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  • 1.
    Junesand, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Gau, Ming-Horn
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Sun, Yanting
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Lo, Ikal
    Jimenez, Juan
    Aitor Postigo, Pablo
    Miguel Morales, Fransisco
    Hernandez, Jesus
    Molina, Sergio
    Abdessamad, Aouni
    Pozina, Galia
    Hultman, Lars
    Pirouz, Pirouz
    Defect reduction in heteroepitaxial InP on Si by epitaxial lateral overgrowth2014In: Materials Express, ISSN 2158-5849, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 41-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP has been grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on Si substrates with a thin seed layer of InP masked with SiO2. Openings in the form of multiple parallel lines as well as mesh patterns from which growth occurred were etched in the SiO2 mask and the effect of different growth conditions in terms of V/III ratio and growth temperature on defects such as threading dislocations and stacking faults in the grown layers was investigated. The samples were characterized by cathodoluminescence and by transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the cause for threading dislocations present in the overgrown layers is the formation of new dislocations, attributed to coalescence of merging growth fronts, possibly accompanied by the propagation of pre-existing dislocations through the mask openings. Stacking faults were also pre-existing in the seed layer and propagated to some extent, but the most important reason for stacking faults in the overgrown layers was concluded to be formation of new faults early during growth. The formation mechanism could not be unambiguously determined, but of several mechanisms considered, incorrect deposition due to distorted bonds along overgrowth island edges was found to be in best agreement with observations.

  • 2.
    Junesand, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Xiang, Yu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Gau, Ming-Horng
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Heterogeneous integration of indium phosphide on silicon by nano-epitaxial lateral overgrowth2009In: 2009 IEEE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIUM PHOSPHIDE & RELATED MATERIALS (IPRM), 2009, p. 59-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    InP on Si is grown by nano-epitaxial lateral overgrowth (nano-ELOG) on patterns consisting of net-type openings under different growth conditions. Analysis shows that net-type patterns yield large lateral growth rate and good optical quality. Different growth conditions have a substantial impact on growth rate and some effect on surface morphology, as well as on the optical quality. Optical quality is deemed to be affected partly by the amount of dislocations arising from the difference in thermal expansion coefficient between the mask and the InP layer, and partly by the layer thickness and surface morphology.

  • 3.
    Junesand, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Xiang, Yu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Gau, Ming-Horng
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Surface morphology of indium phosphide grown on silicon by nano-epitaxial lateral overgrowth2009In: Physica Status Solidi. C, Current topics in solid state physics, ISSN 1610-1634, E-ISSN 1610-1642, Vol. 6, no 12, p. 2785-2788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    InP is grown on Si by nano-epitaxial lateral overgrowth (NELOG or nano-ELOG) on patterns consisting of net-type openings under different growth conditions. Surface morphology is characterized with AFM and profilometer and optical quality assessed by Micro Photoluminescence measurements (mu-PL). Results show that growth conditions affect both morphology and optical quality, with thicker layers generally corresponding to better surface morphology. Lower growth temperature seems to improve surface morphology irrespective of thickness, and ELOG layers exhibit significantly better morphology than the planar layer.

  • 4.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Gau, Ming-Horng
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Lo, Ikai
    Pozina, Galia
    Hultman, Lars
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Morphological evolution during epitaxial lateral overgrowth of indium phosphide on silicon2011In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 332, no 1, p. 27-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP from mesh and line openings on masked InP seed layer on Si(0 0 1) wafer is investigated. Coalescence occurred more rapidly from the mesh openings than from the line openings. Lethargic coalescence in the line openings is attributed to the gradual formation of growth retarding boundary planes in the initial stages of growth. Extended growth leads to complete coalescence in both types of openings. The surface roughness of the coalesced layer is inversely proportional to its thickness. Cathodoluminescence studies on the uncoalesced islands show the emergence of facets with orientation-dependent dopant concentration, but reveal no defects, in contrast to the coalesced regions. The latter are relaxed and their dislocation density deduced from panchromatic cathodoluminescence mapping varies from 6 x 10(6) to 4 x 10(7) cm(-2) depending on the layer thickness; the reduced density at higher thickness indicates partial self annihilation of dislocations. TEM cross-section studies show that most of the threading dislocations originating in the InP seed layer/Si interface are blocked by the mask, but new dislocations are generated. Some of these dislocations are associated with bounding planar defects such as stacking faults, possibly generated during lateral growth across the mask due to unevenness of the mask surface.

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