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  • 1. Andersson, B.
    et al.
    Sjogren, A.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    Micro- and meso-level residual stresses in glass-fiber/vinyl-ester composites2000In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, Vol. 60, no 10, 2011-2028 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residual stresses in glass-fiber composites were studied on the micro and meso scales by computational and experimental methods. Transmitted polarized light images of thin sections were compared with 3D finite-element solutions of a sample containing 1410 fibers. Calculated point-wise stresses were derived from a linear thermoelastic model with negligibly small numerical errors. Regions with calculated maximum compressive stresses showed good agreement with experimentally observed optical bands. A material with poor interfacial adhesion showed weaker optical effects indicating fiber/matrix debonding. On the basis of these results it stems likely that irreversible matrix deformation and debonding can take place in the curing phase.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Richard L.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Salajkova, Michaela
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Mallon, P. E.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Micromechanical Tensile Testing of Cellulose-Reinforced Electrospun Fibers Using a Template Transfer Method (TTM)2012In: Journal of polymers and the environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8900, Vol. 20, no 4, 967-975 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A template transfer method (TTM) and a fiber fixation technique were established for fiber handling and micro tensile stage mounting of aligned and non-aligned electrospun fiber mats. The custom-made template had been precut to be mounted on a variety of collectors, including a rapidly rotating collector used to align the fibers. The method eliminated need for direct physical interaction with the fiber mats before or during the tensile testing since the fiber mats were never directly clamped or removed from the original substrate. By using the TTM it was possible to measure the tensile properties of aligned poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fiber mats, which showed a 250 % increase in strength and 450 % increase in modulus as compared to a non-aligned system. The method was further evaluated for aligned PMMA fibers reinforced with cellulose (4 wt%) prepared as enzymatically derived nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). These fibers showed an additional increase of 30 % in both tensile strength and modulus, resulting in a toughness increase of 25 %. The fracture interfaces of the PMMA-NFC fibers showed a low amount of NFC pull-outs, indicating favorable phase compatibility. The presented fiber handling technique is universal and may be applied where conservative estimates of mechanical properties need to be assessed for very thin fibers.

  • 3.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Tensile Properties of Wood Cellulose Nanopaper and Nanocomposite Films2016In: Multifunctional Polymeric Nanocomposites Based on Cellulosic Reinforcements, Elsevier Inc. , 2016, 115-130 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The nanocellulose fibril is the major load-bearing component in the wood cell wall. It is readily disintegrated from wood pulp, and of great interest as a component in new materials. It can be used to form 100% cellulose nanofiber (CNF) nanopaper films or polymer matrix nanocomposite films of high cellulose content, where the CNF network controls most physical properties. Here, the uniaxial tensile properties of CNF nanopaper and composite films are discussed, together with the deformation mechanisms. The CNF network and most types of nanocomposite films are prepared by a scalable filtration process akin to paper-making. The effects of intrinsic CNF properties, degree of CNF dispersion, CNF-CNF adhesion, CNF-polymer matrix interaction, CNF orientation, and humidity are also discussed.

  • 4.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Erik, Lindh
    Furo, Istvan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Mats, Johansson
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lars, Berglund
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Interface tailoring through covalent hydroxyl-epoxy bonds improves  hygromechanical stability in nanocellulose materialsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wide-spread use of cellulose nanofibril (CNF) biocomposites and nanomaterials is limited by CNF moisture sensitivity due to surface hydration. We report on a versatile and scalable interface tailoring route for CNF to address this, based on technically important epoxide chemistry. Bulk impregnation of epoxide-amine containing liquids is used to show that CNF hydroxyls can react with epoxides at high rates and high degree of conversion to form covalent bonds. Reactions take place inside nanostructured CNF networks under benign conditions, and are verified by solid state NMR. Epoxide modified CNF nanopaper shows significantly improved mechanical properties under moist and wet conditions. High resolution microscopy is used in fractography studies to relate the property differences to structural change. The cellulose-epoxide interface tailoring concept is versatile in that the functionality of molecules with epoxide end-groups can be varied over a wide range. Furthermore, epoxide reactions with nanocellulose can be readily implemented for processing of moisture-stable, tailored interface biocomposites in the form of coatings, adhesives and molded composites.

  • 5.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Galland, Sylvain
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Cellulose nanofiber network of high specific surface area provides altered curing reacion and moisture stability in ductile epoxy biocompositesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Galland, Sylvain
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Plummer, Christopher J. G.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Cellulose nanofiber network for moisture stable, strong and ductile biocomposites and increased epoxy curing rate2014In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, Vol. 63, 35-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocomposites with high volume fractions (15-50 vol%) of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) were prepared by impregnation of a wet porous NFC network with acetone/epoxy/amine solution. Infrared spectroscopy studies revealed a significant increase in curing rate of epoxy (EP) in the presence of NFC. The NFC provided extremely efficient reinforcement (at 15 vol%: 3-fold increase in stiffness and strength to 5.9 GPa and 109 MPa, respectively), and ductility was preserved. Besides, the glass transition temperature increased with increasing NFC content (from 68 degrees C in neat epoxy to 86 degrees C in 50 vol% composite). Most interestingly, the moisture sorption values were low and even comparable to neat epoxy for the 15 vol% NFC/EP. This material did not change mechanical properties at increased relative humidity (90% RH). Thus, NFC/EP provides a unique combination of high strength, modulus, ductility, and moisture stability for a cellulose-based biocomposite. Effects from nanostructural and interfacial tailoring are discussed.

