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  • 1.
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Friction and wear simulation of the wheel-rail interface2009In: Wheel-Rail Interface Handbook, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2009, p. 93-124Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conditions in wheel rail contacts can be both mild and severe. Predicting the friction and the wear in such contacts is generally thought to be rather difficult and uncertain. This paper, however, addresses these tasks and will outline some possibilities for predicting friction and wear in rolling and sliding contacts as in wheel-rail contacts. In a rolling and sliding contact, the two interacting surfaces characteristically move at different speeds in a tangential direction. The Tribology Group at KTH Machine Design has worked on simulating friction and wear in rolling and sliding contacts for more than 20 years. The modelling principles the group has successfully used are based on (i) the single-point observation method and (ii) treating friction and wear as initial-value processes. Simple examples will be presented, demonstrating how these principles can be used.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Wear Simulation with a Focus on Mild Wear in Rolling and Sliding Contacts2011In: Friction, wear and wear protection: International Symposium on Friction, Wear and Wear Protection 2008, Aachen, German, 2011, p. 1-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of wear occurring in high-performance rolling and sliding contacts is often quite small, and such contact surfaces often become glossy. To obtain good contact conditions, it is necessary that the form and the topography of the surfaces be good, that the materials and treatments be properly chosen, and that the lubrication be adequate for the contact. Such advantageous conditions - often referred to as 'mild' - are what engineers normally strive to attain. Sometimes severe conditions may arise, however, creating rough or scored surfaces; severe wear conditions are normally unacceptable in any modern high-performance machine. Predicting the amount of mild wear is generally thought to be rather difficult and uncertain; this paper addresses this difficult task, outlining some possibilities for predicting mild wear in rolling and sliding contacts. Typical machine elements that include high-performance rolling and sliding contact surfaces are gears, cam mechanisms, and roller bearings. If the rolling and sliding contacts are moving under boundary or mixed lubricated conditions, the contact surfaces may be subject to mild wear. If the lubricants in the rolling and sliding contacts are contaminated with particles, wear may occur even if full-film conditions are predominant. In a rolling and sliding contact, the two interacting surfaces characteristically move at different speeds in a tangential direction. The Tribology Group at KTH Machine Design has worked on simulating wear in rolling and sliding contacts for a fairly long time. Themodelling principles the Group has successfully used are based on 1) the single-point observation method and 2) treating wear as an initial-value process. Two simple examples will be presented here, demonstrating how these principles can be used. As well, some of the Group's efforts at simulating mild wear in rolling and sliding contacts will be presented.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    What characterises an attractive machine element?2008In: PROCEEDINGS OF NORDDESIGN 2008 / [ed] Roosimolder, L, TALLINN: TALLINN UNIV TECH , 2008, p. 348-357Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An attractive product is one that functions well, is easy to use and has 'it'. Both technical and interactive functions are important. In this paper, the functional surfaces of a product and of its elements are regarded as carriers of functions. Some general principles are outlined starting with these concepts. Initially standard vehicle wheels were studied to find out what makes machine elements attractive. One difference between an individual machine element and a machine element acting together with other elements in a product is the often hidden interfaces between elements. An interface is defined as an interaction relation between two functional surfaces belonging to different elements. Some machine elements are also covered by others in order to prevent harmful effects from or on the environment. Some classic machine elements are covered by styled elements, whose functions are mainly interactive. The conclusions drawn from this study are that future machines will probably have more attractive covering elements than today, the attractiveness of machines is often increased when the performances of some classic machine elements are improved, new technologies such as drive-by-wire and/or new propulsion systems Will probably improve the attractiveness and performances of vehicles, the attractiveness of a universal joint is mainly related to how well the technical functions are fulfilled during its life, gears will continue to contribute indirectly to the attractiveness of many types of machines by their technical behaviours and performances and they are seldom visible but can be made visible if alternative lubricants are used and/or if lower performances are accepted, rolling bearings are normally regarded as high performance elements, bushings for different types of sliding bearings are styled in order to attract engineers and others before being assembled in a product and finally education in Machine Elements should be supplemented by an education of styled covering elements.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Sören
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Björklund, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Frictions models for sliding dry, boundary and mixed lubricated contacts2007In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 40, p. 580-587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Friction, lubrication, and wear have a strong influence on the performance and behavior of mechanical systems. This paper deals with different friction models for sliding contacts running under different conditions. The models presented are suited to different situations, depending on the type of contact, running conditions, and the behavior of interest. The models will be discussed from simulation and tribological points of view. The different types of friction models considered are:

