A comparative analysis of energy use and CO2 emissions in the manufacturing and service industries of Sweden2013In: International Journal of Applied Decision Sciences, ISSN 1755-8077, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 97-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the trends in energy use and CO2 emissions in the manufacturing industry and service sector. Using data at the two-digit aggregation level for the Swedish manufacturing and service industries, this empirical study intends to examine energy use, energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions using data envelopment analysis (DEA) and panel data techniques. DEA is applied to assess energy efficiency within a production framework. Panel data techniques are used to determine which variables influence energy efficiency. The results from the DEA reveal significant variations in energy efficiency across the manufacturing and service industries. The results for these sectors also indicate that technical efficiency and energy efficiency have increased while CO2 emissions have decreased, especially in recent years. The results of the panel data techniques demonstrate that increased energy taxes, electricity consumption, investments and labour productivity generate higher energy efficiency, while higher fossil fuel consumption leads to lower energy efficiency. All of the findings of this study are important for developing effective energy policies that encourage better energy use and management in the industrial sector.

  • 5.
    Pardo Martinez, Clara Inés
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Analysis of energy use and CO2 emission in service industries: Evidence from Sweden2012In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 5285-5294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the trends in energy use and CO2 emissions for 19 sub-sectors in the Swedish service sectors following the classification of the International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC) at the 2-digit level of aggregation over the period 1993-2008. This empirical study intends to examine energy use, energy efficiency and CO2 emissions using data envelopment analysis (DEA) and panel data techniques. DEA is applied to assess energy efficiency within a production framework. Panel data techniques are used to determine which variables influence energy efficiency. The results show that Swedish services industries have increased energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the period 1993-2008. The results from the DEA show significant variation in energy efficiency across service industries. The results also indicate that this sector has increased technical efficiency and energy efficiency while decreasing CO2 emissions, especially in the later years of our sample period. The results of panel data techniques show that higher energy taxes, electricity consumption, investments and labour productivity generate higher energy efficiency, while higher fossil fuel consumption leads to lower energy efficiency. All findings of this study are important for developing effective energy policies that encourage better energy use and energy management in the service industries.

  • 6.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Ines
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Semida, Silveira
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in Swedish manufacturing industries2013In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 117-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the trends in energy consumption and CO2 emissions as a result of energy efficiency improvements in Swedish manufacturing industries between 1993 and 2008. Using data at the two-digit level, the performance of this sector is studied in terms of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, energy efficiency measured as energy intensity, value of production, fuel sources, energy prices and energy taxes. It was found that energy consumption, energy intensity and CO2 emission intensity, measured as production values, have decreased significantly in the Swedish manufacturing industries during the period studied. The results of the decomposition analysis show that output growth has not required higher energy consumption, leading to a reduction in both energy and CO2 emission intensities. The role of structural changes has been minor, and the trends of energy efficiency and CO2 emissions have been similar during the sample period. A stochastic frontier model was used to determine possible factors that may have influenced these trends. The results demonstrate that high energy prices, energy taxes, investments and electricity consumption have influenced the reduction of energy and CO2 emission intensities, indicating that Sweden has applied an adequate and effective energy policy. The study confirms that it is possible to achieve economic growth and sustainable development whilst also reducing the pressure on resources and energy consumption and promoting the shift towards a low-carbon economy.

  • 7.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inez
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    An analysis of eco-efficiency in energy use and CO2 emissions in the Swedish service industries2013In: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, ISSN 0038-0121, E-ISSN 1873-6041, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 120-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study determines the trends in energy efficiency and CO2 emissions of the Swedish service sector using data at the 2-digit level of aggregation for the Swedish service industry over the period 1993-2008, this empirical study examines eco-efficiency in terms of energy efficiency and CO2 emissions based on a number of models. The results show that Swedish service industries increased energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the sample period, whereas energy and CO2 emission intensities have shown a decrease in recent years. Eco-efficiency models based on the Malmquist data envelopment analysis model suggest that Swedish service industries have an excellent potential to increase energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions. Second-stage panel data techniques show that energy taxes, investments and labour productive have a significant and positive influence on energy and CO2 emission intensities implying that increasing these variables lead to higher energy efficiency and lower CO2 emission intensity. This analysis demonstrates the importance of designing and applying adequate energy policies that encourage better energy use and management in this industrial sector for the goal of achieving a low carbon economy.

