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  • 1. Ahmed, K. M.
    et al.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hasan, M. A.
    Rahman, M
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    Islam, M. Mainul
    Rahman, Marina
    Rashid, S.M.A.
    Sustainable Arsenic Mitigation (SASMIT) in Bangladesh: The Matlab strategy2010In: Abstracts with programs (Geological Society of America), ISSN 0016-7592, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 652-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Ahmed, K.M.
    Hasan, M.A.
    Broms, S.
    Fogelström, J.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Sracek, O.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Routh, J.
    Mobility of arsenic in groundwater in a part of Brahmanbaria district, NE Bangladesh2006In: Managing Arsenic in the Environment: From soil to human health / [ed] Naidu, R., Smith, E., Owens, G., Bhattacharya, P. Nadebaum. P., Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing , 2006, p. 95-115Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hasan, Md Aziz
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Smith, Euan
    Ahmed, K. Matin
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Huq, S. M. Imamul
    Naidu, Ravi
    Groundwater chemistry and arsenic mobilization in the Holocene flood plains in south-central Bangladesh2009In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, ISSN 0269-4042, E-ISSN 1573-2983, Vol. 31, p. 23-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative study of arsenic enrichment in the Bengal Delta (BD) was carried Out in three alluvial aquifers in south-central Bangladesh. Investigated sites included Sonargaon in Narayanganj, Chandina in Comilla and Sirajdikhan in Munshiganj districts. At all sites samples from different depths were collected, and water chemistry and redox status vs. depth trends were determined. The concentrations of DOC and HCO3- were highest at Sirajdikhan site, while at the Sonargaon and Chandina sites the concentrations were lower. On the contrary, the NH4+ concentration was high at the Chandina site as compared to the other sites. There was a good match between dissolved As and Fe at the Sirajdikhan and Sonargaon sites, but not at the Chandina site. The dissolved aqueous concentration of Mn was low at the Chandina site, which suggested that the Mn(IV) redox buffering step was missing. Speciation modeling indicated a possibility of siderite precipitation at all sites, but precipitation of rhodochrosite only at the Sonargaon and Sirajdikhan sites. At the Sirajdikhan site, the log P-CO2 values were very high (-1.37), which revealed the production Of CO2 in redox processes. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated an impact of sea water and redox status of different samples. These results suggest that the dissolved As is de-coupled from dissolved Mn because when released, As is re-adsorbed onto the Fe(Ill) minerals in solid phase, as well as from dissolved Fe when precipitation of Fe(II) minerals controls the aqueous concentrations of Fe. In addition, several other concurrent redox processes may exert kinetic constraints depending on refractory characteristics of Fe(II) minerals.

  • 4.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Rahman, Shamsun Naima
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Robinson, Clare
    Nath, Bibhash
    Rahman, Marina
    Islam, M. Mainul
    Von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Chowdhury, Dulaly
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    Jakariya, Mohammed
    Persson, Lars Ake
    Vahter, Marie
    Temporal and seasonal variability of arsenic in drinking water wells in Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh: A preliminary evaluation on the basis of a 4 year study2011In: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 46, no 11, p. 1177-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal and seasonal variability of As concentrations in groundwater were evaluated in As-affected areas of Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh. Groundwater samples from 61 randomly selected tubewells were analyzed for As concentrations over a period of three years and four months (from July 2002 to November 2005) and monitored seasonally (three times a year). The mean As concentrations in the sampled tubewells decreased from 153 to 123 mu g/L during July 2002 to November 2005. Such changes were pronounced in tubewells with As concentration >50 mu g/L than those with As concentrations <50 mu g/L. Similarly, individual wells revealed temporal variability, for example some wells indicated a decreasing trend, while some other wells indicated stable As concentration during the monitoring period. The mean As concentrations were significantly higher in Matlab North compared with Matlab South. The spatial variations in the mean As concentrations may be due to the differences in local geological conditions and groundwater flow patterns. The variations in mean As concentrations were also observed in shallow (<40 m) and deep (>40 m) wells. However, to adequately evaluate temporal and seasonal variability of As concentration, it is imperative to monitor As concentrations in tubewells over a longer period of time. Such long-term monitoring will provide important information for the assessment of human health risk and the sustainability of safe drinking water supplies.

  • 5.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Brömssen, Mattias von
    Ramböll AB, 10462 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arsenic in Swedish groundwater Mobility and risk for naturally elevated concentrations: Final Report2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) in groundwater has become a serious global problem during the last few decades forseveral reasons. The chronic toxicity from drinking water has motivated the lowering of thehealth limit from 50 μg/L to 10 μg/L. Due to the rather complicated analytical chemistry of As ithas seldom been analysed in groundwater. Once the common occurrence of excess As ingroundwater has been discovered like in Bangladesh it has become evident that As in concentrationswell above the health limit can be easily mobilized from very moderate amounts in the aquifermaterial under specific conditions. There are essentially three mechanisms of mobilization: 1)oxidation of sulphides containing As; 2) reduction of ferric compounds releasing adsorbed Asand 3) high pH conditions leading to lowered adsorption capacity of ferric and aluminium compounds.

