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  • 1. Hallonsten, Olof
    A classic laboratory study in science policy clothing2011In: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 79-80Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Contextualizing the European Spallation Source: what we can learn from the history, politics, and sociology of Big Science2012In: In pursuit of a promise: Perspectives on the political process to establish the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden / [ed] Olof Hallonsten, Lund: Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    University of Gothenburg.
    Continuity and change in the politics of European scientific collaboration2012In: Journal of Contemporary European Research, ISSN 1815-347X, E-ISSN 1815-347X, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 300-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intergovernmental collaboration in the area of big science has been an important resource for European science since the 1950s. Yet, as a policy area, it has traditionally been left outside of the political integration work of the European Community/Union. Despite this formal detachment, the political realities of the collaborations often draw upon and reflect the (geo)political dynamics of Europe. This article reports on a study of two big projects in the making (the European Spallation Source and the European X-ray Free Electron Laser), and uses two historical cases for comparison (the European Laboratory for Nuclear Research and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility). It highlights critical issues in establishing and operating collaborations, relates these to the broader context of European political integration, and discusses, on the basis of this, signs of continuity and change in this distinct area of European research policy.

  • 4.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Don’t let brinkmanship get in the way of Big Science2013In: Research Europe, ISSN 1366-9885, no 10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201). Lund University, Sweden .
    Growing Big Science in a Small Country: MAX-lab and the Swedish Research Policy System2011In: Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences, ISSN 1939-1811, E-ISSN 1939-182X, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 179-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MAX-lab is a Swedish national synchrotron radiation facility, first established as a small-scale university project in the late 1970s and then gradually developed into a national and international user facility. This article presents a historical study of MAXlab that illustrates the decentralized character of the Swedish science policy system and especially its lack of aggregation mechanisms for strategically important initiatives such as the establishment of large research infrastructures. The dominating university sector and the absence of strong central governance structures have made Swedish science policy pluralistic, driven from the bottom up, and decentralized. The genesis and development of MAX-lab, while remarkable when compared to other such facilities internationally, is symptomatically Swedish-it has grown from the bottom up and step by step, and thereby managed to become a respected national and international user facility despite unfavorable conditions. The patchy funding model and the lack of coherent policymaking has led to underfunding and an opaque organizational structure, but MAX-lab and its users have nonetheless been of high quality. This article argues that the determination, patience, adaptivity, and, to some extent, ingenuity of the people involved in MAX-lab have compensated for systemic shortcomings and enabled the laboratory to succeed despite the unfavorable conditions.

  • 6.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    University of Gothenburg.
    How expensive is Big Science?: Consequences of using simple publication counts in performance assessment of large scientific facilities2014In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 100, no 2, p. 483-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the nuclear era and the Cold War superpower competition have long since passed, governments are still investing in Big Science, although these large facilities are nowadays mostly geared towards areas of use closer to utility. Investments in Big Science are also motivated not only by promises of scientific breakthroughs but also by expectations (and demands) of measurable impact, and with an emerging global market of competing user-oriented Big Science facilities, quantitative measures of productivity and quality have become mainstream. Among these are rather simple and one-sided publication counts. This article uses publication counts and figures of expenditure for three cases that are disparate but all represent the state-of-the-art of Big Science of their times, discussing at depth the problems of using simple publication counts as a measure of performance in science. Showing, quite trivially, that Big Science is very expensive, the article also shows the absurd consequences of consistently using simple publication counts to display productivity and quality of Big Science, and concludes that such measures should be deemed irrelevant for analyses on the level of organizations in science and replaced by qualitative assessment of the content of the science produced.

  • 7.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    University of Gothenburg.
    How scientists may ‘benefit from the mess’: A resource dependence perspective on individual organizing in contemporary science2014In: Social Science Information, ISSN 0539-0184, E-ISSN 1461-7412, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 341-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is general consensus in the study of science, and especially research policy studies, that a wave of profound change has struck academic science in the past decades. Central parts of this change are increased competition, growing demands of relevance and excellence, and managerialism reforms in institutions and policy systems. The underpinning thesis of this article is that, if seen from the perspective of individual scientists, these changes are exogenous and lead to greater environmental complexity and uncertainty, which in turn induces or forces individuals towards strategic planning and organizing in order to maintain control over their own research programs. Recent empirical studies have made various worthy contributions to the understanding of the macro-level (institutions, policy and funding systems, and broader epistemic developments) and the micro-level (individual and group behavior) developments of the social system of science, but there is a lack of comprehensive conceptual tools for analysis of change and its effect on individual scientists. This article takes the first steps towards developing a conceptual scheme for use in empirical studies of the (strategic) response of individual scientists to exogenous change, based on an adaptation of Resource Dependence Theory (RDT). The intended theoretical contribution builds on conceptualization of the individual researcher as crucially able to act rationally and strategically in the face of potentially conflicting demands from a growingly unpredictable environment. Defining a basic framework for a broad future research program, the article   adds to the knowledge about the recent changes to the academic research system and calls for renewed interest in organizing in science and an analysis of the complex social system of science from the perspective of its smallest performing units: individuals.

