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  • 1.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik (stängd 20110301).
    Tasdemir, Yüksel
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik (stängd 20110301).
    Environmental friendly wax modified mastic asphalt2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mastic asphalt products (Gussasphalt) require high working temperatures, and harder requirements concerning bitumen fumes and carbon dioxide emissions. Consequently, the need of a new means of producing and placing mastic asphalt at lower temperatures is particularly large. One way of reducing asphalt mixture temperature is by using special flow improving additives like wax. This technique has successively been tried for polymer modified mastic asphalt used for bridge decks and parking areas in Sweden. However, there still are uncertainties about possible negative impact on crack susceptibility at lower temperatures due to wax additives.In this study, 4% montan wax (Asphaltan A) was used for one particular polymer modified mastic asphalt product. Type and amount of wax additive was selected based on results from earlier studies. The impact on binder, binder/filler mixtures and mastic asphalt from production was tested in the laboratory, focusing on low temperature performance. The bending beam rheometer (BBR) was used for determining low temperature creep compliance and the tensile stress restrained specimen test (TSRST) for determining fracture temperatures. Binder properties were determined using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and conventional tests (softening point, penetration, elastic recovery, breaking point, viscosity and storage stability). Aging was performed using the rolling thin film oven test (RTFOT) at 200°C.As expected, the addition of wax to the polymer modified binder showed a viscosity reduction at higher temperatures, corresponding to a similar positive effect of more than 10°C on production and laying temperature for the mastic asphalt. DMA and BBR results showed some increase in stiffness and a more elastic response of the wax modified binder at medium and low temperatures. The TSRST fracture temperature was 5 °C higher for the mastic asphalt containing wax, indicating however no dramatic negative impact on crack susceptibility.

  • 2.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik (stängd 20110301).
    How does wax influence asphalt in cold climate?2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik (stängd 20110301).
    Influence of waxes on bitumen and asphalt concrete mixture performance2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Influence of waxes on bitumen and asphalt concrete mixture performance2005Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis consists of a literature review, presented in two papers, and another six papers describing experimental studies of the influence of different kinds of wax and polyphosporic acid on bitumen and asphalt concrete mixture properties.

    The literature review should give an extensive description of the field of knowledge concerning wax in bitumen. Effects of wax in crude oil, bitumen and asphalt concrete as well as test methods for studying these effects are described. Theories behind possible mechanisms are also discussed, and commercial wax as additive to bitumen for different purposes included.

    The experimental parts comprise laboratory studies involving totally five 160/220 penetration base bitumens from different sources, two isolated bitumen waxes, five commercial waxes and one polyphosphoric acid. Asphalt concrete slabs, containing base or modified bitumen were prepared and tested. Binder properties were evaluated using different types of laboratory equipment, such as dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), bending beam rheometer (BBR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), force ductilometer, as well as equipment for determining conventional parameters like penetration, softening point, viscosity, and Fraass breaking point. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC-FID) were used for chemical characterization. The binders were aged by means of the rolling thin film oven test (RTFOT) and pressure ageing vessel (PAV) in combination. Asphalt concrete properties were evaluated at low temperatures using the tensile strain restrained specimen test (TSRST) and creep test at -25°C. Dynamic creep testing was performed at 40°C, as well as complex modulus tests between 0 and 20°C.

    Binder test results indicated that the magnitude and type of effect on bitumen rheology depend on the bitumen itself, type of crystallizing fraction in the bitumen and/or type and amount of additive used. Bitumen composition was found to be of decisive importance. Adding polyethylene wax or polyphosphoric acid, especially to a non-waxy 160/220 penetration grade bitumen, showed no or positive effects on the rheological behaviour at low temperatures (decrease in stiffness) as well as medium and high temperatures (increase in complex modulus and decrease in phase angle). However, the corresponding positive effects could not be shown in dynamic creep testing (at 40°C) of asphalt concrete mixtures containing these modified binders. Adding FT-paraffin decreased the physical hardening index for all bitumens. Also polyethylene wax and montan wax showed this effect for some bitumens. Slack wax showed a large increasing effect on physical hardening, and polyphosphoric acid none or a minor negative effect. No correlation between physical hardening index (PHI) and wax content by DSC was found in this study, involving both natural bitumen wax and commercial wax.