    This study has aimed at investigating the mobilization of As under the conditions existing in Precambrianrocks and the overlying tills in Sweden. As study area the north-eastern part of theVästerbotten county was chosen. The occurrence of sulphides both in mineralisations and insome of the country rocks may infer that the risk of elevated As concentrations in groundwatermay be a bit higher there than elsewhere in Sweden. The hypothesis was that the two firstmechanisms mentioned above would be responsible for any elevated groundwater As in groundwater,thus either oxidation of sulphides or reducing conditions leading the reduction of ferrichydroxides.

    Samples were collected from drilled wells, dug wells and springs. pH, Eh and temperature weremeasured in the field and the samples were filtered through 0.20 m filters in the field. As(II) wasseparated from As(V) in the field by ion-exchangers. As redox conditions are the determinantsfor the mobilization of As the groundwaters have been classified into five redox classes followinga classification developed by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Dug wells with elevatedAs turned out to be in the oxidizing part of the classification while drilled wells were foundin all classes. This is reasonable as drilled wells often collect water from different environmentsthrough the different fracture systems the drilled wells contact. Wetland springs are found tohave moderately reducing water high in iron. While drilled wells and dug wells show a wide spectrumof As(III)/As(tot) ratios the As(III) is clearly dominant in wetland springs. Drilled wellsshowed the highest concentrations of As up to 300 μg/L and wells drilled in alkaline volcanicrocks had the highest median concentrations of As. Arsenic in wetland springs were strongly correlatedto iron. Another clear relationship was that groundwater with even low concentrations ofnitrate was low in As. Obviously the presence of nitrate indicates an oxidizing environmentwhere As is firmly adsorbed onto ferric hydroxides. There was no clear relationship with sulphateindicating that the drilled wells which made up the majority of the groundwaters often had waterof a mixed origin coming to the well via different fracture systems.

    The results indicate that As should in general be analysed in household wells as it is difficult topredict the presence of elevated concentrations from the major ion chemistry. High iron concentrationis a factor that indicates an elevated risk of As above the health limit. Nitrate on the otherhand indicates a low risk for elevated As concentration.

  • 6.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Svensson, M.
    von Bromssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Genesis of arsenic enriched groundwater and relationship with bedrock geology in northern Sweden2012In: Metals and related substances in drinking water: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference, METEAU, LONDON: IWA PUBLISHING , 2012, p. 242-246Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing concern over incidents of widespread human exposure to arsenic (As) from groundwater sources has been noticed during the past three decades. Vaasterbotten county in northern Sweden hosts a large number of sulphide ore deposits and a number of gold deposits are recently discovered. Both are accompanied by elevated arsenic contents. Proterozoic metasediments sandwiched in the bedrock and mixed into the till contains elevated amounts of arsenic as well. During the present study about 80 groundwater samples were collected from dug wells, bore-wells and springs in the Skellefte field in Vasterbotten County in northern Sweden. Data from community environmental offices were also collected and included in the study. Arsenic concentrations were elevated in borewells and wetland springs while none of the dug wells had arsenic contents above 10 mg/l. The highest content seen in borewells was 300 mg/l and in wetland springs 100 mg/l. The As(III)/As(tot) varied largely in borewells while it was mostly above 0.8 in wetland springs indicating more reducing contents in the latter. The use of a redox classification indicated that two nechanisms were involved in the mobilisation of he arsenic, oxidation of sulphides and reduction of ferric oxyhydroxides. In some cases the borewells showed a mixed pattern, indicating inflow from different environments.

  • 7.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    DEpartment of Geology, UNiversity of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.
    Arsenic in Groundwater of Bangladesh: Options for Safe Drinking Water2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study was undertaken in order to find and scientifically validate the options for arsenic safewater in Bangladesh. The study has been carried out in a geological province where most of theshallow wells have arsenic above the allowable limit for drinking water according to Bangladeshstandard. The original study plan has been modified as newer information on arsenic mobilisationand mitigation was available. Accordingly the emphasis on dug well and arsenic removal filter hadbeen shifted to other options such as geologically targeted aquifers. Also at the same time therehas been collaboration with number of other projects been carried out in and around the studyarea. Eventually the main focus of the research was shifted to capacity development in order toenhance the local capability for finding safer sources drinking water in the study area and othersimilar environments in the country.