  • 8.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    In pursuit of a promise: Perspectives on the political process to establish the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On 28 May 2009, at a closed meeting in Brussels, ministers and state secretaries of education and science from several EU countries decided to build the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden. Or did they?It is common for big European science projects to be surrounded by secrecy and political deceit, but the ESS is extraordinary in its elusiveness. There is a remarkable lack of concrete economic, political, technical and scientific underpinnings to the project but a boasting certainty in the promises of future paybacks.The ESS is an accelerator-based neutron spallation facility that will cost billions of Euros to build and run. It is expected to bring new knowledge in several fields including materials science, energy research, and the life sciences. But its financing is not yet certain, and future returns hard to predict. How then could the decision to build ESS occur? Why was there so little organized resistance?This book places the ESS project in its political and scientific context. It links the decisions taken to the history of Big Science in Europe and in Sweden. It looks at the dynamic political processes of establishing this megaproject in a small town in the south of Sweden. The eight chapters start from a paradoxical state of affairs: The ESS is not funded, and not formally decided in any binding agreements yet it is treated as a future reality, locally and nationally, loaded with promises of scientific, economic and social returns.The book makes a much-needed first contribution to the analysis of the ESS project and its political, environmental, and social ramifications. It should be read by scholars of science and technology studies, politicians and the interested general public.

  • 9.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Introduction: In pursuit of a promise2012In: In pursuit of a promise: Perspectives on the political process to establish the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden / [ed] Olof Hallonsten, Lund: Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Myths and realities of the ESS project: A systematic scrutiny of readily accepted ‘truths’2013In: Legitimizing ESS: Big Science as a collaboration across boundaries / [ed] Thomas Kaiserfeld, Tom O'Dell, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    Research Policy Institute, Lund University, Sweden.
    Seeking alternative researcher identities in newcomer academic institutions in Sweden2012In: Higher Education Management and Policy, ISSN 1682-3451, Vol. 24, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proliferating excellence gold standards in the global academic system tend to obscure the far-reaching diversification of academic missions, practices, ambitions and identities brought by massification. This article approaches this topic by a review of theory on academic scholarship and how it has changed in the wake of academic massification and the development of binary higher education systems. In addition, the article reports on the first results of a study on research groups in "newcomer" higher education institutions in Sweden. By synthesising findings and arguments about institutional constraints and the individual ambitions of researchers, the article offers a few preliminary conclusions. It also calls for more scholarly attention to the existence of an academic labour force that corresponds to a widened or altered definition of academic scholarship and that seems to be predominantly found in newcomer academic institutions.

  • 12.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Svårtolkad tystnad kring förhandlingarna om European Spallation Source.2013In: Forskningspolitikk, ISSN 0333-0273, E-ISSN 0805-8210, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    Wuppertal University, Germany.
    The parasites: Synchrotron radiation at SLAC, 1972-19922015In: Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences, ISSN 1939-1811, E-ISSN 1939-182X, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 217-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synchrotron radiation activities at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (formerly Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) started out in 1972 as a small-scale Stanford University project. The project gradually grew to become one of the first national centers for synchrotron radiation in the United States and, eventually, an independent laboratory in charge of its own accelerator machine and organizationally a part of SLAC. This article tells the story of the first two decades of these activities, when the synchrotron radiation activities operated parasitically on the SLAC site, entirely peripheral to SLAC’s main scientific mission in high energy physics. The article’s meticulously detailed account of the history of the parasitic period of synchrotron radiation at SLAC constitutes an important and interesting piece of modern science history, complementing previous efforts in this journal and elsewhere to chronicle the history of the U.S. national laboratories and similar homes of Big Science abroad. Most importantly, the article communicates an alternative interpretative perspective on the institutional change of Big Science labs, consciously and consistently keeping its analysis at a micro level and emphasizing the incremental small-step changes of local actors in their everyday negotiations and deliberations. Not at all disqualifying or seeking to replace historical accounts framed with reference to macro developments of grand long-term change in science and science policy at the end of the previous century, but rather seeking to complement them, this article contributes with a worm’s-eye view on change and advances the argument for a further exploration of such viewpoints in the historical analysis of institutional transformation in science.