  • 7.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Galland, Sylvain
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Skrivfars, Mikael
    Plummer, Christopher
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Biocomposites of nanofibrillated cellulose with thermoset resins2014In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 247, 41-CELL- p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Granda, L. A.
    Joffe, R.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Vilaseca, Fabiola
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Experimental evaluation of anisotropy in injection molded polypropylene/wood fiber biocomposites2017In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 96, 147-154 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the anisotropy of wood fibers is reasonably well established, the anisotropy of injection molded wood fiber composites is not well understood. This work focuses on chemo-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP) reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. A kinetic mixer (Gelimat) is used for compounding CTMP/PP composites, followed by injection molding. Effects from processing induced orientation on mechanical properties are investigated. For this purpose, a film gate mold was designed to inject composites in the shape of plates so that specimens in different directions to the flow could be evaluated. Observations from tensile tests were complemented by performing flexural tests (in different directions) on discs cut from the injected plates. SEM was used to qualitatively observe the fiber orientation in the composites. At high fiber content, both modulus and tensile strength could differ by as much as 40% along the flow and transverse to the flow. The fiber orientation was strongly increased at the highest fiber content, as concluded from theoretical analysis.

  • 9.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Lindh, Erik L.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Furo, Istvan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Mats K.G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Interface tailoring through covalent hydroxyl-epoxy bonds improves hygromechanical stability in nanocellulose materials2016In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 134, 175-183 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wide-spread use of cellulose nanofibril (CNF) biocomposites and nanomaterials is limited by CNF moisture sensitivity due to surface hydration. We report on a versatile and scalable interface tailoring route for CNF to address this, based on technically important epoxide chemistry. Bulk impregnation of epoxide-amine containing liquids is used to show that CNF hydroxyls can react with epoxides at high rates and high degree of conversion to form covalent bonds. Reactions take place inside nanostructured CNF networks under benign conditions, and are verified by solid state NMR. Epoxide modified CNF nanopaper shows significantly improved mechanical properties under moist and wet conditions. High resolution microscopy is used in fractography studies to relate the property differences to structural change. The cellulose-epoxide interface tailoring concept is versatile in that the functionality of molecules with epoxide end-groups can be varied over a wide range. Furthermore, epoxide reactions with nanocellulose can be readily implemented for processing of moisture-stable, tailored interface biocomposites in the form of coatings, adhesives and molded composites.

  • 10.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Salajkova, Michaela
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Zhou, Qi
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lars, Berglund
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Strong surface treatment effects on reinforcement efficiency in biocomposites based on cellulose nanocrystals in poly(vinyl acetate) matrix2015In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 16, no 12, 3916-3924 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the problem to disperse cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) in hydrophobic polymer matrices has been addressed through application of an environmentally friendly chemical modification approach inspired by clay chemistry. The objective is to compare the effects of unmodified CNC and modified CNC (modCNC) reinforcement, where degree of CNC dispersion is of interest. Hydrophobic functionalization made it possible to disperse wood-based modCNC in organic solvent and cast well-dispersed nanocomposite films of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) with 1-20 wt % CNC. Composite films were studied by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), tensile testing, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Strongly increased mechanical properties were observed for modCNC nanocomposites. The reinforcement efficiency was much lower in unmodified CNC composites, and specific mechanisms causing the differences are discussed.

  • 11.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Sjöstedt, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Biocomposites based on nanostructured chemical wood pulp fibres in epoxy matrixManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Sjöstedt, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Hierarchical wood cellulose fiber/epoxy biocomposites: Materials design of fiber porosity and nanostructure2015In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 74, 60-68 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Delignified chemical wood pulp fibers can be designed to have a controlled structure of cellulose fibril aggregates to serve as porous templates in biocomposites with unique properties. The potential of these fibers as reinforcement for an epoxy matrix (EP) was investigated in this work. Networks of porous wood fibers were impregnated with monomeric epoxy and cured. Microscopy images from ultramicrotomed cross sections and tensile fractured surfaces were used to study the distribution of matrix inside and around the fibers - at two different length scales. Mechanical characterization at different relative humidity showed much improved mechanical properties of biocomposites based on epoxy-impregnated fibers and they were rather insensitive to surrounding humidity. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of cellulose-fiber biocomposites were compared with those of cellulose-nanofibril (CNF) composites; strong similarities were found between the two materials. The reasons for this, some limitations and the role of specific surface area of the fiber are discussed.

  • 13.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Skrifvars, M.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Nanostructured biocomposites based on unsaturated polyester resin and a cellulose nanofiber network2015In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 117, 298-306 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biocomposites reinforced by natural plant fibers tend to be brittle, moisture sensitive and have limited strength. Wood cellulose nanofibers (CNF) were therefore used to reinforce an unsaturated polyester matrix (UP) without the need of coupling agents or CNF surface modification. The nanostructured CNF network reinforcement strongly improves modulus and strength of UP but also ductility and toughness. A template-based prepreg processing approach of industrial potential is adopted, which combines high CNF content (up to 45 vol%) with nanoscale CNF dispersion. The CNF/UP composites are subjected to moisture sorption, dynamic thermal analysis, tensile tests at different humidities, fracture toughness tests and fractography. The glass transition temperature (T-g) increases substantially with CNF content. Modulus and strength of UP increase about 3 times at 45 vol% CNF whereas ductility and apparent fracture toughness are doubled. Tensile properties at high humidity are compared with other bio-composites and interpreted based on differences in molecular interactions at the interface.

