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  • 1.
    Carlsson Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History.
    Sonnek, Karin Mossberg
    Swedish Def Res Agcy, Def Anal, Stockholm, Sweden..
    "We want to know where the line is": comparing current planning for future sea-level rise with three core principles of robust decision support approaches2019In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 62, no 8, p. 1339-1358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Handling uncertainties is a major challenge in climate change adaptation. A variety of robust decision support approaches that aim for better management of uncertainty have recently been emerging and are used in environmental planning. The present study examined to what extent existing processes of planning for future sea-level rise in Sweden utilised similar approaches. Three core principles of robust decision support approaches were identified and used as a tool for analyzing five cases of planning for future sea-level rise in companies and authorities at different levels in society. The results show that planning processes typically do not embrace uncertainties, do not use a bottom-up approach and do not specifically aim for robustness, which points to a discrepancy between current planning paradigms and the core principles of robust decision support approaches.

  • 2.
    Carlsson Kanyama, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Wester, Misse
    LTH, Div Risk Management & Societal Safety, Lund, Sweden..
    Snickare, Lotta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Söderberg, Inga-Lill
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Climate change mitigation efforts among transportation and manufacturing companies: The current state of efforts in Sweden according to available documentation2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 196, p. 588-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, transportation and manufacturing emit large amount of greenhouse gases that needs to be lowered for reaching agreed upon slim ate goals. In this context evidence of mitigation activities among eighty-five companies and their forty-five parent companies in these two polluting sectors were traced focusing on a country that has committed itself to leading the implementation of ambitious climate mitigation goals worldwide. Documentation from the companies in the transportation and manufacturing sectors was scrutinized (yearly reports, homepages and sustainability reports, if available) for evidence of any mitigation efforts, including emissions reporting and reduction goals. The study's results found that two thirds of the companies seemed to have done nothing to mitigate climate change, while efforts in the remaining companies were modest at best; mitigation activities among the forty-five parent companies were only slightly more ambitious. The implications of these depressing findings are discussed in the light of possible caveats and the possibilities of new policy measures such as gender quotas in company boards. The conclusion is that the study's results most likely reflect reality in the studied sectors and that novel approaches and more sector oriented research is needed in the quest for a carbon-neutral society..

  • 3.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Collaborative housing and environmental efficiency: The case of food preparation and consumption2004In: International Journal of Sustainable Development, ISSN 0960-1406, E-ISSN 1741-5268, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 341-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In theory, food handling in collaborative housing systems could have a number of environmental advantages compared with households and food service institutions. This paper explores to what extent some of these theoretical advantages are realized in two collaborative housing units in a major Swedish city. Food-related energy use and waste flows were measured and compared with results from food service institutions and some data relevant for households. Results show that energy use for cooking decreases in collaborative houses compared with households but energy use for food storage increases. Plate and food preparation wastes are low in the studied collaborative houses but food leftovers may be abundant. The latter result depends on how the dining system is organized. A bottleneck for improving the environmental efficiency in collaborative housing is the static view of apartment design held by many architects and real estate owners. Another bottleneck may be the unwillingness of households to make advance commitments to daily dining.

  • 4.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Wadeskog, A.
    Carbon Dioxide Emission Associated to Swedish Import and Consumption: Calculations Using Different Methods2007Report (Other academic)
  • 5. Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    Ekstrom, M. P.
    Shanahan, H.
    Food and life cycle energy inputs: consequences of diet and ways to increase efficiency2003In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 44, no 03-feb, p. 293-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food consumption is one of the most polluting everyday activities when impacts during product life cycles are considered. Greenhouse gas emissions from the food sector are substantial and need to be lowered to stabilise climate change. Here, we present an inventory of life cycle energy inputs for 150 food items available in Sweden and discuss how energy efficient meals and diets can be composed. Energy inputs in food life cycles vary from 2 to 220 MJ per kg due to a multitude of factors related to animal or vegetable origin, degree of processing, choice of processing and preparation technology and transportation distance. Daily total life cycle energy inputs for diets with a similar dietary energy consumed by one person can vary by a factor of four, from 13 to 51 MJ. Current Swedish food consumption patterns result in life cycle energy inputs ranging from 6900 to 21,000 MJ per person and year. Choice of ingredients and gender differences in food consumption patterns explain the differences. Up to a third of the total energy inputs is related to snacks, sweets and drinks, items with little nutritional value. It is possible to compose a diet compatible with goals for energy efficiency and equal global partition of energy resources. However, such a diet is far from the Swedish average and not in line with current trends.