    Addition of the commercial waxes used showed no or marginally positive influence on bitumen ageing properties for the bitumens and test conditions used. Comparing asphalt mixture test results to the corresponding binder test results, the effects on asphalt mixtures from adding commercial wax or polyphosphoric acid were less evident. Significant binder physical hardening by BBR could not be confirmed by TSRST.

  • 5.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap.
    Influence of Waxes on Bitumen and Asphalt Concrete Mixture Performance2009Ingår i: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 313-335Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with scientific work carried out to study the influence of different kinds of wax on bitumen and asphalt concrete mixture properties. Experimental parts involve base bitumens from different sources, isolated bitumen waxes and commercial waxes. Asphalt concrete slabs, containing base or wax modified bitumen were prepared and tested. Binder properties were evaluated using different types of laboratory equipment, such as dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), bending beam rheometer (BBR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), as well as equipment for determining more conventional parameters. Asphalt concrete properties were evaluated at low temperatures using the tensile strain restrained specimen test (TSRST) and creep test at -25 degrees C At higher temperatures, dynamic creep testing was performed at 40 degrees C, and complex modulus tests between 0 and 20 degrees C Binder test results indicated that the magnitude and type of effect on bitumen rheology depend on the bitumen itself hype of crystallizing fraction in the bitumen and for type and amount of additive used. Adding polyethylene wax, showed no or positive effects on the rheological behaviour at low temperatures (decrease in stiffness) as well as medium and high temperatures (increase in complex modulus and decrease in phase angle). However, the corresponding positive effects could not be shown in dynamic creep testing (at 40 degrees C) of asphalt concrete mixtures containing these modified binders. Adding FT-paraffin decreased the physical hardening index (obtained using BBR) for all bitumens. Also polyethylene war and montan wax showed this effect for some bitumens. Slack wax showed a large increasing effect on physical hardening. No correlation between physical hardening index (PHI) and wax content by DSC was found in this study. Addition of commercial waxes used showed no or marginally positive influence on bitumen ageing properties for bitumens and test conditions used. Asphalt mixture test results were compared to the corresponding binder test results, and found to be less evident. Significant physical hardening by BBR could not be confirmed by TSRST.

  • 6.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik (stängd 20110301).
    Influence of waxes on polymer modified mastic asphalt performance2010Ingår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 4TH EURASPHALT AND EUROBITUME CONGRESS, 2010, nr Paper No. 401-014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of wax additives in polymer modified coarse aggregate mastic asphalt in Europe is reviewed. Commercial wax such as FT-paraffin and montan wax are typical so-called bitumen flow improvers, which are used for asphalt pavements and mastic asphalt to reduce the mixing temperature and thereby energy consumption and emissions. Workability may be improved as well. These waxes differ a great deal from natural bitumen wax with respect to molecular weight and molecular weight distribution. They have high congealing points around 100degreesC and higher melting areas than natural wax in bitumen. Results are presented from an ongoing joint Swedish project about wax as flow improver in polymer modified bitumen for mastic asphalt production. Wax modification should not have any noticeable negative impact on the performance of mastic asphalt products at medium and lower temperatures. The project involves laboratory testing of wax and polymer modified binders and mastic asphalt mixtures, as well as field studies. Effects of adding two commercial waxes to one polymer modified bitumen are presented in this paper. The results show that both waxes have a flow improving/viscosity depressant impact on the polymer bitumen at higher temperatures, indicating a possible lower laying temperature for the mastic asphalt if modified with such waxes. Moreover, there is a stiffening effect at medium and high temperatures (below laying temperature), indicating a certain positive effect on stability. Concerning low temperature performance, there was a negative impact on crack susceptibility at low temperatures, which was larger with the addition of FT-paraffin than the addition of montan wax. For the covering abstract see ITRD E157233

  • 7.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik (stängd 20110301).
    Influence of waxes on polymer modified mastic asphalt performance2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik (stängd 20110301).
    Polymer modified bitumen for airfields: Pristina Airport2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Airfield pavements are exposed to special conditions such as the effects of runway and aircraft deicing chemicals, which may result in accelerated deterioration of the pavement. Aircraft safety may be jeopardised through stones loosening from the pavement, causing damage to aircraft engines. Accelerated deterioration of the pavement also shortens pavement life, resulting in increased capital costs. Special requirements therefore are needed for airfield pavements and binders used in such pavements. In Sweden, polymer modified bitumen frequently is used for asphalt concrete pavements on civil airfields. Special requirements specifications based on climatic conditions have been developed for such binders to ensure good performance as well as good resistance to deicing chemicals. Within a project run by Swedavia, renovation was carried out since spring 2004 at Pristina airport in Kosovo. The selection of bitumen is based on climatic conditions in the Kosovo area and Swedish experience of polymer modified binders for airfields since 1998. For the wearing course, the selected binder will be polymer modified bitumen fulfilling the requirements of PG (Performance Grade) 76-22 according to SHRP (Strategic Highway Research Program) with certain additional tests and requirements. In this paper, Swedish experience of polymer modified binders for airfields is summarized and the binder design for Pristina airport discussed. For the covering abstract see ITRD E139491.