  • 8.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    Department of Soil and Water Environment Ramböll Sweden AB.
    Targeting Arsenic-Safe Aquifers in Regions with High Arsenic Groundwater and its Worldwide Implications (TASA)2015Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    von Brömssen, M.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hasan, M.A.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Ahmed, K.M.
    Sracek, O.
    Jakariya, M.
    Huq, S.M.I.
    Naidu, R.
    Smith, E.
    Owens, G.
    Arsenic mobilisation in the Holocene flood plains in South-central Bangladesh: Evidences from the hydrogeochemical trends and modeling results2008In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development: Problems, Perspectives and Challenges / [ed] Bhattacharya, P., Ramanathan, AL., Mukherjee A.B., Bundschuh, J., Chandrasekharam, D. Keshari, A.K., The Netherlands: Taylor and Francis/A.A. Balkema , 2008, p. 283-299Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jakariya, Md
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hasan, M.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Ramanathan, A.
    Chandrashekharam, D.
    Mahanta, Chandan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Husain, V.
    Targeting safe aquifers in regions with high arsenic groundwater in South Asia: Options for sustainable drinking water supply2006In: Abstract Volume-International Conference on Arsenic Contamination in Tropics (ICACT-2007) / [ed] Patel K.S., 2006, p. 18-21Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jakariya, Md
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Litter, M.I.
    Garcia, M.E.
    Arsenic-safe aquifers as a socially acceptable source of safe drinking water: What can rural Latin America learn from Bangladesh experiences?2009In: Natural Arsenic in Groundwater of Latin America: Occurrence, health impact and remediation, The Netherlands: CRC Press/Balkema , 2009, p. 677-685Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12. Claudio, P.
    et al.
    Von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Claus, K.
    Møller, M. L.
    Marco, P.
    Umberto, M.
    Geochemical modelling application for a 1-d arsenic reactive transport study in alluvial aquifers, Matlab Upazila, Bangladesh2009In: Rendiconti Online Societa Geologica Italiana, ISSN 2035-8008, Vol. 6, p. 364-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanistic modelling was used to investigate the hydrochemical evolution along a vertical column, should cross-contamination occur. 1-D reactive transport was carried out to assess sorption effects on aqueous/solid arsenic distribution in Matlab Upazila, Bangladesh. Thermodynamic relationships between aqueous ions and aquifer materials have been investigated: comparison between redox couples shows electrochemical disequilibrium; sorption mainly occurs on weak and strong Hydrous Ferric-Oxides, described by the Surface Complexation Mode. The basis for reactive transport calculations is given by a static model, that evaluates the competing ions net effect: they reduce by ca. 50% arsenic bounding. Desorption process alone can give unacceptable As (aq) concentrations, starting from only a few mg/kg As (sorb). Redox zonation was the starting point for the model conception, which allowed calculating the contamination evolution in an oxidising As-low aquifer. Groundwater analysis is worked out for a 20 cells column of aquifer material, whose top represents the upper reducing aquifer, the bottom the oxidising aquifer; contamination takes place through an As-rich solution percolating into the column. Results are a function of the flow velocity, that needs to be carefully defined before further modelling.

  • 13.
    Hasan, M. Aziz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Geological controls on groundwater chemistry and arsenic mobilization: Hydrogeochemical study along an E-W transect in the Meghna basin, Bangladesh2009In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 378, no 1-2, p. 105-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogeochemical investigations along an E-W transect in the middle Meghna basin show groundwater chemistry and redox condition vary considerably with the change in geology. Groundwater in the Holocene shallow (< 150 m bgl) alluvial aquifer in western part of the transect is affected by high arsenic concentration (As > 10 mu g/l) and salinity. On the other hand, groundwater from the Pliocene Dupi Tila sandy aquifer in the eastern part is fresh and low in As (< 10 mu g/l). The Holocene shallow aquifers are high in dissolved As. HCO3-, Fe and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), but generally low in SO2- and NO3-. High HCO3- concentrations (250-716 mg/l) together with high DOC concentrations (1.4-21.7 mg/l) in these aquifers reflect active sources of degradable natural organic matter that drives the biogeochemical process. There is generally de-coupling of As from other redox-sensitive elements. In contrast, the Pliocene aquifers are low in As, HCO3- and DOC. Molar ratio of HCO3-/H4SiO4 suggests that silicate weathering is dominant in the deeper Holocene aquifers and in the Pliocene aquifers. Molar ratios of Cl-/HCO3- and Na+/Cl- suggest mixing of relict seawater with the fresh water as the origin of groundwater salinity. Speciation calculations show that saturation indices for siderite and rhodochrosite vary significantly between the Holocene and Pliocene aquifers. Stable isotopes (delta H-2 and delta O-18) in groundwater indicate rapid infiltration without significant effects of evaporation. The isotopic data also indicates groundwater recharge from monsoonal precipitation with some impact of altitude effect at the base of the Tripura Hills in the east. The results of the study clearly indicate geological control (i.e. change in lithofacies) on groundwater chemistry and distribution of redox-sensitive elements such as As along the transect.