  • 6.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Gonzalez, A. D.
    Potential contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change2009In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 89, no 5, p. S1704-S1709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic warming is caused mainly by emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, with agriculture as a main contributor for the latter 2 gases. Other parts of the food system contribute carbon dioxide emissions that emanate from the use of fossil fuels in transportation, processing, retailing, storage, and preparation. Food items differ substantially when GHG emissions are calculated from farm to table. A recent study of approximate to 20 items sold in Sweden showed a span of 0.4 to 30 kg CO2 equivalents/kg edible product. For protein-rich food, such as legumes, meat, fish, cheese, and eggs, the difference is a factor of 30 with the lowest emissions per kilogram for legumes, poultry, and eggs and the highest for beef, cheese, and pork. Large emissions for ruminants are explained mainly by methane emissions from enteric fermentation. For vegetables and fruits, emissions usually are <= 2.5 kg CO2 equivalents/kg product, even if there is a high degree of processing and substantial transportation. Products transported by plane are an exception because emissions may be as large as for certain meats. Emissions from foods rich in carbohydrates, such as potatoes, pasta, and wheat, are <1.1 kg/kg edible food. We suggest that changes in the diet toward more plant-based foods, toward meat from animals with little enteric fermentation, and toward foods processed in an energy-efficient manner offer an interesting and little explored area for mitigating climate change.

  • 7.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Rädda maten - Åtgärder för svinnminskande beteendeförändringar hos konsument2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents results from a literature review of different studies and scientific evaluations of behaviour interventions aim- ing to decrease avoidable food waste, that are directed private consumers. In this report food waste refers to foods that could have been eaten if was handled differently, but that was thrown away. The food waste may appear both in people’s homes and when they eat in restaurants. Studies included in our overview contain various types of strategies: E.g. education and infor- mation regarding the importance of decreasing food waste; apps and other tools for people to keep track of their food in order to avoid buying food they don’t need; apps to share spare food. Restaurants have tested strategies of providing guests with smaller plates. Private individuals can also be encouraged to contribute to reducing food waste in other areas of the food chain, for example by encouraging purchasing of food that is approaching the best- before date. Mostly, the evaluations of the behaviour interventions have only been carried out using smaller groups of people. Longitudinal studies of their effects are mostly missing. Nevertheless, the studies of interventions where evaluations exist, indi- cate a significant effect regarding the decrease of food waste as well as raising households’ awareness and encouraging their re- flection. On the other hand, many initiatives and strategies formed to decrease food waste are not evaluated at all. Consider- ing environmental, social and economic consequences of food waste, this is problematic. We, thus, suggest that effects of ongoing initiatives, such as selling not-consumed food from restaurants at a lower price should be evaluated in the short span as well as in longitudinal studies. We also suggest that interventions which have been successful in other countries should be tested in Sweden. This includes various tools for keeping track of contents in the fridge as well as tools for sharing left-overs. There is also a need for further understanding how individuals and societal structures may consociate for lowering food waste and a need for evaluating results from food waste intervention campaigns with larger groups of households than what was done so far. 

  • 8. Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    Linden, Anna-Lisa
    Energy efficiency in residences - Challenges for women and men in the North2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 2163-2172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a Northern country such as Sweden, energy use in the home may be reduced by 20% through changes in behaviour. However, little is known about how households respond to policy instruments encouraging such change or to what degree this in turn may affect the workload of women and men in such communities. The current study presents findings from interviews with 30 households in Sweden that participated in intervention measures aimed at reducing energy use in the home and explores how the sexes divided the new household chores and their opinions regarding these. The empirical findings are analysed against a theoretical framework of behavioural change. Results from the interviews indicate that lower indoor temperature and fewer hot baths had a greater impact on women than on men. When electricity charges varied, the workload of women increased as they washed clothes and dishes at night and at weekends when electricity was cheaper. Women also refrained from using clothes' driers resulting in more time spent completing this chore. Based on these results we argue that a gender perspective in future intervention programmes in Northern communities may be useful as residential energy conservation in its present form affects the timing and types of household chores with resulting increased workload for women. How energy policy should change requires further analysis.