  • 9.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Polymerbitumen - Kriterier för val av kompatibla system. Del 1: Karaktärisering av polymermodifierad bitumen2002Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Polymerbitumen - Kriterier för val av kompatibla system. Del 1: Karaktärisering av polymermodifierad bitumen2002Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik (stängd 20110301).
    Swedish experience of modified binders and asphalt mixtures2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik (stängd 20110301).
    Vad är vax i bitumen och asfalt?2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Vägverksprojekt State of the art 2002 - Tätskikt och beläggning på träbroar2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Vägverksprojekt State of the art 2002 - Tätskikt och beläggning på träbroar2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Aurstad, J
    Y. Edwards and J. Aurstad2000Ingår i: International Journal of Road Materials and Pavement Design, Vol. 1, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik (stängd 20110301).
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik (stängd 20110301).
    Experience of adding wax to bitumen and asphalt mixture products2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    STATE OF THE ART - Wax in bitumen Part 2 - Characterization and effects2005Ingår i: International Journal of Road Materials and Pavement Design, Vol. 6, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Wax in bitumen: Part 1: Classifications and General Aspects2005Ingår i: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 281-309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wax in bitumen has for a long time been of great interest, particularly regarding effects on bitumen quality and methods for determining wax content. Opinions about wax in bitumen have varied over the years and sometimes been contradictory. The findings of a literature study are presented in two companion papers. The main intention of the study was to give an extensive description ofthe field of knowledge concerning wax in bitumen. In this paper, classifications and general aspects on effects of wax in crude oil and bitumen are described. Theories behind possible mechanisms are also discussed, and commercial wax as additive to bitumen for different purposes described. Effects of wax are influenced by chemical composition and rheological properties of the bitumen, amount of wax in the bitumen as well as chemical composition and crystalline structure of the wax. The effect of wax on bitumen is linked to its crystallinity and melting properties. The temperature range of application as well as the definition of wax in bitumen is also of great importance. The presence of large wax crystals (macrocrystalline wax) in bitumen is considered to be most problematic. However, waxes in bitumen generally are microcrystalline and/or amorphous and can contain branched, alicyclic and aromatic components with heteroatoms, which renders crystallization considerably more difficult.

  • 19.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Wax in bitumen: Part II: Characterization and Effects2005Ingår i: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 439-468Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of different methods for isolating and characterizing wax in bitumen, as well as for determination of wax content, have been used over the years. The methods used for determining wax content all give different results for one and the same bitumen, which has caused problems for many years. Through different types of phase transition, wax in bitumen influences bitumen properties to a larger or minor extent. In some cases, such an influence may give rise to negative effects like increased sensitivity to cracking or plastic deformation in asphalt concrete pavements. In other cases, wax may even show positive effects on bitumen, such as increased stiffness at higher temperatures, leading to improved resistance to rutting. This paper is the second of two companion papers discussing the field of knowledge concerning wax in bitumen. In the first paper, classifications and general aspects on effects of wax in crude oil and bitumen are described.

  • 20.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Lange, G
    Aurstad, J
    The Influence of runway de-icing agents on the durability of asphalt concrete pavements for airfields2000Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Lindström, R
    Kvalitetskontroll av bindemedel för Arlanda Bana 3 - perioden 1999-20022003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Lindström, R
    Kvalitetskontroll av bindemedel för Arlanda Bana 3 - perioden 1999-20022003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Byggvetenskap.
    Redelius, Per
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Byggvetenskap.
    Rheological effects of waxes in bitumen2003Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 511-520Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rheological effects of adding two bitumen waxes (isolated from SEC-II fraction) to three bitumens were studied using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Also, a commercially available slack wax was used in the study. The results show that the magnitude and type of effect on bitumen rheology depend on the bitumen and type of crystallizing fraction in the bitumen. Effects due to wax content shown in DMA temperature sweeps are well related to the corresponding effects shown in DSC thermograms. The slope of the logarithm of the complex modulus between 25 degreesC and 60 degreesC is introduced as a possible proper factor for predicting rutting sensitivity due to wax content.