  • 14.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    Wuppertal University, Germany.
    The Politics of European Collaboration in Big Science2014In: The Global Politics of Science and Technology - Vol. 2 / [ed] Maximilian Mayer, Mariana Carpes, Ruth Knoblich, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, p. 31-46Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. Department of Education and Social Sciences, Wuppertal University, Germany.
    Unpreparedness and risk in Big Science policy: Sweden and the European Spallation Source2015In: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 42, p. 415-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The politics of European collaborative Big Science are inherently uncertain. The European Spallation Source (ESS) for materials science, planned to be built in Sweden with a collaborative European funding solution that was recently finalized is the most recent example. Sweden has so far invested around one billion SEK (&E110 million), taking a significant risk given these uncertainties and given Sweden’s complete lack of experience in hosting such big labs. Tracing the Swedish government’s investments in the ESS project, this article shows that so far, the Swedish ESS bid seems to be generally well funded, but that a long-term plan for the funding and a contingency plan for increased costs seem to be absent. This adds to the seeming unprepared- ness of Sweden and elevates the already quite high level of risk for Swedish science and science policy of investing in the ESS. 

  • 16.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Heinze, Thomas
    Formation and Expansion of a New Organizational Field in Experimental Science2015In: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 841-854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the formation and expansion of a new organizational field in experimental science: synchrotron radiation laboratories. These labs were once peripheral servants of some specialisms of solid-state physics, but over the 40 years studied they have grown into a worldwide generic resource for tens of thousands of users in a broad spectrum of disciplines. The paper uses insights primarily from historical institutionalism, but also neo-institutional theory, to analyze the formation and expansion of the organizational field of synchrotron radiation laboratories, and thus contributes to the analysis of the rather dramatic growth of this tool for experimental science from a small-scale lab curiosity to a generic research technology. But the key contribution of the paper is to provide insights into multi-level and multi-dimensional change in science systems by analyzing the emergence and expansion of a new organizational field in experimental science, which has implications not least for science policy.

  • 17.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heinze, Thomas
    Bergische Universität Wuppertal.
    From particle physics to photon science: Multi-dimensional and multi-level renewal at DESY and SLAC2013In: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 591-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of institutional transformation in science have largely overlooked Big Science installations, despite far-reaching changes to the roles and functions of such large labs in the past decades. Here, we present and analyze two Big Science labs that have undergone profound transformations from single-purpose particle physics labs to multi-purpose centers for so-called photon science: SLAC in the USA and DESY in Germany. We provide brief historic accounts of the labs and an analysis of the processes of change on different levels and from different aspects informed by a theoretical framework of institutional change in science. Thus, we describe the relevance of the study of Big Science labs from the perspective of institutional change and in terms of science policy/management. We also prove the aptness of the framework used and pave the way for a detailed analysis of particular forces of change and their interrelatedness.

  • 18.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    et al.
    Department of Philosophy, Linguistics, and Theory of Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Heinze, Thomas
    Department of Education and Social Sciences, Wuppertal University.
    Institutional persistence through gradual organizational adaptation: Analysis of national laboratories in the USA and Germany2012In: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 450-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the institutional persistence of systems of national laboratories (SNLs) that unlike other public and private research organizations appear to have experienced only minor institutional shifts in recent years. Although national laboratories started as time-limited mission-oriented projects, most of them have remained in operation as continuously renewed multi-purpose organizations. By comparing the SNLs in Germany and the USA, this paper discusses the relationship between the system and the organizational level and concludes that incremental organizational rearrangements have enabled the institutional persistence of SNLs despite considerable changes in their political and funding environments. The paper applies recent advances in institutional theory and thus contributes to a better understanding of institutional change in path-dependent public R&D systems.