  • 14.
    Hasan, Md. Aziz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ahmed, K. Matin
    Department of Geology, University of Dhaka.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Broms, Sandra
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Fogelström, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mazumder, M. Lutful
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Arsenic in shallow groundwater of Bangladesh: investigations from three different physiographic settings2007In: Hydrogeology Journal, ISSN 1431-2174, E-ISSN 1435-0157, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 1507-1522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Occurrences of arsenic (As) in the Bengal Basin of Bangladesh show close relationships with depositional environments and sediment textures. Hydrochemical data from three sites with varying physiography and sedimentation history show marked variations in redox status and dissolved As concentrations. Arsenic concentration in groundwater of the Ganges Flood Plain (GFP) is characteristically low, where high Mn concentrations indicate redox buffering by reduction of Mn(IV)-oxyhydroxides. Low DOC, HCO3-, NH4+ and high NO3- and So(4)(2-) concentrations reflect an elevated redox status in GFP aquifers. In contrast, As concentration in the Ganges Delta Plain (GDP) is very high along with high Fe and low Mn. In the Meghna Flood Plain (MFP), moderate to high As and Fe concentrations and low Mn are detected. Degradation of organic matter probably drives redox reactions in the aquifers, particularly in MFP and GDP, thereby mobilising dissolved As. Speciation calculations indicate supersaturation with respect to siderite and vivianite in the groundwater samples at MFP and GDP, but groundwater in the GFP wells is generally supersaturated with respect to rhodochrosite. Values of log P-CO2 at MFP and GDP sites are generally higher than at the GFP site. This is consistent with Mn(IV)-redox buffering suggested at the GFP site compared to Fe(III)-redox buffering at MFP and GDP sites.

  • 15.
    Hasan, Md. Aziz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Department of Geology, University of Dhaka.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Hydrogeochemical evaluation of groundwater along an E-W transect in the Meghna basin, BangladeshManuscript (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Hasan, Md. Aziz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Department of Geology, University of Dhaka.
    Sikder, Arif Mohiuddin
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Stamford University, Dhanmondi, Dhaka.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University.
    Geochemistry and mineralogy of shallow alluvial aquifers in Daudkandi upazila in the Meghna flood plain, Bangladesh2009In: Environmental Geology, ISSN 0943-0105, E-ISSN 1432-0495, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 499-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shallow alluvial aquifers of the delta plains and flood plains of Bangladesh, comprises about 70% of total land area are mostly affected by elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in groundwater exposing a population of more than 35 million to As toxicity. Geochemical studies of shallow alluvial aquifer in the Meghna flood plain show that the uppermost yellowish grey sediment is low in As (1.03 mg/kg) compared to the lower dark grey to black sediment (5.24 mg/kg) rich in mica and organic matter. Sequential extraction data show that solid phase As bound to poorly crystalline and amorphous metal (Fe, Mn, Al)-oxyhydroxides is dominant in the grey to dark grey sediment and reaches its maximum level (3.05 mg/kg) in the mica rich layers. Amount of As bound to sulphides and organic matter also peaks in the dark grey to black sediment. Vertical distributions of major elements determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) show that iron (Fe2O3), aluminum (Al2O3) and manganese (MnO) follow the general trend of distribution of As in the sediments. Concentrations of As, Mn, Fe, HCO3 (-), SO4 (2-) and NO3 (-) in groundwater reflect the redox status of the aquifer and are consistent with solid phase geochemistry. Mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fitted with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) revealed dominance of crystalline iron oxides and hydroxides like magnetite, hematite and goethite in the oxidised yellowish grey sediment. Amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxides identified as grain coating in the mica and organic matter rich sediment suggests weathering of biotite is playing a critical role as the source of Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides which in turn act as sink for As. Presence of authigenic pyrite in the dark grey sediment indicates active reduction in the aquifer.

  • 17. Herbert, R.B.
    et al.
    Höckert, L.
    Von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology. Ramböll Sverige AB, Sweden .
    Friis, H.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Mine waste stabilisation with biosludge and Ca carbonate residues: column experiments2007In: Biohydrometallury: From the Single Cell to the Environment, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2007, Vol. 20-21, p. 291-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Column experiments investigated the stabilization of waste rock from Ljusnarsberg mine in Kopparberg, Sweden. In order to inhibit the generation of acidic leachate from the waste rock, biosludge and a Ca carbonate - rich residue from the paper industry were mixed with the sulfidic mine waste. The results of the column experiments indicate that the stabilization of the waste rock with the reactive amendments succeeded in maintaining a near - neutral pH in the waste rock leachate, compared to a pH 3 leachate from untreated waste rock. Copper and Zn concentrations in leachate from the untreated waste exceeded 100 mg/L, while these metals were detected at concentrations less than 0.1 and 1 mg/L, respectively, in the leachate from the treated wastes. This study indicates that the stabilization of acid - generating waste rock with biosludge and Ca carbonate residues is effective in preventing the generation of acid mine drainage; the treatment is expected to continue until the reactive amendments are exhausted.