  • 8.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inés
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Analyzing energy efficiency in german and colombian non-energy intesnive sectors using empirical analysis2011In: 34th IAEE International Conference Institutions, Efficiency and Evolving Energy Technologies, Stockholm: Stockholm School of Economics , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is employed to study the comparative performance of German and Colombian non-energy intensive sectors between 1998 and 2005. The results of the DEA indicate that the great majority of these sectors improved on this index during the sample period, demonstrating that energy input is an important variable within the production structure and a key element in technology development. At a second stage, regression analysis using panel data analysis reveals that several factors, including labour productive, enterprise size, investments and capital input can be considered determinants of differences in energy efficiency among German and Colombian non-eenrgy intensive sectors. Our results also show that different energy policies should apply across non-energy intensive sectors and that they should encourage the importance of energy efficiency in order to improve it, especially in small and medium enterprises and manufacturing industries of developing countries.

  • 9.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inés
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Estimating and Analyzing Energy Efficiency in German and Colombian Manufacturing Industries Using DEA and Data Panel Analysis2011In: 17th annual international sustainable development research conference. Moving Towarda Sustainable Future: Opportunities and challenges / [ed] The Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York: The Earth Institute, Columbia University , 2011, p. 15-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is employed to study the comparative performance of German and Colombian manufacturing industries between 1998 and 2005. The results of the DEA indicate that the great majority of manufacturing industrial sectors improved on this index during the sample period, demonstrating that energy input is an important variable within the production structure and a key element in technology development. At a second stage, regression analysis using panel data analysis reveals that several factors, including labour productive, enterprise size, investments and capital input can be considered determinants of differences in energy efficiency among German and Colombian manufacturing industries. Our results also show that different energy policies should apply across manufacturing industries and that they should encourage the importance of energy efficiency in order to improve it, especially in non-energy-intensive sectors, small and medium enterprises and manufacturing industries of developing countries.

  • 10.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inés
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Estimating and analyzing energy efficiency in German and Colombian manufacturing industries using DEA and data panel analysis. Part I Energy Intensive Sectors2011In: Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, ISSN 1556-7257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is employed to study the comparative performance of German and Colombian energy intensive sectors between 1998 and 2005. The results of the DEA indicate that the great majority of energy intensive sectors improved on this index during the sample period, demonstrating that energy input is an important variable within the production structure and a key element in technology development. At a second stage, regression analysis using panel data analysis reveals that several factors, including labour productive, the share of electricity, investments and enterprise size can be considered determinants of differences in energy efficiency among German and Colombian energy intensive sectors. Our results also show that different energy policies should apply, and that they should encourage the importance of energy efficiency in order to achieve a sustainable economic development and climate stabilization today and in the near future.

  • 11.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inés
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Estimating and analyzing energy efficiency in German and Colombian manufacturing industries using DEA and data panel analysis. Part II Non-Energy Intensive Sectors2011In: Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, ISSN 1556-7257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysis energy efficiency trends in German and Colombian non-energy intensive sectors using data envelopment analysis (DEA) between 1998 and 2005. The results of the DEA show considerable variation in energy efficiency across non-energy intensive sectors during the sample period. At a second stage, regression analysis using panel data analysis reveals that several factors, including labour productive, enterprise size, and capital input can be considered determinants of differences in energy efficiency among German and Colombian non-energy intensive sectors. Our results also show that different energy policies should apply in non-energy intensive sectors and that they should encourage the importance of energy efficiency in order to improve it, especially in small and medium enterprises and industrial sector of developing countries.