    center dot friction models for transient sliding under dry, boundary and mixed lubrication conditions,

    center dot friction models for micro-displacements of engineering surfaces subjected to transient sliding,

    center dot friction models often used in the simulation and control of technical systems,

    center dot combined friction models that represent physical behaviors fairly well but are also suitable for use in simulating systems,

    center dot friction models that take into account the stochastic nature of interacting surface asperities

  • 5.
    Andersson, Sören
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Modelling and simulation of an oscillating journal bearing of a rocker arm in a cam mechanism2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Andersson, Sören
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Björklund, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Friction models for dry, boundary and mixed lubricated contacts2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Sören
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    A random wear model for the interaction between a rough and a smooth surface2008In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 264, no 9-10, p. 763-769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contact surfaces in many applications change form due to plastic and elastic deformation and to wear. This study focused on the plastic deformation and wear of the asperities on a rough surface rubbing against an opposite smooth, hard and wear-resistant surface. A stochastic model for the prediction of plastic deformations and wear of a rough surface is proposed. The surface roughness and the interaction between the surfaces are also represented by stochastic models. A single asperity is studied as it comes into contact and interacts with the opposite surface. Since the wear process is simulated as an initial-value problem, the proposed general wear model is formulated as a first order differential equation system representing events during the rubbing process at all of the asperities considered on a surface.

  • 8.
    During, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Non-contact, absolute position measurement,using a compact disc record player optical pick-up1992In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 32, p. 575-581Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Grimheden, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Design as a social activity and students' concept of design2004In: Proceedings of the International Engineering and Product Design Education Conference, Delft, The Netherlands, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Grimheden, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Coaching Students into the Concept of Design Engineering2005In: Proceedings of the International conference on engineering design, ICED 05, Melbourne, Australia, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Johansson, Peter
    et al.
    Scania CV AB.
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Variations in piston second land pressure as a function of ring gap position2010In: International Journal of Engine Research, ISSN 1468-0874, E-ISSN 2041-3149, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 153-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inter-ring pressure and the potential reverse blow-by flow that can drive oil towards the combustion chamber can strongly influence the in-cylinder oil consumption in diesel engines. This paper reports on an experimental investigation of the effect of both cycle-to-cycle variations and variations over a longer period on inter-ring pressure. The inter-ring pressure and piston ring movement were also simulated as a function of ring gap position. The experimental part of the project showed small cycle-to-cycle variations in the second land pressure as well as large variations over time. Simulations of the second land pressure with different ring gap positions showed a similar range of variation in second land pressure as the experimental variation.

  • 12.
    Möller, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Development of a modular mechatronic mechanism test bench2003In: The proceedings of OST, Oulu, Finland, June 2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Möller, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    The influence of friction in the hydraulic cylinders on the behaviour of a manipulator2006In: The proceedings of NordTrib, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In mobile units such as construction machines that handle high loads, hydraulic cylinders are often used to actuate the manipulators. Such machinery is often manually operated, with each cylinder operating separately. However, the increased use of microcomputers opens up the possibility of computer control of the motions of all types of manipulator. Such control would facilitate the implementation of end-point-controlled hydraulic-driven manipulators. It could also reduce the learning time for operators and prolong the life of machines. However, the nonlinear effects of friction in the hydraulic cylinders may be a problem if they disturb the motion of the manipulator arms. There is thus a need to investigate the influence of friction in hydraulic cylinders on manipulator motion.

    This paper reports on the use of a computer model of a hydraulic-powered manipulator arm to simulate the effects of friction, as represented in several different friction models, on the dynamics of a manipulator. The model used was modular and included two hydraulic cylinders, whose motion was influenced by friction in the cylinders. This model and the work reported in this paper are part of a project to investigate the possibility of implementing end-point control.