  • 18. Hossain, M.
    et al.
    Haque, A.
    Alam, S.
    Rahman, M.
    Uddin, M. R.
    Sarwar, S. G.
    Kibria, M. G.
    Hasan, R.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Hasan, M. A.
    Alam, J.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Potentiality of intermediate depth aquifer as a source of arsenic and manganese safe tubewells in Bangladesh2012In: Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic, As 2012 - 4th International Congress: Arsenic in the Environment, Taylor & Francis Group, 2012, p. 71-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shallow tubewells excepting those installed in red/off-white sediments are mostly contaminated with high arsenic. Social survey conducted in 96 villages of Matlab, a worse-affected area of Bangladesh, reveals that only 18% of tubewells provide As-safe water. In such a condition, high Manganese in many wells is found to be an additional problem. Based on monitoring in depth-specific piezometers, drinking water wells were installed in intermediate depth aquifer around 120 m. Ninety percent of the wells installed in light grey medium sand, had arsenic concentrations below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ÎŒg/L and manganese was within the previous WHO guideline (0.4 mg/L). Availability of similar sand over this depth range could be targeted by local drillers to tap safe water at a reasonable cost. Replication trials and periodical monitoring are emphasized for validation and sustainability.

  • 19.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. NGO Forum Publ Hlth, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Frape, Shaun K.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hasan, M. Aziz
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Ramboll Sweden AB, Soil & Water Environm, SE-10462 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Shahiruzzaman, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Intermediate Deep Aquifer (IDA) : A potential source for Arsenic-safe and low-Manganese drinking waterManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. NGO Forum Publ Hlth, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Frape, Shaun K.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Islam, M. Mainul
    Rahman, M. Moklesur
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Ramboll Sweden AB, Soil & Water Environm, SE-10462 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hasan, M. Aziz
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Sediment color tool for targeting arsenic-safe aquifers for the installation of shallow drinking water tubewells2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 493, p. 615-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In rural Bangladesh, drinking water supply mostly comes from shallow hand tubewells installed manually by the local drillers, the main driving force in tubewell installation. This study was aimed at developing a sediment color tool on the basis of local driller's perception of sediment color, arsenic (As) concentration of tubewell waters and respective color of aquifer sediments. Laboratory analysis of 521 groundwater samples collected from 144 wells during 2009 to 2011 indicate that As concentrations in groundwater were generally higher in the black colored sediments with an average of 239 mu g/L. All 39 wells producing water from red sediments provide safe water following the Bangladesh drinking water standard for As (50 mu g/L) where mean and median values were less than the WHO guideline value of 10 mu g/L. Observations for off-white sediments were also quite similar. White sediments were rare and seemed to be less important for well installations at shallow depths. A total of 2240 sediment samples were collected at intervals of 1.5 m down to depths of 100 m at 15 locations spread over a 410 km(2) area in Matlab, Bangladesh and compared with the Munsell Color Chart with the purpose of direct comparison of sediment color in a consistent manner. All samples were assigned with Munsell Color and Munsell Code, which eventually led to identify 60 color shade varieties which were narrowed to four colors (black, white, off-white and red) as perceived and used by the local drillers. During the process of color grouping, participatory approach was considered taking the opinions of local drillers, technicians, and geologists into account. This simplified sediment color tool can be used conveniently during shallow tubewell installation and thus shows the potential for educating local drillers to target safe aquifers on the basis of the color characteristics of the sediments.