  • 14.
    Bergenstråhle, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Mazeau, Karim
    CERMAV-CNRS .
    Thermal Response in Crystalline Iβ Cellulose: A Molecular Dynamics Study2007In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 111, no 30, 9138-9145 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of temperature on structure and properties of the cellulose Iβ crystal was studied by molecular dynamics simulations with the GROMOS 45a4 force-field. At 300 K, the modeled crystal agreed reasonably with several sets of experimental data, including crystal density, corresponding packing and crystal unit cell dimensions, chain conformation parameters, hydrogen bonds, Young's modulus, and thermal expansion coefficient at room temperature. At high-temperature (500 K), the cellulose chains remained in sheets, despite differences in the fine details compared to the room-temperature structure. The density decreased while the a and b cell parameters expanded by 7.4% and 6%, respectively, and the c parameter (chain axis) slightly contracted by 0.5%. Cell angles α and β divided into two populations. The hydroxymethyl groups mainly adopted the gt orientation, and the hydrogen-bonding pattern thereby changed. One intrachain hydrogen bond, O2'H2'···O6, disappeared and consequently the Young's modulus decreased by 25%. A transition pathway between the low- and high-temperature structures has been proposed, with an initial step being an increased intersheet separation, which allowed every second cellulose chain to rotate around its helix axis by about 30°. Second, all hydroxymethyl groups changed their orientations, from tg to gg (rotated chains) and from tg to gt (non-rotated chains). When temperature was further increased, the rotated chains returned to their original orientation and their hydroxymethyl groups again changed their conformation, from gg to gt. A transition temperature of about 450 K was suggested; however, the transition seems to be more gradual than sudden. The simulated data on temperature-induced changes in crystal unit cell dimensions and the hydrogen-bonding pattern also compared well with experimental results.

  • 15.
    Bergenstråhle, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Mazeau, Karim
    CNRS, Ctr Rech Macromol Vegetales.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Molecular modeling of interfaces between cellulose crystals and surrounding molecules: Effects of caprolactone surface grafting2008In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 44, no 11, 3662-3669 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A technical problem in cellulosic nanocomposite materials is the weak interaction between hydrophilic cellulose and hydrophobic polymer matrices. One approach to solve this difficulty is to chemically graft monomers of the matrix polymer onto the cellulose surface. An important question is to understand the effect such surface modification has on the interfacial properties. Semi-empirical approaches to estimate work of adhesion based on surface energies do not provide information on specific molecular interactions. Details about these interactions were obtained using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Cellulose interfaces with water and caprolactone medium were modeled with different amounts of grafted caprolactone. The modification lead to an increased work of adhesion between the surface and its surrounding medium. Furthermore, the MD simulations showed that the interaction between cellulose, both modified and non-modified, and surrounding medium is dominated by Coulomb interactions, predominantly as hydrogen bonds.

  • 16.
    Bergenstråhle, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Thormann, Esben
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface Chemistry.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface Chemistry.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Force Pulling of Single Cellulose Chains at the Crystalline Cellulose-Liquid Interface: A Molecular Dynamics Study2009In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 25, no 8, 4635-4642 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulling single cellulose molecules from a crystalline cellulose surface has been modeled by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the experimental procedure used in atomic force microscopy (AFM). Specifically, the aim of the study was to investigate cellulose interactions at desorption. Simulations were performed in both water and the organic solvent cyclohexane. Moreover, the effects of initial octamer conformation and orientation with respect to the surface chains were studied. A strong effect from the solvent was observed. In cyclohexane, normal forces of 200-500 pN and energies of 43.5 +/- 6.0 kJ/mol glucose unit were required to pull off the octamer. The normal forces in water were substantially lower, around 58 pN, and the energies were 18.2 +/- 3.6 kJ/mol glucose unit. In addition, the lateral components of the pull-off force were shown to provide information on initial conformation and orientation. Hydrogen bonds between the octamer and surface were analyzed and found to be an important factor in the pull-off behavior. Altogether, it was shown that MD provides detailed information on the desorption processes that may be useful for the interpretation of AFM experiments.

  • 17.
    Bergenstråhle, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Wohlert, Jakob
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    STFI-PACKFORSK AB.
    Mazeau, Karim
    CERMAV-CNRS.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Dynamics of Cellulose-Water Interfaces: NMR Spin-Lattice Relaxation Times Calculated from Atomistic Computer Simulations2008In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 112, no 9, 2590-2595 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS 13C NMR) spectroscopy has often been used to study cellulose structure, but some features of the cellulose NMR spectrum are not yet fully understood. One such feature is a doublet around 84 ppm, a signal that has been proposed to originate from C4 atoms at cellulose fibril surfaces. The two peaks yield different T1, differing by approximately a factor of 2 at 75 MHz. In this study, we calculate T1 from C4-H4 vector dynamics obtained from molecular dynamics computer simulations of cellulose Iβ-water interfacial systems. Calculated and experimentally obtained T1 values for C4 atoms in surface chains fell within the same order of magnitude, 3-20 s. This means that the applied force field reproduces relevant surface dynamics for the cellulose-water interface sufficiently well. Furthermore, a difference in T1 of about a factor of 2 in the range of Larmor frequencies 25-150 MHz was found for C4 atoms in chains located on top of two different crystallographic planes, namely, (110) and (10). A previously proposed explanation that the C4 peak doublet could derive from surfaces parallel to different crystallographic planes is herewith strengthened by computationally obtained evidence. Another suggested basis for this difference is that the doublet originates from C4 atoms located in surface anhydro-glucose units with hydroxymethyl groups pointing either inward or outward. This was also tested within this study but was found to yield no difference in calculated T1.

