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  • 1.
    Ahrenstedt, Lage
    University of Cape Town.
    Drug Eluting Hydrogels: Design, Synthesis and Evaluation2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogels have successfully proved themselves useful for drug delivery applications and several delivery routes have been developed over the years. The particular interest in this work was to design, synthesise and evaluate in situ forming drug eluting hydrogels, which have the potential to ameliorate the healing of cardiovascular diseases.

    With this aim the anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant drugs rapamycin (Ra) and dexamethasone (Dex) were made water soluble by conjugation with polyethylene glycol (PEG). Ra was attached pendant from the terminal of PEGs while Dex was incorporated into dendritic structures grown from PEGs. These conjugates were further crosslinked into hydrogels by either conjugate or thiol-ene addition. The gel degradation was tuned to take between 5 and 27 days by using gel building block combinations that induced either 2 or 4 hydrolytically labile bonds per crosslink or by varying the number of crosslinking sites of the building blocks. The use of thiol-ene addition prolonged the degradation time nearly seven folded compared to conjugate addition as a more stable crosslink was formed.

    Two different formulations for gelling via conjugate addition were used (acrylate-thiol or vinyl sulphone-thiol) to deliver Ra, which was carried by either a 4- or 2-armed PEG. The elution kinetic for the respective gel formulation was of zero order during 15 and 19 days of gel degradation. In addition, Ra was PEGylated via esters, with a distance of either one or two carbons to a nearby thio-ether functionality. The difference in ester conjugation resulted in a slight but significant change in drug-PEG conjugate stability, which was mirrored by the increased time to reach the half amount of total drug elution; from 9.3 to 10.2 days and from 5.1 to 9.7 days for the two gel formulations, respectively. Dexamethasone was incorporated via an ester into dendrons of first and second generation pending from 2- and 4-armed PEGs at loadings of 2, 4 or 6 Dex molecules per carrier molecule. The resulting elution kinetic was of zero order during degradation periods of 5-27 days. Released Dex still possessed biological activity as determined by an in vitro cell assay.

    The novelties in this thesis are: (A) slow release of rapamycin obtained by covalent incorporation into hydrogels, (B) the use of unique PEG-based dendrimers to incorporate dexamethasone into a hydrogel and (C) zero order sustained release of dexamethasone at physiological pH.

  • 2.
    Ahrenstedt, Lage
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Surface modification of cellulose materials: from wood pulps to artificial blood vessels2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the improvement of two radically different cellulose materials, paper and artificial blood vessels, constructed from two diverse cellulose sources, wood pulp and Acetobacter xylinum. The improvement of both materials was possible due to the natural affinity of the hemicellulose xyloglucan for cellulose.

    Chemical and mechanical pulps were treated with xyloglucan in the wet-end prior to hand sheet formation or by spray application of dry hand sheets, loading a comparable amount of xyloglucan. The tensile strength increases for the wet-end treatment and spray application were 28% and 71% respectively for bleached soft wood, compared to untreated sheets (20.7 Nm/g). The corresponding strength increases for hand sheets made of thermo-mechanical pulp were 6% and 13% respectively compared to untreated sheets (42.4 Nm/g). The tendency for chemical pulp to be superior to mechanical pulp with respect to strength increase was valid even for tear strength and Scott-Bond. These results suggest, in agreement with other studies, that adhesion of xyloglucan to wood fibres is dependent on their degree of surface lignification.

    Also, a method was developed to increase the blood compatibility of artificial blood vessels constructed of bacterial cellulose. Xyloglucan was covalently linked to the endothelial cell adhesion motif (Arg-Gly-Asp). To obtain this, new solid-phase coupling chemistry was developed. Xyloglucan oligosaccharides (XGO) were transformed into XGO-succinamic acid via the corresponding XGO--NH2 derivative prior to coupling with the N-terminus of the solid-phase synthesised Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser peptide. The resin-bound glyco-peptide was then cleaved and enzymatically re-incorporated into high molecular weight xyloglucan. The glyco-peptide was further adsorbed onto bacterial cellulose scaffolds, increasing the adhesion and proliferation of endothelial cells and therefore blood compatibility.

  • 3.
    Ahrenstedt, Lage
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO). KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Centres, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova.
    Olksanen, Antti
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Salmien, Kristian
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Centres, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova.
    Paper dry strength improvement by xyloglucan addition: Wet-end application, spray coating and synergism with borate2008In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 8-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The polysaccharide xyloglucan as a wet-end additive improves paper properties. In the present study, paper strength improvement was analysed for dry handsheets made from chemical, mechanical and recycled pulps coated with xyloglucan in a spray application. Results are compared with sheets made from the same pulps treated with xyloglucan in the wet-end. Kraft pulp handsheets of bleached hardwood and softwood showed significant improvements of tensile, tear and Z-strength by xyloglucan spray treatment versus wet-end application, whereas handsheets of de-inked and thermomechanical pulp were improved only slightly. In both wet-end and spray applications, the effect of xyloglucan addition was intimately related to the presence of non-cellulosic components on the fibre surface. Further strength improvements were obtained for chemical pulps by addition of borax to the spray solution, which were likely to be due to the formation of borate-mediated xyloglucan cross-links. Spray coating of xyloglucan, with or without borax, thus represents a potential new application of this polysaccharide to increase paper dry strength.