    A simulation with realistic data revealed that in general the friction in the hydraulic cylinders has only a minor effect on the motion of the manipulator arms. However, very high friction can have a noticeable effect, particularly if the static friction is much higher than the dynamic friction.

  • 14.
    Möller, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Modularisation of mechatronic mechanisms with dependent degrees of freedom2003In: The preoceedings of ICED August, 2003, Stockholm, Sweden, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Möller, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Modularisation of mechatronic mechanisms with dependent degrees of freedom2003In: The proceedings of ICED, Stockholm, Sweden, August 2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modularisation and mechatronic solutions are two prominent trends in modern product development. For some mechatronic systems, modularisation is difficult. Such systems often involve functionally complex products such as robots and vehicles, where the mechanical function of a subsystem is strongly dependent on all the interacting subsystems. This paper addresses one of the problems posed by such systems. In order to illustrate the problem and a possible solution to it, a feasibility study of a modularised mechanism test bench was undertaken using a behaviour control approach. The modelling and simulation tools SimMechanics and Simulink were used to evaluate the behaviour of this mechanism. The results indicate that it is possible to modularise the control of a complex mechanism, even if the degrees of freedom are strongly dependent.

  • 16.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    The concept of functional surfaces as carriers of interactive properties2005In: Proceedings ICED 05: the 15th International Conference on Engineering Design, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The perceived use and attractiveness of a product relies on its subjective understanding by one or several human being(s) to a great extent. The attractiveness of a product depends strongly on its aesthetic appearance and how we perceive the whole product and its external aesthetic and ergonomic features with all our senses in relation to the performance we, for some reason, expect from the product. Fulfillment of the technical functional requirements and the cost constraints is often seen as an obvious prerequisite for an attractive product but it is not seen as the differentiator among competing product. It is increasingly important that the product also have distinctive interactive properties of a semiotic, ergonomic and/or aesthetic nature that distinguish the product from other products on the market. Consequently, development of many types of products benefits from an integrated and holistic treatment of both the technical and the interactive product aspects. The fact that products are designed by someone to be perceived by someone else makes treatment of ergonomic and aesthetic requirements and implementations quite complicated and even fuzzy. A significant challenge to design research is to find ways to represent the "hard" technical requirements and the more "soft" interactive requirements, the implementations of the technical and the interactive properties, and the relations between these types of requirements and properties. This paper presents a model-based approach that addresses this challenge. Interactive and technical functional surfaces and how they fit into a general modeling principle of technical systems are elaborated on. The general modeling principle includes both technical and interactive interface models. This paper, furthermore, presents an integrated matrix-based representation of the technical and interactive properties of a technical product and relates these properties to the stated customer requirements. The presented approach is exemplified with a recent design project.

  • 17.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Björklund, Stefan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    A Contact Model for Rough Surfaces1999In: NAFEMS World Congress, April 25-28 1999, Newport, Rhode Island,USA, 1999Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering surfaces can be characterized as more or less randomly rough. Contact between engineering surfaces is thus discontinuous and the real area of contact is a small fraction of the nominal contact area. The stiffness of a rough surface layer will thus have an influence on the contact state as well as on the behavior of the surrounding system. A contact model that takes the properties of engineering surfaces into account has been developed and implemented in a commercial FE software. Results obtained with the model have been compared and verified with results from an independent numerical method. Results have shown that the height distribution of the topography has a significant influence on the contact stiffness but that the curvature of the roughness is of minor importance. The contact model that was developed for determining the apparent contact area and the distribution of the mean contact pressure could thus be based on a limited set of height parameters that describe the surface topography. By operating on the calculated apparent pressure distribution with a transformation function that is based on both height and curvature parameters, the real contact area can be estimated in a post processing step.