  • 18.
    Bergenstråhle-Wohlert, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Brady, John W.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Westlund, Per-Olof
    Wohlert, Jakob
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Concentration enrichment of urea at cellulose surfaces: results from molecular dynamics simulations and NMR spectroscopy2012In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 19, no 1, 1-12 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A combined solid-state NMR and Molecular Dynamics simulation study of cellulose in urea aqueous solution and in pure water was conducted. It was found that the local concentration of urea is significantly enhanced at the cellulose/solution interface. There, urea molecules interact directly with the cellulose through both hydrogen bonds and favorable dispersion interactions, which seem to be the driving force behind the aggregation. The CP/MAS (13)C spectra was affected by the presence of urea at high concentrations, most notably the signal at 83.4 ppm, which has previously been assigned to C4 atoms in cellulose chains located at surfaces parallel to the (110) crystallographic plane of the cellulose I beta crystal. Also dynamic properties of the cellulose surfaces, probed by spin-lattice relaxation time (13)CT (1) measurements of C4 atoms, are affected by the addition of urea. Molecular Dynamics simulations reproduce the trends of the T (1) measurements and lends new support to the assignment of signals from individual surfaces. That urea in solution is interacting directly with cellulose may have implications on our understanding of the mechanisms behind cellulose dissolution in alkali/urea aqueous solutions.

  • 19.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Toughness and Strength of Wood Cellulose-based Nanopaper and Nanocomposites2014In: HANDBOOK OF GREEN MATERIALS, VOL 2: BIONANOCOMPOSITES: PROCESSING, CHARACTERIZATION AND PROPERTIES, World Scientific, 2014, 121-129 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanopaper in the form of nanofiber networks show superior mechanical performance and new functional characteristics compared with the brittle paper and fiberboard materials and thermoplastic biocomposites, which are commercially available. The chapter analyzes the potential to combine toughness and strength in polymer matrix nanocomposites based on cellulose nanofiber networks.

  • 20.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Kochumalayil, Joby J.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Ikkala, O.
    Walther, A.
    Bioinspired clay nanocomposites of very high clay content2012In: ECCM 2012 - Composites at Venice, Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Composite Materials, European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is difficult to prepare clay nanocomposites of high volume fraction clay. Layer-by-layer methods have been successful, but are difficult to use in large-scale production. In the present study, papermaking techniques are used for fabrication of oriented clay platelet nanocomposites. Materials are characterized by TEM, SEM, XRD and mechanical and barrier properties are measured and fire retardance performance is demonstrated. High strength and stiffness is demonstrated and the potential for bionanocomposites is discussed, in particular with moisture durability in mind.

  • 21.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Peijs, Ton
    Cellulose Biocomposites: From Bulk Moldings to Nanostructured Systems2010In: MRS bulletin, ISSN 0883-7694, Vol. 35, no 3, 201-207 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose biocomposites are widely used in industry as a low-cost engineering material with plant fiber reinforcement. However, chemical and microstructural heterogeneity causes low strength, low strain-to-failure, high moisture sensitivity, and odor and discoloration problems. Efforts toward improved performance through fiber orientation control, increased fiber lengths, and biopolymer use are reviewed. Interfacial strength control and moisture sensitivity are remaining challenges. As an attractive alternative reinforcement, high-quality cellulose nanofibers obtained by wood pulp fiber disintegration can be prepared at low cost. These nanofibers have high length/diameter ratios, diameters in the 5-15 nm range, and intrinsically superior physical properties. Wood cellulose nanofibers are interesting as an alternative reinforcement to more expensive nanoparticles, such as carbon nanotubes. Nanopaper and polymer matrix nanocomposites based on cellulose nanofiber networks show high strength, high work-of-fracture, low moisture adsorption, low thermal expansion, high thermal stability, high thermal conductivity, exceptional barrier properties, and high optical transparency. The favorable mechanical performance of bioinspired foams and low-density aerogels is reviewed. Future applications of cellulose biocomposites will be extended from the high-volume/low-cost end toward high-tech applications, where cellulose properties are fully exploited in nanostructured materials.

  • 22.
    Berglund, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Sehaqui, Houssine
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Zhou, Qi
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Cellulose-based materials comprising nanofibrillated cellulose from native cellulose2011Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The present invention relates to cellulose-based materials comprising nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) from native cellulose. exhibiting highly superior properties as compared to other cellulose-based materials, a method for preparing such cellulose-based material, and uses thereof are also disclosed.

  • 23.
    Berglund, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Zhou, Qi
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Kochumalayil, Joby Jose
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Oxygen barrier for packaging applications2011Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The present invention relates to composite material of xyloglucan and clay for use as a coating material. The invention also relates to a method of producing the coating.

  • 24.
    Bergström, Elina Mabasa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Salmen, Lennart
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Joby Kochumalayil, Jose
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Plasticized xyloglucan for improved toughness-Thermal and mechanical behaviour2012In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 87, no 4, 2532-2537 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tamarind seed xyloglucan is an interesting polysaccharide of high molar mass with excellent thermomechanical properties. Several plasticizers were studied in order to facilitate thermal processing and improve toughness (work to fracture) of xyloglucan film materials: sorbitol, urea, glycerol and polyethylene oxide. Films of different compositions were cast and studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMA) and tensile tests. Results are analysed and discussed based on mechanisms and practical considerations. Highly favourable characteristics were found with XG/sorbitol combinations, and the thermomechanical properties motivate further work on this material system, for instance as a matrix in biocomposite materials.

  • 25.
    Bjurhager, Ingela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Bardage, Stig
    Sundberg, Björn
    Mechanical characterization of juvenile European aspen (Populus tremula) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) using full-field strain measurements2008In: Journal of Wood Science, ISSN 1435-0211, E-ISSN 1611-4663, Vol. 54, no 5, 349-355 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional analysis of genes and proteins involved in wood formation and fiber properties often involves phenotyping saplings of transgenic trees. The objective of the present study was to develop a tensile test method for small green samples from saplings, and to compare mechanical properties of juvenile European aspen (Populus tremula) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides). Small microtomed sections were manufactured and successfully tested in tension parallel to fiber orientation. Strain was determined by digital speckle photography. Results showed significantly lower values for juvenile hybrid aspen in both Young's modulus and tensile strength parallel to the grain. Average Young's moduli spanned the ranges of 5.9-6.6 and 4.8-6.0 GPa for European aspen and hybrid aspen, respectively. Tensile strength was in the range of 45-49 MPa for European aspen and 32-45 MPa for hybrid aspen. The average density (oven-dry) was 284 kg/m3 for European aspen and 221 kg/m3 for hybrid aspen. Differences in mechanical properties correlated with differences in density.