  • 19.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    et al.
    Department for Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Holmberg, Daniel
    Analyzing structural stratification in the Swedish higher education system: data contextualization with policy-history analysis2013In: Journal of The American Society For Information Science And Technology, ISSN 1532-2882, E-ISSN 1532-2890, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 574-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    20th century massification of higher education and research in academia is said to have produced structurally stratified higher education systems in many countries. Most manifestly, the research mission of universities appears to be divisive. Authors have claimed that the Swedish system, while formally unified, has developed into a binary state, and statistics seem to support this conclusion. This article makes use of a comprehensive statistical data source on Swedish higher education institutions to illustrate stratification, and uses literature on Swedish research policy history to contextualize the statistics. Highlighting the opportunities as well as constraints of the data, the article argues that there is great merit in combining statistics with a qualitative analysis when studying the structural characteristics of national higher education systems. Not least the article shows that it is an over-simplification to describe the Swedish system as binary; the stratification is more complex. On basis of the analysis, the article also argues that while global trends certainly influence national developments, higher education systems have country-specific features that may enrich the understanding of how systems evolve and therefore should be analyzed as part of a broader study of the increasingly globalized academic system.

  • 20.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Hugander, Olof
    Supporting ‘future research leaders’ in Sweden: Institutional isomorphism and inadvertent funding agglomeration2014In: Research Evaluation, ISSN 0958-2029, E-ISSN 1471-5449, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 249-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most recent fashion in the policy-level promotion of excellence in academic research seems to be the launching of funding programs directed to young and promising (postdoc level) researchers with the purpose of assisting them in establishing their own research profile at this allegedly crucial and fragile career stage. In the Swedish public research funding system, which is rather diversified and also quite recently has been recast, a number of such programs have been launched in recent years by public and private actors alike, all with the stated ambition of providing funding to those typically in lack of the same. In this article, we discuss the rather striking uniformity of these programs on the basis of the concept of institutional isomorphism from neoinstitutional theory, which is a powerful conceptual tool with capacity to explain why organizations in the same field grow alike in their practices despite preconditions that would suggest otherwise. Analyzing qualitatively the stated purposes of the programs and the discursive shift that accompanies them in policy, and analyzing quantitatively the 130 recipients of funding from the programs, we show that there are agglomeration effects that are unintended but also expectable, given the nature of the funding landscape in Sweden and the institutional isomorphism among the organizations in the field.

  • 21.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    et al.
    Department for Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Silander, Charlotte
    School of Social Sciences, Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Commissioning the University of Excellence: Swedish research policy and new public research funding programmes2012In: Quality in Higher Education, ISSN 1353-8322, E-ISSN 1470-1081, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 367-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries, current research policy is dominated bymanagerialism and excellence, manifesting the aim of makinguniversities into national strategic assets in the globally competitiveknowledge economy. This article discusses these policy trends and theirmirror in recent developments in public funding for academic research,with special attention to Sweden. A review of the language in three con-secutive Swedish governmental research bills from the past 10 yearsshows a clear policy shift towards the promotion of excellence and stra-tegic priority on the level of higher education institutions. Reforms tothe funding system, especially the launch of specific strategic excellencefunding programmes, are introduced to put the policy in practice. Whilethe policy shift itself might be discursive, the changes to the fundingsystem clearly show a determination on behalf of the Swedish govern-ment to increase strategic profiling and the pursuit of excellence inresearch on behalf of universities.

  • 22. Heidler, Richard
    et al.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. Department of Business Administration, Lund University, Sweden.
    Qualifying the performance evaluation of Big Science beyond productivity, impact and costs2015In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 104, no 1, p. 295-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of quantitative performance measures to evaluate the productivity, impact and quality of research has spread to almost all parts of public R&D systems, including Big Science where traditional measures of technical reliability of instruments and user oversub- scription have been joined by publication counts to assess scientific productivity. But such performance assessment has been shown to lead to absurdities, as the calculated average cost of single journal publications easily may reach hundreds of millions of dollars. In this article, the issue of productivity and impact is therefore further qualified by the use of additional measures such as the immediacy index as well as network analysis to evaluate qualitative aspects of the impact of contemporary Big Science labs. Connecting to previous work within what has been called ‘‘facilitymetrics’’, the article continues the search for relevant biblio- metric measures of the performance of Big Science labs with the use of a case study of a recently opened facility that is advertised as contributing to ‘‘breakthrough’’ research, by using several more measures and thus qualifying the topic of performance evaluation in contem- porary Big Science beyond simple counts of publications, citations, and costs. 