  • 9.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Lindén, Anna-Lisa
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Kanyama, Ahmad
    Citizen participation and institutional coordination: an examination of public transport and land use planning in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania2006Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Lundell, Erika
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Miljöpolitik och styrmedel: fallstudie Kläder2006Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Lundell, Erika
    Lindén, Anna-Lisa
    Miljöpolitik och styrmedel: fallstudie Kött2006Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering.
    Larsson, Tore J
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Odla under tak i eller nära bostaden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within a project called “The sustainable greenhouse as a complement to buildings” financed by the Delegation of sustainable cities in Sweden, researchers, consultants and students have during 2013 developed, tested and evaluated various solutions for cultivating under roofs in or close to dwellings. We included solutions such as cultivating a plot in a rooftop greenhouse, a circular cultivation balcony or to cultivate in one’s kitchen or living room using a fish and vegetable furniture, a green wall, a green lamp or a green frame attached to the wall. The practical trials were preceded by a literature survey that described good examples of cultivation under roofs in various cities around the world.The results show that here are many inspiring examples of cultivating under roofs in cities and that such cultivation has gained some momentum. Our practical trials show among others that urban agriculture seems challenging and appealing for many but that the solutions that we have tested seem to be too expensive and partly also too time-consuming. Those who like to cultivate do so because it is fun and they can get products of good quality. To lessen the environmental impacts are also a reason but here our results that productivity in urban farming has to be higher than in our trials in order for the products to be considered as “climate-friendly”. Growing fish at home showed to be rather unpopular and many thought that slaughtering the fish by themselves would be nasty. Others results from the project are a water cooled LED lamp built in four copies and successfully installed in a fish and vegetable production unit as well as drawings and costs estimates for a cultivation bench.Proposals for further studies include analysis of flight and nutrient requirements for cultivation under roofs in cities as well as measurements of productivity. More low cost solutions for cultivating under glass should also be developed. To expand and maintain interest and knowledge for cultivation under roofs in cities is not only important for increasing social sustainability and eventually the environmental one as well but also because of the need to enhance preparedness.

  • 13.
    Carstens, Christoffer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Cty Adm Board Gavleborg, S-80266 Gavle, Sweden..
    Sonnek, Karin Mossberg
    Swedish Def Res Agcy, Def Anal, S-16490 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Raty, Riitta
    Swedish Def Res Agcy, Def Anal, S-16490 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Metzger, Jonathan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Insights from Testing a Modified Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways Approach for Spatial Planning at the Municipal Level2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways (DAPP) approach has successfully been used to manage uncertainties in large infrastructure projects. However, the viability of the DAPP approach for spatial planning in smaller municipal settings is not clear. This paper examines opportunities and constraints of using adaptive pathways approaches to help small municipalities plan for future sea-level rise. The methodology was based on developing a simplified DAPP-approach, which was tested in a multiple experimental case study of spatial planning projects in three municipalities in Sweden. The results show that the approach promoted vulnerability-based thinking among the end-users and generated new ideas on how to manage the uncertain long-term impacts of future sea-level rise. However, the increased understanding of uncertainties was used to justify static, rather than adaptive, solutions. This somewhat surprising outcome can be explained by perceived legal constraints, lack of experience of adaptive pathways, and unwillingness to prescribe actions that could prove difficult to enforce in the future. More research is needed to further understand at what planning phases dynamic policy pathway approaches work best and how current barriers in legislation, practices, mind-set, organization, and resources can be overcome.