  • 26.
    Bjurhager, Ingela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Gamstedt, E. Kristofer
    Keunecke, Daniel
    Niemz, Peter
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Mechanical performance of yew (Taxus baccata L.) from a longbow perspective2013In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, Vol. 67, no 7, 763-770 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Yew (Taxus baccata L.) longbow was the preferred weapon in the Middle Ages until the emergence of guns. In this study, the tensile, compression, and bending properties of yew were investigated. The advantage of yew over the other species in the study was also confirmed by a simple beam model. The superior toughness of yew has the effect that a yew longbow has a higher range compared with bows made from other species. Unexpectedly, the mechanical performance of a bow made from yew is influenced by the juvenile-to-mature wood ratio rather than by the heartwood-to-sapwood ratio. A yew bow is predicted to have maximized performance at a juvenile wood content of 30-50%, and located at the concave side (the compressive side facing the bowyer). Here, the stiffness and yield stress in compression should be as high as possible.

  • 27.
    Bjurhager, Ingela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Halonen, Helena
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lindfors, E. -L
    Iversen, Tommy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Almkvist, G.
    Gamstedt, E. Kristofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    State of degradation in archeological oak from the 17th century vasa ship: Substantial strength loss correlates with reduction in (holo)cellulose molecular weight2012In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 13, no 8, 2521-2527 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1628, the Swedish warship Vasa capsized on her maiden voyage and sank in the Stockholm harbor. The ship was recovered in 1961 and, after polyethylene glycol (PEG) impregnation, it was displayed in the Vasa museum. Chemical investigations of the Vasa were undertaken in 2000, and extensive holocellulose degradation was reported at numerous locations in the hull. We have now studied the longitudinal tensile strength of Vasa oak as a function of distance from the surface. The PEG-content, wood density, and cellulose microfibril angle were determined. The molar mass distribution of holocellulose was determined as well as the acid and iron content. A good correlation was found between the tensile strength of the Vasa oak and the average molecular weight of the holocellulose, where the load-bearing cellulose microfibril is the critical constituent. The mean tensile strength is reduced by approximately 40%, and the most affected areas show a reduction of up to 80%. A methodology is developed where variations in density, cellulose microfibril angle, and PEG content are taken into account, so that cell wall effects can be evaluated in wood samples with different rate of impregnation and morphologies.

  • 28.
    Bjurhager, Ingela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Ljungdahl, Jonas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Wallstrom, Lennart
    Gamstedt, E. Kristofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Towards improved understanding of PEG-impregnated waterlogged archaeological wood: A model study on recent oak2010In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, Vol. 64, no 2, 243-250 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To prevent deformation and cracking of waterlogged archaeological wood, polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a bulk impregnation agent is commonly applied. PEG maintains the wood in a swollen state during drying. However, swelling of wood can reduce its mechanical properties. In this study, the cellular structure of oak and cell wall swelling was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of transverse cross-sections, and the microfibril angle of oak fibers was determined by wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). Samples of recent European oak (Quercus robur L) impregnated with PEG (molecular weight of 600) were tested in axial tension and radial compression. Mechanical tests showed that axial tensile modulus and strength were only slightly affected by PEG, whereas radial compressive modulus and yield strength were reduced by up to 50%. This behavior can be explained by the microstructure and deformation mechanisms of the material. Microfibril angles in tensile test samples were close to zero. This implies tensile loading of cellulose microfibrils within the fiber cell walls without almost any shear in the adjacent amorphous matrix. These results are important because they can help separate the impact of PEG on mechanical properties from that of chemical degradation in archaeological artifacts, which display only small to moderate biological degradation.

  • 29.
    Bjurhager, Ingela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Nilsson, H.
    Lindfors, E-L
    Iversen, T.
    Almkvist, G.
    Gamstedt, K.E.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Significant loss of mechanical strength in archeological oak from the 17th century Vasa ship: correlation with cellulose degradationArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Bjurhager, Ingela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Olsson, Anne-Mari
    Innventia.
    Zhang, Bo
    Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces.
    Gerber, Lorenz
    Umeå Plant Science Center, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Kumar, Manoj
    Umeå Plant Science Center, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Burgert, Ingo
    Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces.
    Sundberg, Björn
    Umeå Plant Science Center, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Salmén, Lennart
    Innventia.
    Ultrastructure and Mechanical Properties of Populus Wood with Reduced Lignin Content Caused by Transgenic Down-Regulation of Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase2010In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 11, no 9, 2359-2365 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several key enzymes in lignin biosynthesis of Populus have been down-regulated by transgenie approaches to investigate their role in wood lignification and to explore their potential for lignin modification. Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase is an enzyme in the early phenylpropanoid pathway that has not yet been functionally analyzed in Populus. This study shows that down-regulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase reduced Klason lignin content by 30% with no significant change in syringyl to guaiacyl ratio. The lignin reduction resulted in ultrastructural differences of the wood and a 10% decrease in wood density. Mechanical properties investigated by tensile tests and dynamic mechanical analysis showed a decrease in stiffness, which could be explained by the lower density. The study demonstrates that a large modification in lignin content only has minor influences on tensile properties of wood in its axial direction and highlights the usefulness of wood modified beyond its natural variation by transgene technology in exploring the impact of wood biopolymer composition and ultrastructure on its material properties.

