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  • 1.
    Bell, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel. Telia Research, Sweden.
    Boye, Johan
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel. Telia Research, Sweden.
    Real-time Handling of Fragmented Utterances2001Inngår i: Proceedings of the NAACL Workshop on Adaption in Dialogue Systems, 2001Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    this paper, we discuss an adaptive method of handling fragmented user utterances to a speech-based multimodal dialogue system. Inserted silent pauses between fragments present the following problem: Does the current silence indicate that the user has completed her utterance, or is the silence just a pause between two fragments, so that the system should wait for more input? Our system incrementally classifies user utterances as either closing (more input is unlikely to come) or non-closing (more input is likely to come), partly depending on the current dialogue state. Utterances that are categorized as non-closing allow the dialogue system to await additional spoken or graphical input before responding

  • 2.
    Bell, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Boye, Johan
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Wirén, Mats
    Modality Convergence in a Multimodal Dialogue System2000Inngår i: Proceedings of Götalog, 2000, s. 29-34Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When designing multimodal dialogue systems allowing speech as well as graphical operations, it is important to understand not only how people make use of the different modalities in their utterances, but also how the system might influence a user’s choice of modality by its own behavior. This paper describes an experiment in which subjects interacted with two versions of a simulated multimodal dialogue system. One version used predominantly graphical means when referring to specific objects; the other used predominantly verbal referential expressions. The purpose of the study was to find out what effect, if any, the system’s referential strategy had on the user’s behavior. The results provided limited support for the hypothesis that the system can influence users to adopt another modality for the purpose of referring

  • 3.
    Bell, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Eklund, Robert
    Gustafson, Joakim
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    A Comparison of Disfluency Distribution in a Unimodal and a Multimodal Speech Interface2000Inngår i: Proceedings of ICSLP 00, 2000Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we compare the distribution of disfluencies in two human--computer dialogue corpora. One corpus consists of unimodal travel booking dialogues, which were recorded over the telephone. In this unimodal system, all components except the speech recognition were authentic. The other corpus was collected using a semi-simulated multi-modal dialogue system with an animated talking agent and a clickable map. The aim of this paper is to analyze and discuss the effects of modality, task and interface design on the distribution and frequency of disfluencies in these two corpora.

  • 4.
    Bell, Linda
    et al.
    TeliaSonera R and D, Sweden.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Tal-kommunikation.
    Children’s convergence in referring expressions to graphical objects in a speech-enabled computer game2007Inngår i: 8th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association, Antwerp, Belgium, 2007, s. 2788-2791Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an empirical study of children's spontaneous interactions with an animated character in a speech-enabled computer game. More specifically, it deals with convergence of referring expressions. 49 children were invited to play the game, which was initiated by a collaborative "put-that-there" task. In order to solve this task, the children had to refer to both physical objects and icons in a 3D environment. For physical objects, which were mostly referred to using straight-forward noun phrases, lexical convergence took place in 90% of all cases. In the case of the icons, the children were more innovative and spontaneously referred to them in many different ways. Even after being prompted by the system, lexical convergence took place for only 50% of the icons. In the cases where convergence did take place, the effect of the system's prompts were quite local, and the children quickly resorted to their original way of referring when naming new icons in later tasks.

  • 5.
    Bell, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Positive and Negative User Feedback in a Spoken Dialogue Corpus2000Inngår i: Proceedings of ICSLP 00, 2000Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines feedback strategies in a Swedish corpus of multimodal human--computer interaction. The aim of the study is to investigate how users provide positive and negative feedback to a dialogue system and to discuss the function of these utterances in the dialogues. User feedback in the AdApt corpus was labeled and analyzed, and its distribution in the dialogues is discussed. The question of whether it is possible to utilize user feedback in future systems is considered. More specifically, we discuss how error handling in human--computer dialogue might be improved through greater knowledge of user feedback strategies. In the present corpus, almost all subjects used positive or negative feedback at least once during their interaction with the system. Our results indicate that some types of feedback more often occur in certain positions in the dialogue. Another observation is that there appear to be great individual variations in feedback strategies, so that certain subjects give feedback at almost every turn while others rarely or never respond to a spoken dialogue system in this manner. Finally, we discuss how feedback could be used to prevent problems in human--computer dialogue.

  • 6.
    Bell, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Repetition and its phonetic realizations: investigating a Swedish database of spontaneous computer directed speech1999Inngår i: Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences / [ed] Ohala, John, 1999, s. 1221-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an investigation of repetitive utterances in a Swedish database of spontaneous computer-directed speech. A spoken dialogue system was installed in a public location in downtown Stockholm and spontaneous human-computerinteractions with adults and children were recorded [1]. Several acoustic and prosodic features such as duration, shifting of focusand hyperarticulation were examined to see whether repetitions could be distinguished from what the users first said to the system. The present study indicates that adults and children use partly different strategies as they attempt to resolve errors by means of repetition. As repetition occurs, duration is increased and words are often hyperarticulated or contrastively focused. These results could have implications for the development of future spoken dialogue systems with robust error handling.

  • 7.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Bell, Linda
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Speech technology on trial: Experiences from the August system2000Inngår i: Natural Language Engineering, ISSN 1351-3249, E-ISSN 1469-8110, Vol. 6, nr 3-4, s. 273-286Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the August spoken dialogue system is described. This experimental Swedish dialogue system, which featured an animated talking agent, was exposed to the general public during a trial period of six months. The construction of the system was partly motivated by the need to collect genuine speech data from people with little or no previous experience of spoken dialogue systems. A corpus of more than 10,000 utterances of spontaneous computer- directed speech was collected and empirical linguistic analyses were carried out. Acoustical, lexical and syntactical aspects of this data were examined. In particular, user behavior and user adaptation during error resolution were emphasized. Repetitive sequences in the database were analyzed in detail. Results suggest that computer-directed speech during error resolution is increased in duration, hyperarticulated and contains inserted pauses. Design decisions which may have influenced how the users behaved when they interacted with August are discussed and implications for the development of future systems are outlined.

  • 8.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Bell, Linda
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Johan, Boye
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Wirn, Mats
    Constraint Manipulation and Visualization in a Multimodal Dialogue System2002Inngår i: Proceedings of MultiModal Dialogue in Mobile Environments, 2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
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