  • 14. Gonzalez, A. D.
    et al.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Crivelli, E. S.
    Gortari, S.
    Residential energy use in one-family households with natural gas provision in a city of the Patagonian Andean region2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 2141-2150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential energy use was studied in one-family houses in the city of Bariloche, in the Patagonian Andean region of Argentina. A survey was conducted of households connected to the natural gas network to correlate use of gas, living area and number of inhabitants per house. The annual average consumption of gas was found to be 169 GJ, and consumption of electricity 8 GJ. This total energy use per household per year is almost double the average value reported for Stockholm, Sweden, although both locations have similar heating requirements. The difference was mainly due to heating energy consumption per unit living space, which in Bariloche was 1530 MJ/m(2) per year.. while in Stockholm the average is around 570 MJ/m(2) per year. The high energy consumption in Bariloche is explained primarily by the construction characteristics of the buildings, and secondarily by the efficiency of the heating devices used. We were able to conclude that subsidies on natural gas tariffs given to the residential sector do not promote a rational use of the resource. Furthermore, almost 40% of the population (mostly households in poverty) are not connected to the subsidised gas resource, but pay prices for alternative fuels that are between 10- and 15 times higher. Policies to improve buildings and appliances would reduce emissions and make access to energy more equitable.)

  • 15.
    Jonsson, Daniel K.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    Dreborg, Karl H.
    Hedberg, L
    Hälsokonsekvensbedömning i risk- och sårbarhetsanalyser: Förstudie om klimatförändringar och extrema väderhändelser2006Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Carlsson Kanyama, Annika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Zapico, J.
    Dept. of Computer Science and Media Technology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Share or waste?: Using an ICT-platform to share food on a university campus2019In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, CEUR-WS , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering that food production for human consumption has a large environmental impact, food waste is major challenge for sustainable development. Although food waste occur at all phases in the food supply chain, private consumption has been identified as a major phase of food waste generation. Intervening at this phase provides an opportunity of change. The article reports the testing of a digital prototype designed to facilitate for employees and students at a university campus to share food. A representative group tested the prototype and associated food sharing activities for two weeks. At the closing of the test period they filled in a questionnaire evaluating their experience. Twenty-three responses were obtained showing that twelve people used the prototype for collecting food, whereas nine used it for sharing their food. Six people did both. Main reasons for not collecting food included lack of time, unavailability of shared food in their proximity and inaccessibility of spaces where food was located. Main reasons for not sharing food were that they lack of food to share, lack of time, and that sharing was possible without the prototype. General conclusions from the study are that people will use a digital service for sharing food in the workplace if there is a critical mass of users and if an effective organization of sharing and collecting food is provided.

  • 17. Linden, A. L.
    et al.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    Voluntary agreements - a measure for energy-efficiency in industry? Lessons from a Swedish programme2002In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 30, no 10, p. 897-905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Voluntary agreements represent a policy instrument for applying new knowledge, routines or technology to specified issues. The traditional role of an authority when using information, and taking economic, or administrative measures is that of an initiator and controller. Voluntary agreements, on the other hand, represent a communication process between an authority and a partner where relations of dependency and mutuality are more important in advancing the programme. This article analyses and discusses the motivational aspects of voluntary agreements, the role of the contract, advising, information, education, time planning and the importance of reporting and evaluation in energy-efficiency programmes. Besides sociological and communication theories, the discussion is based on the outcome of an evaluation of a Swedish energy-efficiency programme. Among the conclusions are that communication processes have to be planned and implemented in time sequences and steps of measures, which was partially neglected in the Swedish programme. Also, agreements between partners have to be defined in ways valid for all partners. In the Swedish programme, quantitative goals, at least measured in kWh, were impossible to achieve for some industries. On the other hand, most industries reported progress in side effects of energy efficiency as for example transportation policy for products, recirculation of waste material, lighting policy and behaviour, qualifications for ISO labelling. Information in combination with voluntary agreements can be efficient for industrial energy conservation. The education and auditing that was part of the Swedish programme were highly appreciated and added to the achievements.

  • 18. Linden, A. L.
    et al.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    Eriksson, B.
    Efficient and inefficient aspects of residential energy behaviour: What are the policy instruments for change?2006In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 34, no 14, p. 1918-1927Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The empirical part of this study is based on a survey of 600 Swedish households and a number of interviews where questions about residential energy behaviour and possible policy instruments for change were raised. The study provides insight into current behavioural patterns and gives a bottom-up perspective on the realistic perspective potentials for change and ways to achieve them. Residential energy use accounts for a fifth of the total in Northern nations and patterns of behaviour may influence levels of energy use to the same extent as choice of appliances. The study revealed those behavioural patterns that are efficient and those that need to be improved for energy conservation. Several policy instruments for change were identified in the study and they include combinations of information, economic measures, administrative measures and more user friendly technology as well as equipment with sufficient esthetic quality. Policy instruments that have fostered energy efficient behaviour in Sweden include the massive information campaigns during the oil crises in the 1970s as well as energy labelling of appliances. Still, many households are energy-unaware and several energy efficient behaviours are motivated not by energy conservation concern but of a perceived lack of time. This shows that it is important to have a broad perspective in energy conservation, to evaluate trends and to use policy instruments timely to support or discourage them.