  • 31.
    Boujemaoui, Assya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Carlsson, Linn
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lahcini, Mohammed
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Sehaqui, Houssine
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Facile Preparation Route for Nanostructured Composites: Surface-Initiated Ring-Opening Polymerization of epsilon-Caprolactone from High-Surface-Area Nanopaper2012In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 4, no 6, 3191-3198 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, highly porous nanopaper, i.e., sheets of papers made from non-aggregated nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), have been surface-grafted with poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) by surface-initiated ring-opening polymerization (SI-ROP). The nanopaper has exceptionally high surface area (similar to 300 m(2)/g). The "grafting from" of the nanopapers was compared to "grafting from" of cellulose in the form of filter paper, and in both cases either titanium n-butoxide (Ti(On-Bu)(4)) or tin octoate (Sn(Oct)(2)) was utilized as a catalyst. It was found that a high surface area leads to significantly higher amount of grafted PCL in the substrates when Sn(Oct)2 was utilized as a catalyst. Up to 79 wt % PCL was successfully grafted onto the nanopapers as compared to filter paper where only 2-3 wt % PCL was grafted. However, utilizing Ti(On-Bu)4 this effect was not seen and the grafted amount was essentially similar, irrespectively of surface area. The mechanical properties of the grafted nanopaper proved to be superior to those of pure PCL films, especially at elevated temperatures. The present bottom-up preparation route of NFC-based composites allows high NFC content and provides excellent nanostructural control. This is an important advantage compared with some existing preparation routes where dispersion of the filler in the matrix is challenging.

  • 32. Burgert, I.
    et al.
    Cabane, E.
    Zollfrank, C.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Bio-inspired functional wood-based materials - hybrids and replicates2015In: International Materials Reviews, ISSN 0950-6608, E-ISSN 1743-2804, Vol. 60, no 8, 431-450 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood is a CO2 storing material from renewable resoures with excellent mechanical properties and a sophisticated hierarchical structure from the nanoscale of cell wall polymers up to the macroscale of tree size. In recent years, one can observe an increasing research interest in modifying and functionalising wood cell and cell wall assemblies as well as cell wall components. In this context, three fundamental approaches aiming at developing novel and advanced bio-inspired and bio-based functional materials can be identified. At the level of bulk wood, this review will cover two research directions of wood functionalisation which have in common the utilisation of the hierarchical structure at different length scales, but differ in terms of the preservation of the organic scaffold of the wood cell wall. In those protocols that modify and functionalise wood cell walls with the emphasis on retaining their structural integrity, hybrid materials leading to polymer-or mineral-related wood products are developed. In the second wood functionalisation approach, the hierarchical structure of wood is used as a template to engineer wood-derived inorganic non-metallic materials. The third approach is at the level of cell wall components, where bio-based materials from wood cellulose nanofibres (CNF) are discussed. The use of CNF allows for designing structures with different porosities and new combinations of anisotropic properties beyond the predetermined hierarchical structure of wood. The review will cover fundamental aspects and various protocols for the three to date surprisingly separately treated approaches with a focus on synthesis procedures and characterisation of the modified materials with respect to the targeted functionalisation as well as potential fields of application.

  • 33. Butchosa, Nria
    et al.
    Brown, Christian
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Bulone, Vincent
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Zhou, Qi
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Antimicrobial activity of biocomposites based on bacterial cellulose and chitin nanoparticles2012In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 243Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Butchosa, Nuria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Brown, Christian
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Bulone, Vincent
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Zhou, Qi
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Nanocomposites of bacterial cellulose nanofibers and chitin nanocrystals: fabrication, characterization and bactericidal activity2013In: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270, Vol. 15, no 12, 3404-3413 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An environmentally friendly approach was implemented for the production of nanocomposites with bactericidal activity, using bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers and chitin nanocrystals (ChNCs). The antibacterial activity of ChNCs prepared by acid hydrolysis, TEMPO-mediated oxidation or partial deacetylation of a-chitin powder was assessed and the structure of the ChNC nanoparticles was characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and solid-state C-13-NMR. The partially deacetylated ChNCs (D-ChNC) showed the strongest antibacterial activity, with 99 +/- 1% inhibition of bacterial growth compared to control samples. Nanocomposites were prepared from BC nanofibers and D-ChNC by (i) in situ biosynthesis with the addition of D-ChNC nanoparticles in the culture medium of Acetobacter aceti, and (ii) post-modification by mixing D-ChNC with disintegrated BC in an aqueous suspension. The structure and mechanical properties of the BC/D-ChNC nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and an Instron universal testing machine. The bactericidal activity of the nanocomposites increased with the D-ChNC content, with a reduction in bacterial growth by 3.0 log units when the D-ChNC content was 50%. D-ChNC nanoparticles have great potential as substitutes for unfriendly antimicrobial compounds such as heavy metal nanoparticles and synthetic polymers to introduce antibacterial properties to cellulosic materials.

  • 35. Carlsson, Daniel O.
    et al.
    Nyström, Gustav
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Zhou, Qi
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Strømme, Maria
    Electroactive nanofibrillated cellulose aerogel composites with tunable structural and electrochemical properties2012In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 22, no 36, 19014-19024 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents conductive aerogel composites of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and polypyrrole (PPy) with tunable structural and electrochemical properties. The conductive composites are prepared by chemically polymerizing pyrrole onto TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers dispersed in water and the various nanostructures are obtained employing different drying methods. Supercritical CO2 drying is shown to generate high porosity aerogel composites with the largest surface area (246 m(2) g(-1)) reported so far for a conducting polymer-paper based material, whereas composites produced by ambient drying attain high density structures with mechanical properties significantly surpassing earlier reported values for cellulose-conducting polymer composites when normalized with respect to the content of reinforcing cellulose (Young's modulus = 0.51 GPa, tensile strength = 10.93 MPa and strain to failure = 2.5%). Electrochemical measurements clearly show that differences in the porosity give rise to dramatic changes in the voltammetric and chronoamperometric behavior of the composites. This indicates that mass transport rate limitations also should be considered, in addition to the presence of a distribution of PPy redox potentials, as an explanation for the shapes of the voltammetric peaks. A specific charge capacity of similar to 220 C g(-1) is obtained for all composites in voltammetric experiments performed at a scan rate of 1 mV s(-1) and this capacity is retained also at scan rates up to 50 mV s(-1) for the high porosity composites. The composites should be applicable as electrodes in structural batteries and as membranes in ion exchange applications requiring exchange membranes of high mechanical integrity or high porosity.