  • 21.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. NGO Forum Publ Hlth, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.
    Frape, Shaun K.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Rahman, M. Moklesur
    Alam, M. S.
    Hoque, M. A.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hasan, M. Aziz
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Ramboll Sweden AB, Soil & Water Environm, SE-10462 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hydrogeological variation in Shallow, Intermediate and Deep Aquifers in Matlab of Southeastern Bangladesh: implications for the installation of arsenic-safe drinking water tubewells and their sustainabilityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Slejkokovec, Z.
    Nilsson, E.
    Arsenic and its bioavailability in surface waters in a black schist area in northern Sweden2012In: Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic, As 2012 - 4th International Congress: Arsenic in the Environment, Taylor & Francis Group, 2012, p. 249-250Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Västerbotten county in northern Sweden is largely underlain by Precambrian bedrock. There are numerous sulfide ore bodies and gold deposits accompanied by arsenic. However, more black schists with a sulfur content of about 1% are a more widespread source of arsenic (As). The arsenic is accumulated in the B-horizon of tills but also remobilized in wetlands and released into surface water. Sandy sediments in brooks and streams may contain up to 500 mg/kg As adsorbed onto ferric (Fe) oxyhydroxides. Lakes may contain up to 19 ÎŒg/LAs. Speciation of As has been investigated in lake water by filtration and dialysis. Four lakes have been investigated varying from a clear-water lake to lakes high in Fe and DOC (dissolved organic carbon). The As is closely correlated to Fe in the different fractions. The fraction < 1 kDa is low in As indicating that the As has low bioavailability. Fishing is important in the area both for local people as well as for tourists. The low bioavailability of As is verified by a few analysis of fish, pike and trout, in which the As content is relatively low and consisting of predominantly organic species like MMA, DMA and arsenobetaine. Thus in spite of elevated As contents in sediments and in water the As does not seem to pose a health risk for fish consumers.

  • 23.
    Jakariya, Md.
    et al.
    NGO Forum for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation, Dhaka.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Chowdhury, A. M. R.
    BRAC, Dhaka.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Department of Geology, University of Dhaka.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Searching for sustainable arsenic mitigation strategy in Bangladesh: experience from two upazilas2007In: International Journal of Environment and Pollution, ISSN 0957-4352, E-ISSN 1741-5101, Vol. 31, no 3-4, p. 415-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic concentrations of tubewell water that exceed the Bangladesh Drinking Water Standard pose a serious health problem for millions of people in Bangladesh. Groundwater is the source of drinking water for 98% of the population. The main object of the study was to review the status of the provided options, which were distributed during 1999-2001 in two upazilas. It was observed that acceptability of the distributed options was not encouraging; less than 2% of the provided options were found to be in operation. However, two new approaches emerged from people's initiatives, which are making rapid and positive contributions to safe water coverage.

  • 24. Kibria, M. G.
    et al.
    Kirk, M. F.
    Datta, S.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Hydrogeochemistry and microbial geochemistry on different depth aquifer sediments from Matlab, Bangladesh2014In: One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, 2014, p. 101-103Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) poses the greatest hazard towards drinking water quality in Bangladesh. Tubewell drinking water is one of the main sources for household based water options in rural Bangladesh. Our study area is in Matlab Upazila, in Bangladesh. The overall objective of this research and the SASMIT project is to develop a community based initiative for sustainable As mitigation by developing a sediment color based tool for the local drillers prioritizing on the hydrogeological and biogeochemical investigations. For this purpose we analyzed different depth colored sediments and water for find out the sustainable low Arsenic contaminated aquifer.

  • 25. Robinson, Clare
    et al.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Häller, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bivén, Annelle
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Hasan, M. Aziz
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Dynamics of arsenic adsorption in the targeted arsenic-safe aquifers in Mat lab, south-eastern Bangladesh: Insight from experimental studies2011In: Journal of Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 624-635Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Sracek, O.
    et al.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Behavior of arsenic and geochemical modeling of arsenic enrichment in aqueous environments2004In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 169-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic is present in aqueous environments in +III and +V oxidation states. In oxidizing environments, the principle attenuation mechanism of As migration is its adsorption on Fe(III) oxide and hydroxides. The adsorption affinity is higher for As(V) under lower pH conditions and for As(III) under higher pH conditions. Ferric oxide and hydroxides can dissolve under low Eh and pH conditions releasing adsorbed As. Oxidation-reduction processes often involve high organic matter content in sediments and also contamination by organics such as BTEX. Arsenic may desorb under high pH conditions. Changes of pH can be related to some redox reactions, cation exchange reactions driving dissolution of carbonates, and dissolution of silicates. In very reducing environments, where SO4 reduction takes place, secondary sulfide minerals like As-bearing pyrite and orpiment, As2S3, can incorporate As. Geochemical modeling can be divided into two principal categories: (a) forward modeling and (b) inverse modeling. Forward modeling is used to predict water chemistry after completion of predetermined reactions. Inverse modeling is used to suggest which processes take place along a flowpath. Complex coupled transport and geochemistry programs, which allow for simulation of As adsorption, are becoming available. A common modeling approach is based on forward modeling with surface complexation modeling (SCM) of As adsorption, which can incorporate the effect of different adsorbent/As ratios, adsorption sites density, area available for adsorption, pH changes and competition of As for adsorption sites with other dissolved species such as phosphate. The adsorption modeling can be performed in both batch and transport modes in codes such as PHREEQC. Inverse modeling is generally used to verify hypotheses on the origin of As. Basic prerequisites of inverse modeling are the knowledge of flow pattern (sampling points used in model have to be hydraulically connected) and information about mineralogy including As mineral phases. Case studies of geochemical modeling including modeling of As adsorption are presented.