  • 12.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inés
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Investments and Energy Efficiency in Colombian Manufacturing Industries2011In: 17th annual international sustainable development research conference Moving Towarda Sustainable Future:: Opportunities and challenges / [ed] The Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York: The Earth Institute, Columbia University , 2011, p. 169-171Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the effects of investments on energy efficiency performance using data from Colombian manufacturing industries. These industries were analysed as a whole and as energy intensive sectors(EISs) and nonenergy intensive sectors (NEISs) between 1998 and 2005. Using a simple factor demand model, we estimate the structural parameters of the model using both time-series and cross-sectional dimensions of the data, and we include the effect that investments have on energy efficiency in Colombian manufacturing industries. The results showed that in Colombian manufacturing industries overall, as well as in NEISs, the main variables that determine energy efficiency performance are energy prices, machinery and equipment investments and foreign investments. Whereas electricity prices show lower significance levels, investments in research and development (R&D) are not statistically significant. In contrast, for EISs, only energy prices and foreign investments are statistically significant. Therefore, these results demonstrate the close relationship between energy prices and investments with respect to energy efficiency improvements in Colombian manufacturing industries. These findings have important implications for policy makers aiming to encourage governments to adopt strategies that combine energy prices and technological change, as well as those policy makers wishing to strengthen foreign investment in order to improve technology development, productivity and energy efficiency in manufacturing industries.

  • 13.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inés
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Cotte Poveda, A.
    Energy, development, and economic growth in Colombia2013In: Global Energy Policy and Security, Springer London, 2013, p. 311-330Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to describe the causal relationships between energy use, development, and productivity in Colombia. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study was conducted by application of several econometric techniques. The time-series methodology used in this is based on the Granger causality test, which has been found appropriate by using the cointegration technique. Findings: This study shows that economic growth and development drive total energy consumption. The results regarding the relationship among energy, poverty, and inequality indicate that increases in gross domestic product and energy supply per capita contribute to decrease poverty. The results also confirm that access to modern energy services helps to decrease poverty. Moreover, the improvements in energy efficiency and decreases in CO2 emissions have contributed to development and growth. Practical Implications: The results of this study showed the importance of the formulation and adoption of good policies and strategies that encourage sustainable energy use to improve growth and development, especially in developing countries. Originality/Value: This chapter provides an empirical approach for finding the causal relationship between development, productivity, and energy consumption in Colombia. The methodology and the results used in this study could be used for exploring the importance of energy in the productivity and economic development.

  • 14.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inés
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Cotte Poveda, Alexander
    Energy efficiency in Colombian manufacturing industries: An analysis with Data Envelopment Analysis and Panel Data techniques: La eficiencia energética en la industria manufacturera Colombiana:una estimación con Análisis Envolvente de Datos-DEAy Datos de Panel2011In: REVISTA ECONOMÍA, GESTIÓN Y DESARROLLO, ISSN 1909-4477, no 11, p. 39-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is employed to analysis the trendsin energy efficiency in the Colombian manufacturing industries taking as reference energy intensive sectors (EISs).The results of theDEAindicate that the great majority ofEISs improved on this index, demonstrating that energy input is an important variable within the production structure and a key element in technology development.At a second stage, regression analysis using panel data analysis reveals that several factors, including labour productive, enterprise size, investments and capital input can be considered determinants in the trends of energyefficiency. These results indicate that different energy policies should apply in the manufacturing industries to encourage the importance of energy efficiencythrough technology changes and investments in order to improve productivity, decrease energy consumption and pollution.

  • 15.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inés
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Cotte Poveda, Alexander
    The trends in poverty and inequality: An evidence for Colombian departments: Las tendencias de la pobreza y la desigualdad: una evidencia para los departamentos de Colombia2011In: Ensayos Revista de Economía, ISSN 1870-221X, Vol. XXX, no 2, p. 29-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study estimates poverty and inequality trends using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and panel data in Colombia during the sample period between 1993 and 2007. In this analysis, we suggest a DEA model to measure and rank poverty, inequality and development trends. The results from the DEA model show variation in the scores across Colombian departments during the sample period. A second-stage panel data analysis with fixed effects reveals that departments with higher population density, unemployment, homicide rates and property concentration have a lower efficiency score, whereas departments with higher health and education coverage and public investments have better results according to DEA and panel data estimations. Findings of this analysis demonstrate that the decrease in poverty and inequality could be achieved through adequate strategies that guarantee development and economic growth with policies concentrated to improve social welfare.

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