  • 36.
    Carosio, Federico
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Cuttica, Fabio
    Medina, Lilian
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Clay nanopaper as multifunctional brick and mortar fire protection coating: Wood case study2016In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 93, 357-363 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Wood is one of the most sustainable, esthetically pleasing and environmentally benign engineering materials, and is often used in structures found in buildings. Unfortunately, the fire hazards related to wood are limiting its application. The use of transparent cellulose nanofiber (CNF)/clay nanocomposites, with unique brick-and-mortar structure, is proposed as a sustainable and efficient fire protection coating for wood. Fire performance was assessed by cone calorimetry. When exposed to the typical 35 kW/m2 heat flux of developing fires, the time to ignition of coated wood samples increased up to about 4 1/2 min, while the maximum average rate of heat emission (MARHE) was decreased by 46% thus significantly reducing the potential fire threat from wood structures.

  • 37.
    Carosio, Federico
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Kochumalayil, Joby
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Fina, A.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Extreme Thermal Shielding Effects in Nanopaper Based on Multilayers of Aligned Clay Nanoplatelets in Cellulose Nanofiber Matrix2016In: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 3, no 19, 1600551Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Carosio, Federico
    et al.
    Politecn Torino, I-15121 Alessandria, Italy.
    Kochumalayil, Jose
    Cuttica, F.
    Camino, G.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Oriented Clay Nanopaper from Biobased Components Mechanisms for Superior Fire Protection Properties2015In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 7, no 10, 5847-5856 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The toxicity of the most efficient fire retardant additives is a major problem for polymeric Materials. Cellulose nanofiber (CNF)/clay nanocomposites, with unique brick-and-mortar structure and prepared by simple filtration, are characterized from the morphological point of view by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. These nanocomposites have superior fire protection properties to Other clay nanocomposites and fiber composites. The Corresponding mechanisms are evaluated in terms of flammability (reaction to a flame) and cone calorimetry (exposure to heat flux). These two tests provide a wide spectrum characterization of fire protection properties in CNF/montmorrilonite (MTM) Materials. The morphology of the collected residues after flammability testing is investigated. In addition, thermal and thermo-oxidative stability are evaluated by thermogravimetric analyses performed in inert (nitrogen) and oxidative (air) atmospheres. Physical and chemical mechanisms are identified and related to the unique nanostructure and its low thermal conductivity, high gas barrier properties and CNF/ MTM interactions for char formation.

  • 39. Cataldi, A.
    et al.
    Dorigato, A.
    Deflorian, F.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Pegoretti, A.
    Polymer composite with micro- and nanocellulose for artwork protection and restoration2014In: 16th European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Micro- and nanocomposites were prepared using Aquazol® 500 as a polymeric matrix and a microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), and suspensions of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), as reinforcing agents. After a preliminary thermo-mechanical characterization that highlighted a stabilizing effect due to the micro- and nanofiller introduction, with an increase of the elastic modulus and a decrease of the thermal expansion coefficient and the creep compliance [1], these materials were applied as canvas lining adhesives. Single-lap shear tests both in quasi-static and creep conditions confirmed the dimensional stability provided by cellulose micro- and nanoparticles, with an important reduction of the adhesives compliance proportional to the filler content. Interestingly, MCC and CNC introduction did not impair the fracture behavior of the neat matrix.

  • 40.
    Cobut, Aline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Sehaqui, Houssine
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Cellulose Nanocomposites by Melt Compounding of TEMPO-Treated Wood Fibers in Thermoplastic Starch Matrix2014In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 9, no 2, 3276-3289 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate melt compounding of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) based composites, wood pulp fibers were subjected to a chemical treatment whereby the fibers were oxidized using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO). This treatment introduced negatively charged carboxylate groups to the fibers. TEMPO-treated fibers (TempoF) were added to a mixture of amylopectin starch, glycerol, and water. Granules were prepared from this mixture and processed into CNF composites by extrusion. TempoF were easier to process into composites as compared with non-treated pulp fibers (PF). SEM revealed partial disintegration of TempoF during melt processing. Consequently, TempoF gave composites with much better mechanical properties than those of conventional composites prepared from pulp fibers and TPS. Particularly, at 20 wt% TempoF content in the composite, the modulus and strength were much improved. Such a continuous melt processing route, as an alternative to laboratory solvent casting techniques, may promote large-scale production of CNF-based composites as an environmentally friendly alternative to synthetic plastics/composites.