  • 27.
    von Brömssen, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Markussen, Lars
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hasan, Md Aziz
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Islam, M. Mainul
    Rahman, M. Mokhlesur
    Hydrogeological investigation for assessment of the sustainability of low-arsenic aquifers as a safe drinking water source in regions with high-arsenic groundwater in Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh2014In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 518, no C, p. 373-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploitation of groundwater from shallow, high prolific Holocene sedimentary aquifers has been a main element for achieving safe drinking water and food security in Bangladesh. However, the presence of elevated levels of geogenic arsenic (As) in these aquifers has undermined this success. Except for targeting safe aquifers through installations of tubewells to greater depth, no mitigation option has been successfully implemented on a larger scale. The objective of this study has been to characterise the hydrostratigraphy, groundwater flow patterns, the hydraulic properties to assess the sustainability of the low-arsenic aquifers at Matlab, in south-eastern Bangladesh, one of the worst arsenic-affected areas of Bangladesh. Combining groundwater modelling with monitoring hydraulic heads in multi-level piezometer tests, 14C-dating of groundwater, conventional hydraulic testing and assessment of groundwater abstraction rate proved to be a useful strategy. A model comprising of three aquifers covering the top 250 m of the model domain showed to best fit the evaluation criteria for calibration. Matlab is a recharge area, even though it is adjacent to the great Meghna River. Irrigation wells are placed in clusters and account for most of the groundwater abstraction. Even though the hydraulic heads are affected locally by seasonal pumping, the aquifer system is fully recharged during and after the monsoon period. Groundwater simulations demonstrated the presence of deep regional and horizontal flow systems with recharge areas in the eastern, hilly part of Bangladesh and shallow small local flow systems driven by local topography. Based on modelling and 14C groundwater data, it can be concluded that the natural local flow systems reach a depth of 30 m b.g.l. in the study area. A downwardvertical gradient of roughly 0.01 down to 200 m b.g.l. was observed and reproduced bycalibrated models. The vertical gradient is mainly the result of the aquifer system and-properties rather than abstraction rate, which is too limited at depth to make an imprint. Although irrigation wells substantially change local flow pattern, targeting low-As aquifers seems to be a suitable mitigation option for providing people with safe drinkingwater. However, installing new irrigation- or high capacity production wells at the same depth is strongly discouraged as these substantially change the groundwater flow pattern. The results from the present study and other similar studies can further contribute to develop a rational management and mitigation policy for the future use of the groundwater resources for drinking water supplies.

  • 28.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hydrogeological and geochemical assessment of aquifer systems with geogenic arsenic in Southeastern Bangladesh: Targeting low arsenic aquifers for safe drinking water supplies in Matlab2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Naturally occurring arsenic (As) in Holocene aquifers in Bangladesh have undermined a long success of supplying the population with safe drinking water. Arsenic is mobilised in reducing environments through reductive dissolution of Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides. Several studies have shown that many of the tested mitigation options have not been well accepted by the people. Instead, local drillers target presumed safe groundwater on the basis of the colour of the sediments. The overall objective of the study has thus been focussed on assessing the potential for local drillers to target As safe groundwater. The specific objectives have been to validate the correlation between aquifer sediment colours and groundwater chemical composition, characterize aqueous and solid phase geochemistry and dynamics of As mobility and to assess the risk for cross-contamination of As between aquifers in Daudkandi and Matlab Upazilas in SE-Bangladesh. In Matlab, drillings to a depth of 60 m revealed two distinct hydrostratigraphic units, a strongly reducing aquifer unit with black to grey sediments overlies a patchy sequence of weathered and oxidised white, yellowish-grey to reddish-brown sediment. The aquifers are separated by an impervious clay unit. The reducing aquifer is characterized by high concentrations of dissolved As, DOC, Fe and PO43--tot. On the other hand, the off-white and red sediments contain relatively higher concentrations of Mn and SO42- and low As. Groundwater chemistry correlates well with the colours of the aquifer sediments. Geochemical investigations indicate that secondary mineral phases control dissolved concentrations of Mn, Fe and PO43--tot. Dissolved As is influenced by the amount of Hfo, pH and PO43--tot as a competing ion. Laboratory studies suggest that oxidised sediments have a higher capacity to absorb As. Monitored hydraulic heads and groundwater modelling illustrate a complex aquifer system with three aquifers to a depth of 250 m. Groundwater modelling illustrate two groundwater flowsystems: i) a deeper regional predominantly horizontal flow system, and ii) a number of shallow local flow systems. It was confirmed that groundwater irrigation, locally, affects the hydraulic heads at deeper depths. The aquifer system is however fully recharged during the monsoon. Groundwater abstraction for drinking water purposes in rural areas poses little threat for cross-contamination. Installing irrigation- or high capacity drinking water supply wells at deeper depths is however strongly discouraged and assessing sustainability of targeted low-As aquifers remain a main concern. The knowledge gained here can be used for developing guidelines for installing safe wells at similar environments in other areas of Bangladesh.