  • 4.
    Bodin, Aase
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Ahrenstedt, Lage
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Fink, Helen
    Vascular Engineering Centre, Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Risberg, Bo
    Vascular Engineering Centre, Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Gatenholm, Paul
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Modification of nanocellulose with a xyloglucan-RGD conjugate enhances adhesion and proliferation of endothelial cells: Implications for tissue engineering2007In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 8, no 12, p. 3697-3704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a novel method for introducing the RGD cell adhesion peptide to enhance cell adhesion onto bacterial cellulose (BC). BC and cotton linters as reference were modified with xyloglucan (XG) and xyloglugan bearing a GRGDS pentapeptide. The adsorptions followed Langmuir adsorption behavior, where both XGs probably decorate the cellulose surfaces as a monolayer. The adsorption maximum of the XGs reached around 180 mg/g on BC and only about three times as much on cotton linters. The adsorption was verified with colorimetric methods. The specific surface area of BC measured with XG and XG-GRGDS was about 200 m(2)/g and was almost three times less for cotton linters, 60 m2/g. The difference in the amounts of XGs adsorbed might be explained by the swollen network of bacterial cellulose and a more exposed and accessible bulk as compared to cotton linters. The nanocellulose material was modified homogeneously throughout the material, as seen by the z-scan in confocal microscopy. Moreover, the modification in the water phase, in comparison with organic solvents, was clearly advantageous for preserving the morphology, as observed with SEM. The modification slightly increased the wettability, which might explain the decrease in or undetectable adsorption of adhesive protein shown by QCM-D. Initial cell studies showed that adhesion of human endothelial cells is enhanced when the BC hydrogel is modified with XG-GRGDS. QCM-D studies further revealed that the cell enhancement is due to the presence of the RGD epitope on XG and not to a nonspecific adsorption of fibronectin from cell culture medium. Optimization and proliferation studies of human endothelial cells onto bacterial cellulose modified with XG-GRGDS are currently being carried out at the Vascular Engineering Center, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.

  • 5. Fink, H.
    et al.
    Bodin, A.
    Ahrenstedt, Lage
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Wood Biotechnology (closed 20090101).
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Wood Biotechnology (closed 20090101).
    Risberg, B.
    Enhanced endothelial cell attachment on RGD-modified bacterial cellulose2008In: World Biomater. Congr., 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies show so far that BC is a promising material for use in the cardiovascular research area. The possibility to easy modify the surface of the BC makes it a good candidate for pre-seeding in vitro with or recruiting of endothelial cell in vivo.

  • 6. Fink, Helen
    et al.
    Ahrenstedt, Lage
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Bodin, Aase
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Gatenholm, Paul
    Krettek, Alexandra
    Risberg, Bo
    Bacterial cellulose modified with xyloglucan bearing the adhesion peptide RGD promotes endothelial cell adhesion and metabolism - a promising modification for vascular grafts2011In: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, ISSN 1932-6254, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 454-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, biomaterials such as polytetrafluorethylene (ePTFE) are used clinically as prosthetic grafts for vascular surgery of large vessels (>5 mm). In small diameter vessels, however, their performance is poor due to early thrombosis. Bacterial-derived cellulose (BC) is a new promising material as a replacement for blood vessels. This material is highly biocompatible in vivo but shows poor cell adhesion. In the native blood vessel, the endothelium creates a smooth non-thrombogenic surface. In order to sustain cell adhesion, BC has to be modified. With a novel xyloglucan (XG) glycoconjugate method, it is possible to introduce the cell adhesion peptide RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) onto bacterial cellulose. The advantage of the XG-technique is that it is an easy one-step procedure carried out in water and it does not weaken or alter the fiber structure of the hydrogel. In this study, BC was modified with XG and XGRGD to asses primary human vascular endothelial cell adhesion, proliferation, and metabolism as compared with unmodified BC. This XG-RGD-modification significantly increased cell adhesion and the metabolism of seeded primary endothelial cells as compared with unmodified BC whereas the proliferation rate was affected only to some extent. The introduction of an RGD-peptide to the BC surface further resulted in enhanced cell spreading with more pronounced stress fiber formation and mature phenotype. This makes BC together with the XG-method a promising material for synthetic grafts in vascular surgery and cardiovascular research.

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