  • 24.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Said, S
    Höbeda, P
    Viman, L
    Requirements on polymer modified wearing courses for airfields2000Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Tasdemir, Yuksel
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Energy saving and environmental friendly wax concept for polymer modified mastic asphalt2010Ingår i: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 43, s. 123-131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the addition of commercial wax as flow improver in polymer modified bitumen intended for use in mastic asphalt pavements under Nordic climatic conditions. Different aspects are dealt with. The aim of the project is to make mastic asphalt used in Sweden today (for bridges, parking decks etc.) more environment friendly and easier to handle. However, wax modification must not have any noticeable negative impact on the performance of mastic asphalt at medium and lower temperatures. The project involves laboratory testing of wax and polymer modified binder mixtures as well as mastic asphalt mixtures. Effects of adding two commercial waxes to one polymer modified bitumen have been studied. The results show that both waxes have a flow improving/viscosity depressant impact on the polymer modified bitumen at higher temperatures, indicating a possible lower laying temperature for the mastic asphalt if modified with such waxes. Moreover, there is a stiffening effect at medium and high temperatures (below placing temperature), indicating a certain positive effect on stability. Concerning low temperature performance, there are results indicating some negative impact on crack susceptibility at low temperatures, more by the addition of one of the waxes than by addition of the other. However, it could be concluded that using up to at least 4% of either wax additive will improve workability for the mastic asphalt product under investigation making it possible to lower working temperatures without seriously affecting its good performance in any negative way.

  • 26.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Tasdemir, Yuksel
    Yozgat Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Erciyes University, Yozgat, Turkey.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Effects of commercial waxes on asphalt concrete mixtures performance at low and medium temperatures2006Ingår i: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 45, nr 1, s. 31-41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 27.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Tasdemir, Yuksel
    Yozgat Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Erciyes University, Yozgat, Turkey.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Influence of commercial waxes and polyphosphoric acid on bitumen and asphalt concrete performance at low and medium temperatures2006Ingår i: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 39, nr 7, s. 725-737Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of adding four types of commercial wax and one polyphosphoric acid to a non-waxy bitumen was investigated with regard to binder and asphalt concrete mixture performance. Binder properties were determined using dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), bending beam rheometer, force ductilometer and various conventional test methods. Asphalt concrete performance was investigated using tensile stress restrained specimen test (TSRST), creep test at -25 degrees C, dynamic creep test at 40 degrees C and complex modulus test at 0, 10 and 20 degrees C. Totally eleven binders and eight asphalt mixtures were investigated.

    TSRST fracture temperatures of the asphalt mixtures were marginally influenced by the addition of any of the additives, and significant physical hardening of the binders, observed by BBR testing, could not be established using TSRST. Also in creep testing of asphalt mixtures at -25 degrees C, recorded effects were less pronounced compared to binder testing.

    In dynamic creep testing, the smallest permanent strains were recorded for the asphalt mixtures containing FT-paraffin or montan wax, indicating better resistance to rutting. Adding polyethylene wax or polyphosphoric acid to the non-waxy bitumen used, showed considerable positive stiffening effects on the binder at medium and higher temperatures. However, this increase in stiffness could not be shown in dynamic creep testing (at 40 degrees C) of asphalt concrete mixtures containing these additives.

  • 28.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Tasdemir, Yuksel
    Yozgat Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Erciyes University, Yozgat, Turkey.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Influence of commercial waxes on bitumen aging properties2005Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 19, nr 6, s. 2519-2525Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging properties of wax-modified 160/220 bitumens and the influence of wax on these properties were evaluated using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), bending beam rheometer (BBR) analysis, force ductility testing, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and thin-layer chromatography (TLC-FID). The binders were aged by means of the rolling thin-film oven test (RTFOT) and a pressure aging vessel (PAV). It was observed that aging resulted in oxidation of the bitumen (increase in carbonyl absorbance and in resin and/or asphaltene content by TLC-FID.) Changes in rheological properties of aged wax-modified binders depended on the base bitumen as well as on the type and amount of wax additive. Aging increased the complex modulus as well as elasticity, indicated by a decrease in phase angle at medium temperatures. For the polyethylene wax (PW)-modified binders, originally showing a large decrease in phase angle at higher temperature, this decrease was markedly reduced by aging, indicating network damage. Results and aging indexes obtained in this study indicate no or marginally positive influence of wax on bitumen aging properties.