     

  • 18.
    Spiegelberg, Christer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Simulation of friction and wear in the contact between the valve bridge and rocker arm pad in a cam mechanism2006In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 261, no 1, p. 58-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the surface velocities obtained from a rigid body model are used to simulate friction and wear in the contact between the rocker arm pad and valve bridge in the cam mechanism of a diesel engine. The friction is simulated with two different friction models, a 3D brush model capable of handling transient conditions such as an varying normal load and varying surface velocities and a Coulombian friction model.The wear simulations are based on a generalised form of Archard's wear model. The results presented here show that both the maximum wear depths and the wear distributions are influenced significantly by the combination of wear pad radius and the position of the wear pad radius centre relative to the rocker arm hearing centre. A combination with wear pad radius of 20 mm and centre position of 5 mm is found to give the least wear depths on both the wear pad and the valve bridge. It is also seen that the contact between the wear pad and the valve bridge is mainly a sliding contact and that the transitions from sliding in one direction to the opposite are very rapid. The change of the surface shapes due to wear has a negative effect on the contact situation causing very high contact pressures.

  • 19.
    Spiegelberg, Christer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Friction in spur gears with interference2003Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Söderberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Simulation of wear and contact pressure distribution at the pad-to-rotor interface in a disc brake using general purpose finite element analysis software2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Passenger car disc brakes are safety-critical components whose performance depends strongly on contact conditions at the pad-to-rotor interface. The interface can be classified as a conformal dry sliding contact. During braking both brake pad and rotor surfaces are worn, affecting the useful life of the brake as well as its behavior. This paper discusses how wear of the pad-to-rotor interface can be predicted using general purpose finite element analysis software. A three-dimensional finite element model of the brake pad and the rotor is developed to calculate the pressure distribution in the pad-to-rotor contact. A wear simulation procedure based on a generalized form of Archard's wear law and explicit Euler integration is used to simulate the wear of the brake pad under steady-state drag conditions.

  • 21.
    Söderberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Simulation of wear and contact pressure distribution at the pad-to-rotor interface in a disc brake using general purpose finite element analysis software2009In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 267, no 12, p. 2243-2251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Passenger car disc brakes are safety-critical components whose performance depends strongly on contact conditions at the pad-to-rotor interface. The interface can be classified as a conformal dry sliding contact. During braking both brake pad and rotor surfaces are worn, affecting the useful life of the brake as well as its behavior. This paper discusses how wear of the pad-to-rotor interface can be predicted using general purpose finite element analysis software. A three-dimensional finite element model of the brake pad and the rotor is developed to calculate the pressure distribution in the pad-to-rotor contact. A wear simulation procedure based on a generalized form of Archard's wear law and explicit Euler integration is used to simulate the wear of the brake pad under steady-state drag conditions.

  • 22.
    Söderberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Using finite element analysis to predict the brake pressure needed for effective rotor cleaning in disc brakes2008In: SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-2565, USA: SAE , 2008, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach to simulating wear on both contact surfaces at the pad-to-rotor interface in discbrakes using general purpose finite element software. Itrepresents a first step toward a method of simulating the brake pressure needed to effectively clean the rotor ofunwanted oxide layers. Two simulation cases are presented. The first addresses running-in wear underconstant load and corresponds to repeated brakeapplications at the same constant brake load. Thesecond studies what will happen if a lower load is applied after the contact surfaces have been run-in at ahigher load level. This lower load is applied to wear off an oxide layer after a sequence of repeated stop braking at higher load levels.

  • 23.
    Tisell, Claes
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    A Functional Interpretation to Constrained Motion of Systems1994Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Wikander, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    During, Carl
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Förfarande och anordning för beröringsfri bestämning av en kropps translations- eller vridningsläge1991Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In a method for touch-free determination of the translatory or angular position of a body, a defined measuring path (M) on the body (K) in the direction of said translatory or angular motion of the body (1) is detected spot-wise by means of an optical sensor head (1), which emits laser light towards the measuring path and provides an output signal responsive to light reflected from said path (M), the sensor head (1) and the body (K) with the measuring path (M) being movable relative to each other. In order to provide for an exact position determination with high resolution in an inexpensive way the invention suggests that the surface profile or characteristics of the body (K) along the measuring path (M) is scanned by illumination from the sensor head (1), which consists of an optical pick-up for compact discs.

1 - 24 of 24
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