  • 19. Lindgren, Johan
    et al.
    Jonsson, Daniel K.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    Climate Adaptation of Railways: Lessons from Sweden2009In: European journal of transport and infrastructure research, ISSN 1567-7133, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 164-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current variability in weather and climate is posing a challenge for transport infrastructure. However, during the past decade the need to adapt to a changing climate has attracted increasing attention. This paper summarises a case study on the future vulnerability to climate change of the Swedish railway transport system and its adaptive capacity. The combination of a long time horizon in planning and an expected increasing demand for rail traffic raises many questions regarding how adaptation to climate change can be accounted for in future planning, design and management of railways. The case study was essentially based on interviews with key personnel within the Swedish Rail Administration. Views on vulnerability and adaptation to climate change were documented, and the need for improved methods to assess the vulnerability and adaptive capacity related to climate change for the Swedish railways was addressed. The conclusions of the paper are addressed to the European railway context at large. Firstly, systematic mapping of current climate vulnerabilities and their consequences is important in order to guide the implementation of adaptation measures. Secondly, climate change should be considered in the early stages of planning and included in risk and vulnerability assessments. In assessing future conditions with the aim of prioritising adaptation measures, current methodologies should be complemented with more future-orientated tools. When designing adaptation measures, the effects of potential goal conflicts should also be assessed, in order to avoid the implementation of counter-productive measures. The possibility of creating synergies with climate mitigation goals and other environmental goals should also be investigated.

  • 20. Lindén, A. -L
    et al.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Globalisation of markets and products: A challenge for environmental policy2007In: International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development (IJESD), ISSN 1474-6778, E-ISSN 1478-7466, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 473-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of products has increasingly been relocated to countries outside the western industrialised area. Consumption of the same products in the west has increased. Policy instruments, used with positive effects nationally, have become more or less ineffective or irrelevant. Some environmental problems related to production practices have been relocated to other countries, while the import of products involves new environmental and health impacts for consumers. In integrated product policy, including phases of design, production, distribution, consumption and waste management, the possibility of using policy instruments to address designing and producing actors are highly affected by globalisation. The globalisation of production is a challenge for environmental policy as regards defining policy instruments with international validity. Case studies, the integrated product chain for batteries, clothing and meat, are used analysing globalisation and policy instruments. The empirical materials include legislation, propositions, protocols and interviews with officials in ministries, authorities, production and distribution organisations.

  • 21. Lindén, Anna-Lisa
    et al.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Integrated product policy: a case study of batteries2006In: International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development (IJESD), ISSN 1474-6778, E-ISSN 1478-7466, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 163-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing complexity of product chains is an argument for analysing actors and policy instruments throughout the lifecycle of products. Actors are persons or corporations deciding upon the fate of the product. The policy instruments refer to well-known measures like information, economic or administrative measures. The theoretical part of the study discuss governance and the role of policy instruments influencing actors' decisions and behaviour during the lifecycle of a product. The empirical part of the study analyses the use of policy instruments addressed to actors involved in the lifecycle of batteries and to what extent policy instruments affect actors' behaviour.

  • 22.
    Reynolds, Christian
    et al.
    University of Sheffield.
    Goucher, Liam
    University of Sheffield.
    Quested, Tom
    Waste & Resources Action Programme (WRAP), UK.
    Bromley, Sarah
    Waste & Resources Action Programme (WRAP), UK.
    Gillick, Sam
    Waste & Resources Action Programme (WRAP), UK.
    Wells, Victoria K.
    University of York, UK.
    Evans, David
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Koh, Lenny
    University of Sheffield.
    Carlsson Kanyama, Annika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Jackson, Peter
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Review: Consumption-stage food waste reduction interventions – What works and how to design better interventions2019In: Food Policy, ISSN 0306-9192, E-ISSN 1873-5657, Vol. 83, p. 7-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste prevention has become an issue of international concern, with Sustainable Development Goal 12.3 aiming to halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels by 2030. However there is no review that has considered the effectiveness of interventions aimed at preventing food waste in the consumption stages of the food system. This significant gap, if filled, could help support those working to reduce food waste in the developed world, providing knowledge of what interventions are specifically effective at preventing food waste.