  • 29.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Tasdemir, Yuksel
    Yozgat Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Erciyes University, Yozgat, Turkey.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Rheological effects of commercial waxes and polyphosphoric acid in bitumen 160/220: High and medium temperature performance2007Ingår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 21, nr 10, s. 1899-1908Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of adding three commercial waxes and a polyphosphoric acid to three bitumens of 160/220 penetration grade were studied using different types of laboratory equipment, such as Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), Force Ductilometer (FD) as well as equipment for determining conventional parameters like penetration, softening point and Fraass breaking point. The paper deals with effects at medium and high in-service temperatures likely to affect the rutting performance of an asphalt concrete pavement. The results show that magnitude and type of effect on bitumen theology depend on the bitumen as well as type and amount of additive used. Bitumen composition was found to be of decisive importance. Adding polyethylene wax or polyphosphoric acid especially to a non-waxy bitumen, showed considerable positive effects on the theological behaviour at medium and higher temperatures.

  • 30.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Tasdemir, Yuksel
    Yozgat Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Erciyes University, Yozgat, Turkey.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Rheological effects of commercial waxes and polyphosphoric acid in bitumen 160/220: low temperature performance2006Ingår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 85, nr 7-8, s. 989-997Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of adding three commercial waxes and a polyphosphoric acid to three bitumens of 160/220 penetration grade were studied using different types of laboratory equipment, such as dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), bending beam rheometer (BBR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), force ductilometer (FD) as well as equipment for determining conventional parameters like penetration, softening point and Fraass breaking point. The paper deals with low-temperature effects, which could influence the thermal cracking resistance of asphalt concrete pavements. The results show that magnitude and type of effect on bitumen rheology depend on the bitumen itself as well as type and amount of additive used. Bitumen composition was found to be of decisive importance. Adding polyethylene wax or polyphosphoric acid, especially to nonwaxy 160/220-penetration grade bitumen, showed positive effects on the rheological behaviour at low temperatures.

  • 31.
    Ekblad, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Precision of LFV method 2-98: Effect of de-icing fluid on the surface tensile strength of asphalt concrete for airfields-Adhesion test2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 32. Ekblad, Jonas
    et al.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap.
    Precision of method for determining resistance of bituminous mixtures to de-icing fluids2008Ingår i: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 41, nr 9, s. 1551-1562Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a Round-Robin test to estimate the precision of European method EN-12697-41 "Test methods for hot mix asphalt-Resistance to de-icing fluids". The purpose of the project was to determine precision data according to ISO 5725, ASTM E691 and ASTM C802. The examined test method is intended for use in requirements specifications for airfield de-icing chemicals and/or as a tool for development of such products. Precision statistics, repeatability and reproducibility standard deviations, are based on observed values from six laboratories and six levels, each level comprising four samples. From a general statistical analysis, which was conducted in addition to precision determination, it could be concluded that the most damaging de-icing agents (treatments) were identified by all participating laboratories both in terms of absolute values and by ranks.

  • 33.
    Karlsson, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Fogar på broar och flygfält: En lägesanalys2004Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 34.
    Tang, Bing
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Chemical characterization and screening of emission profiles of bituminous sealants using solid-phase microextraction2006Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 1528-1535Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Seven commercial bituminous sealants and their emissions were characterized with regard to chemical composition. On the basis of the results of the analysis, the sealants were ranked concerning health aspects. Chemical function groups and molecular weight distributions determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) indicated that bituminous material was the main component of the sealants studied. Most of the sealants investigated also contained additives originated from petroleum oil or treated vegetable oil. The emission profiles of these sealants at room temperature were obtained using the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique. The main groups of compounds found in the emissions were alkanes (C-9-C-12 normal and branched), cycloalkanes (C-1-C-5 alkylated cyclohexane and different hydronaphthalenes), aromatic hydrocarbons (C-1-C-5 alkylated benzene and C-1-C-2 alkylated naphthalene), and fatty acid methyl esters. The rankings of total emission and aromatics emission were compared. The results showed that HS-SPME is a suitable fast screening tool for emission studies, and it facilitates the selection of appropriate bituminous sealants with regard to environmental and health aspects.

1 - 34 av 34
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