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  • 1.
    Guex, Leonard Gaston
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Sacchi, B.
    Peuvot, Kevin F.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Andersson, Richard L.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Pourrahimi, Amir Masoud
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Ström, Valter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Farris, S.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Experimental review: chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by aqueous chemistry2017In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 9, no 27, p. 9562-9571Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrical conductivity of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) obtained from graphene oxide (GO) using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as a reducing agent has been investigated as a function of time (2 min to 24 h) and temperature (20 degrees C to 80 degrees C). Using a 300 mM aqueous NaBH4 solution at 80 degrees C, reduction of GO occurred to a large extent during the first 10 min, which yielded a conductivity increase of 5 orders of magnitude to 10 S m(-1). During the residual 1400 min of reaction, the reduction rate decreased significantly, eventually resulting in a rGO conductivity of 1500 S m(-1). High resolution XPS measurements showed that C/O increased from 2.2 for the GO to 6.9 for the rGO at the longest reaction times, due to the elimination of oxygen. The steep increase in conductivity recorded during the first 8-12 min of reaction was mainly due to the reduction of C-O (e.g., hydroxyl and epoxy) groups, suggesting the preferential attack of the reducing agent on C-O rather than C=O groups. In addition, the specular variation of the percentage content of C-O bond functionalities with the sum of Csp(2) and Csp(3) indicated that the reduction of epoxy or hydroxyl groups had a greater impact on the restoration of the conductive nature of the graphite structure in rGO. These findings were reflected in the dramatic change in the structural stability of the rGO nanofoams produced by freeze-drying. The reduction protocol in this study allowed to achieve the highest conductivity values reported so far for the aqueous reduction of graphene oxide mediated by sodium borohydride. The 4-probe sheet resistivity approach used to measure the electrical conductivity is also, for the first time, presented in detail for filtrate sheet assemblies' of stacked GO/rGO sheets.

  • 2.
    Wu, Qiong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Sundborg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Andersson, Richard L.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Peuvot, Kevin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Guex, Leonard
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Conductive biofoams of wheat gluten containing carbon nanotubes, carbon black or reduced graphene oxide2017In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 7, no 30, p. 18260-18269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conductive biofoams made from glycerol-plasticized wheat gluten (WGG) are presented as a potential substitute in electrical applications for conductive polymer foams from crude oil. The soft plasticised foams were prepared by conventional freeze-drying of wheat gluten suspensions with carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon black (CB) or reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as the conductive filler phase. The change in conductivity upon compression was documented and the results show not only that the CNT-filled foams show a conductivity two orders of magnitude higher than foams filled with the CB particles, but also that there is a significantly lower percolation threshold with percolation occurring already at 0.18 vol%. The rGO-filled foams gave a conductivity inferior to that obtained with the CNTs or CB particles, which is explained as being related to the sheet-like morphology of the rGO flakes. An increasing amount of conductive filler resulted in smaller pore sizes for both CNTs and CB particles due to their interference with the ice crystal formation before the lyophilization process. The conductive WGG foams with CNTs were fully elastic with up to 10% compressive strain, but with increasing compression up to 50% strain the recovery gradually decreased. The data show that the conductivity strongly depends on the type as well as the concentration of the conductive filler, and the conductivity data with different compressions applied to these biofoams are presented for the first time.

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