    This paper fills this gap, identifying and summarizing food-waste prevention interventions at the consumption/consumer stage of the supply chain via a rapid review of global academic literature from 2006 to 2017.

    We identify 17 applied interventions that claim to have achieved food waste reductions. Of these, 13 quantified food waste reductions. Interventions that changed the size or type of plates were shown to be effective (up to 57% food waste reduction) in hospitality environments. Changing nutritional guidelines in schools were reported to reduce vegetable waste by up to 28%, indicating that healthy diets can be part of food waste reduction strategies. Information campaigns were also shown to be effective with up to 28% food waste reduction in a small sample size intervention.

    Cooking classes, fridge cameras, food sharing apps, advertising and information sharing were all reported as being effective but with little or no robust evidence provided. This is worrying as all these methods are now being proposed as approaches to reduce food waste and, except for a few studies, there is no reproducible quantified evidence to assure credibility or success. To strengthen current results, a greater number of longitudinal and larger sample size intervention studies are required. To inform future intervention studies, this paper proposes a standardised guideline, which consists of: (1) intervention design; (2) monitoring and measurement; (3) moderation and mediation; (4) reporting; (5) systemic effects.

    Given the importance of food-waste reduction, the findings of this review highlight a significant evidence gap, meaning that it is difficult to make evidence-based decisions to prevent or reduce consumption-stage food waste in a cost-effective manner.

  • 23.
    von Oelreich, Jacob
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    FOI.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    FOI.
    Framtida havsnivåhöjning i kommunal planering2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A warmer climate leads to rising sea levels. Despite uncertainties about how rapid and substantial future sea level rise will be, society needs to prepare. In this report we examine how 33 coastal municipalities in southern Sweden plan for rising sea levels and what estimated future sea levels their planning is based on. We also analyse the responses in a number of interviews with individuals responsible for sea level planning at the studied municipalities, county administrative boards, the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB), the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) and a consultancy firm.

    The greatest uncertainty in future sea level projections is how the inland ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica will react to climate change. The reaction so far has been more rapid than previously thought. Recently, increasing levels have been mentioned in several articles published in scientific journals. In these articles, sea level rise is estimated to 1–2 metres by 2100 for the highest emissions scenarios. The sea will continue to rise for many centuries, even if greenhouse gas emissions cease completely. Local sea level rise differs from the global average and is affected by several factors.

    Our survey of municipal planning documents reveals that there are considerable gaps in current planning for future sea level rise. Almost one third of the municipalities studied have no estimates of future sea levels whatsoever in their planning. Among the municipalities that in fact estimate future sea levels, six out of ten lack clear sources for their estimates.

    SMHI is the dominant source for municipalities' estimates of future sea level rise. There is, however, considerable difference between the estimates of various municipalities. This illustrates the uncertainty that exists about what future sea level rise estimate is most reasonable to relate to. In recent years there is evidence of a trend that municipalities are using SMHI's estimate of a sea level rise of "around one metre" by 2100. Despite scientific studies indicating higher levels, most coastal municipalities in southern Sweden do not plan for sea level rise above one metre by the end of the 21st century.

    Currently planning for sea level rise beyond 2100 is lacking. SMHI, the County Administrative Board of Skåne and the municipality of Helsingborg emphasize the importance of planning more than 100 years into the future. However, few other municipalities plan for this time frame. This indicates that long-term planning for sea level rise needs to be improved.

    Our study reveals a lack of preparedness for more substantial sea level rise than estimated in current planning. The interviews show that even if several interviewees request planning for worst-case scenarios of future sea level rise, only MSB takes into account the worst possible outcome, as required by the European Union's Floods Directive.

    The study shows that municipalities and county administrative boards in southern Sweden demand increased clarity from the state, both in terms of concrete planning support and clear government guidelines for planning for sea level rise. Our study indicates a need for a government strategy for sea level planning in Sweden.

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