  • 23. Heinze, Thomas
    et al.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    University of Wuppertal, Germany.
    Heinecke, Steffi
    From Periphery to Center: Synchrotron Radiation at DESY: Part I: 1962–19772015In: Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences, ISSN 1939-1811, E-ISSN 1939-182X, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 447-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In its fifty-year history, the German national research laboratory DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, German Electron Synchrotron) has undergone a gradual transformation from a single-mission particle physics laboratory to a multi-mission research center for accelerator physics, particle physics, and photon science. The last is an umbrella term for research using synchrotron radiation and, in later years, free-electron laser. Synchrotron radiation emerged initially as a peripheral part of the laboratory activities but grew to become a central experimental activity at DESY via a series of changes in the organizational, scientific, and infrastructural setup of the lab, and in its contextual scientific, political, and societal environment. This article chronicles the first sixteen years (1962-77) of the history of synchrotron radiation at DESY and its gradual transformation from peripheral and parasitic to a regular and recognized research program. The article complements previous writings on DESY history by focusing on synchrotron radiation, and it adds to the body of knowledge about the crucial renewal of Big Science laboratories toward the end of the twentieth century. This renewal culminated in the close-down of several particle physics machines in the early 2000s and their replacement by facilities dedicated to the study of the structure, properties, and dynamics of matter by the interaction with vacuum ultraviolet/X-ray photons. Therefore, this article contributes to the knowledge about the emergence and growth of synchrotron radiation as a laboratory resource, the understanding of processes of renewal in Big Science, and the general history of late-twentieth-century science.

  • 24. Heinze, Thomas
    et al.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    Univ Wuppertal, Germany.
    Heinecke, Steffi
    From Periphery to Center: Synchrotron Radiation at DESY, Part II: 1977–19932015In: Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences, ISSN 1939-1811, E-ISSN 1939-182X, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 513-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In its fifty-year history, the German national research laboratory DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, German Electron Synchrotron) has undergone a gradual transformation from a single-mission particle physics laboratory to a multi-mission research center for accelerator physics, particle physics, and photon science. The last is an umbrella term for research using synchrotron radiation and, in later years, free-electron laser. Synchrotron radiation emerged initially as a peripheral part of the laboratory activities but grew to become a central experimental activity at DESY via a series of changes in the organizational, scientific, and infrastructural setup of the lab, and in its contextual scientific, political, and societal environment. Together with an earlier publication on the issue in this journal, 1 this article chronicles the first thirty years in the history of synchrotron radiation at DESY. The focus is on the gradual transformation of DESY's research program in synchrotron radiation from peripheral and parasitic into mainstream and mission. We provide insights about the crucial renewal of Big Science laboratories toward the end of the twentieth century. This renewal culminated in the close-down of several particle physics machines in the early 2000s and their replacement by facilities dedicated to the study of the structure, properties, and dynamics of matter by the interaction with vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray photons. Therefore, we contribute to better understanding the growth of synchrotron radiation as a laboratory resource, and processes of renewal in Big Science as part of the general history of late-twentieth-century science.

  • 25. Holmberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    Wuppertal University, Germany.
    Policy reform and academic drift: research mission and institutional legitimacy in the development of the Swedish higher education system 1977–20122015In: European Journal of Higher Education, ISSN 2156-8235, E-ISSN 2156-8243, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 181-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twentieth-century massification of higher education and academic research led to mission diversification and structural diversification of national higher education systems (HESs), but also a tendency of non-university colleges to seek to develop into full-scale universities by the emulation of practices of established academic organizations, a tendency that has been called academic drift. The drift as such can have multiple causes, and in this article, we relate academic drift to the concepts of institutional logics and isomorphism from neoinstitutional organization theory, delineating policy-making, norm shifts and organizational action in response to uncertainty as three component processes of academic drift. Using the case of the organizational field of the Swedish HES and its recent 35-year history, we draw both empirical and theoretical conclusions, and demonstrate the weight of the research mission in the building of institutional legitimacy for university colleges.

  • 26.
    Jacob, Merle
    et al.
    Research Policy Institute, Lund University.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    Research Policy Institute, Lund University.
    The persistence of big science and megascience in research and innovation policy2012In: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 411-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special section of an issue of Science and Public Policy grew out of an interest in following the politics of the European Spallation Source (ESS) Facility at Lund, Sweden. The ESS spectacle provided a platform from which to review different research infrastructure projects and to place them in the context of science policy as a whole. Large-scale research infrastructure investments are often very visible and controversial science policy investments. This group of five papers provides insights into the persistence of these types of investments in an era where cost efficiency and the contribution of science to innovation and economic development appear to be the dominant rationale for investment.

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