  • 29.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Häller Larsson, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hasan, Md. Aziz
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Jakariya, M.
    Sikder, Mohiuddin A.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Bivén, Annelie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Dousova, Barbora
    Patriarca, Claudio
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Geochemical characterisation of shallow aquifer sediments of Matlab Upazila, Southeastern Bangladesh - Implications for targeting low-As aquifers2008In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 99, no 1-4, p. 137-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High arsenic (As) concentrations in groundwater pose a serious threat to the health of millions of people in Bangladesh. Reductive dissolution of Fe(Ill)-oxyhydroxides and release of its adsorbed As is considered to be the principal mechanism responsible for mobilisation ofAs. The distribution ofAs is extremely heterogeneous both laterally and vertically. Groundwater abstracted from oxidised reddish sediments, in contrast to greyish reducing sediments, contains significantly lower amount of dissolved arsenic and can be a source of safe water. In order to study the sustainability of that mitigation option, this study describes the lithofacies and genesis of the sediments within 60 m depth and establishes a relationship between aqueous and solid phase geochemistry. Oxalate extractable Fe and Mn contents are higher in the reduced unit than in the oxidised unit, where Fe and Mn are present in more crystalline mineral phases. Equilibrium modelling of saturation indices suggest that the concentrations of dissolved Fe, Mn and PO43--tot in groundwater is influenced by 4 secondary mineral phases in addition to redox processes. Simulating As-[I] adsorption on hydroferric oxides using the Diffuse Layer Model and analytical data gave realistic concentrations of dissolved and adsorbed As-[I] for the reducing aquifer and we speculate that the presence of high PO43--tot in combination with reductive dissolution results in the high-As groundwater. The study confirms high mobility of As in reducing aquifers with typically dark colour of sediments found in previous studies and thus validates the approach for location of wells used by local drillers based on sediment colour. A more systematic and standardised colour description and similar studies at more locations are necessary for wider application of the approach.

  • 30.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jakariya, Md.
    Research and Evaluation Division, BRAC Centre, Dhaka.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Department of Geology, University of Dhaka.
    Hasan, M. A.
    Department of Geology, University of Dhaka.
    Sracek, O.
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno.
    Jonsson, Linda
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Lundell, Leonidas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Targeting low-arsenic aquifers in Matlab Upazila, Southeastern Bangladesh2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 375, no 2-3, p. 121-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater with high concentration of geogenic arsenic (As) occurs extensively in the Holocene alluvial aquifers of Bangladesh. Local drillers in Matlab Upazilla are constructing deeper tubewells than in the recent past, primarily because of low concentrations of dissolved Fe and As. Locally a thick layer of black to grey sediments overlies an oxidised unit of yellowish-grey to reddish-brown sediments. The correlation between the colour of both units and the groundwater redox conditions was investigated to provide an easy tool for targeting low-arsenic groundwater. Based on the sediment colour at the screen depths described by local drillers, 40 domestic shallow tubewells were selected for water sampling. Four colours were used to describe the sediments: black, white, off-white (buff) and red. Generally, the groundwater was anoxic and the As concentrations ranged from less than 5.2 to 355 mu g/L. Water derived from the black sediment is characterized by relatively higher concentrations of dissolved NH4+, DOC, Fe, P, As and by low Mn and SO42- concentrations. The off-white and red sediments had high concentration of Mn and low NH4+, DOC, Fe, P and As concentrations. The water abstracted from the black sediments indicated the most reducing environment, followed by white, off-white and red respectively. Three boreholes verified the driller's perception of the subsurface lithologic conditions. Discrepancies between the driller's and the research team description of the sediment colours were insignificant. This study shows that sediment colour is a reliable indicator of high and low-As concentrations and can be used by local drillers to target low-arsenic groundwater.

  • 31.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Markussen, Lars
    Ramböll, Danmark.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    et, al
    Groundwater modeling for assessment of the sustainability of low-As aquifers in regions with high As-groundwater in SE-Bangladesh2010In: Arsenic in Geosphere and Human Diseases, As 2010: Interdisciplinary Book Series: Arsenic in the Environment—Proceedings / [ed] Jochen Bundschuh and Prosun Bhattacharya,, London, UK: CRC Press, 2010, p. 149-151Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 31 of 31
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