  • 41.
    Cunha, Ana Gisela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Zhou, Qi
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Centres, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. INNVENTIA AB, Sweden.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Topochemical acetylation of cellulose nanopaper structures for biocomposites: mechanisms for reduced water vapour sorption2014In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 21, no 4, 2773-2787 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moisture sorption decreases dimensional stability and mechanical properties of polymer matrix biocomposites based on plant fibers. Cellulose nanofiber reinforcement may offer advantages in this respect. Here, wood-based nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and bacterial cellulose (BC) nanopaper structures, with different specific surface area (SSA), ranging from 0.03 to 173.3 m(2)/g, were topochemically acetylated and characterized by ATR-FTIR, XRD, solid-state CP/MAS C-13-NMR and moisture sorption studies. Polymer matrix nanocomposites based on NFC were also prepared as demonstrators. The surface degree of substitution (surface-DS) of the acetylated cellulose nanofibers is a key parameter, which increased with increasing SSA. Successful topochemical acetylation was confirmed and significantly reduced the moisture sorption in nanopaper structures, especially at RH = 53 %. BC nanopaper sorbed less moisture than the NFC counterpart, and mechanisms are discussed. Topochemical NFC nanopaper acetylation can be used to prepare moisture-stable nanocellulose biocomposites.

  • 42.
    Cunha, Gisera
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. INRA, Biopolymeres Interact & Assemblages, France.
    Mougel, Jean-Bruno
    Cathala, Bernard
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Capron, Isabelle
    Preparation of Double Pickering Emulsions Stabilized by Chemically Tailored Nanocelluloses2014In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, no 31, 9327-9335 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocelluloses are bio-based nanoparticles of interest as stabilizers for oil-in-water (o/w) Pickering emulsions. In this work, the surface chemistry of nanocelluloses of different length, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC, long) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC, short), was successfully tailored by chemical modification with lauroyl chloride (C12). The resulting nanofibers were less hydrophilic than the original and able to stabilize water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. The combination of the two types of nanocelluloses (C12-modified and native) led to new surfactant-free oil-in-water-in-oil (o/w/o) double emulsions stabilized by nanocellulose at both interfaces. Characterization was performed with respect to droplet size distribution, droplet stability over time, and stability after centrifugation. Nanocellulose-based Pickering emulsions can be designed with a substantial degree of control, as demonstrated by the stability of the chemically tailored NFC double emulsions. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that increased nanofiber length leads to increased stability.

  • 43. de Francisco, Raquel
    et al.
    Tiemblo, Pilar
    Hoyos, Mario
    Gonzalez-Arellano, Camino
    Garcia, Nuria
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Synytska, Alla
    Multipurpose Ultra and Superhydrophobic Surfaces Based on Oligodimethylsiloxane-Modified Nanosilica2014In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 6, no 21, 18998-19010 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonfluorinated hydrophobic surfaces are of interest for reduced cost, toxicity, and environmental problems. Searching for such surfaces together with versatile processing, A200 silica nanoparticles are modified with an oligodimethylsiloxane and used by themselves or with a polymer matrix. The goal of the surface modification is controlled aggregate size and stable suspensions. Characterization is done by NMR, microanalysis, nitrogen adsorption, and dynamic light scattering. The feasibility of the concept is then demonstrated. The silica aggregates are sprayed in a scalable process to form ultrahydrophobic and imperceptible coatings with surface topographies of controlled nanoscale roughness onto different supports, including nanofibrillated cellulose. To improve adhesion and wear properties, the organosilica was mixed with polymers. The resulting composite coatings are characterized by FE-SEM, AFM, and contact angle measurements. Depending on the nature of the polymer, different functionalities can be developed. Poly(methyl methacrylate) leads to almost superhydrophobic and highly transparent coatings. Composites based on commercial acrylic car paint show "pearl-bouncing" droplet behavior. A light-emitting polyfluorene is synthesized to prepare luminescent and water repellent coatings on different supports. The interactions between polymers and the organosilica influence coating roughness and are critical for wetting behavior. In summary, the feasibility of a facile, rapid, and fluorine-free hydrophobization concept was successfully demonstrated in multipurpose antiwetting applications.

  • 44.
    Djahed, Cyrus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Wohlert, Jakob
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Molecular scale deformation mechanisms in cellulose crystals (I and II) by molecular dynamics - synergy between covalent and hydrogen bondsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 45. Djahedi, Cyrus
    et al.
    Bergenstrahle-Wohlert, Malin
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Wohlert, Jakob
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Role of hydrogen bonding in cellulose deformation: the leverage effect analyzed by molecular modeling2016In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 23, no 4, 2315-2323 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Djahedi, Cyrus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Wohlert, Jakob
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Molecular deformation mechanisms in cellulose allomorphs and the role of hydrogen bondsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Djahedi, Cyrus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wohlert, Jakob
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Molecular deformation mechanisms in cellulose allomorphs and the role of hydrogen bonds2015In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 130, 175-182 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differences in tensile properties between cellulose crystal allomorphs cannot be rationalized by simply counting hydrogen bonds. From molecular dynamics computer simulations the cooperative nature of energy contributions to axial cellulose crystal modulus becomes apparent. Using a decomposition of inter and intrarnolecular forces as a function of tensile strain, the three allomorphs show dramatic differences in terms of how the contributions to elastic energy are distributed between covalent bonds, angles, dihedrals, electrostatic forces, dispersion and steric forces.

  • 48. Donius, Amalie E.
    et al.
    Liu, Andong
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wegst, Ulrike G. K.
    Superior mechanical performance of highly porous, anisotropic nanocellulose-montmorillonite aerogels prepared by freeze casting2014In: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, Vol. 37, 88-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Directionally solidified nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC)-sodium-montmorillonite (MMT) composite aerogels with a honeycomb-like pore structure were compared with non-directionally frozen aerogels with equiaxed pore structure and identical composition and found to have superior functionalities. To explore structure-property correlations, three different aerogel compositions of 3 wt% MMT, and 0.4 wt%, 0.8 wt%, and 1.2 wt% NFC, respectively, were tested. Young's modulus, compressive strength and toughness were found to increase with increasing NFC content for both architectures. The modulus increased from 25.8 kPa to 386 kPa for the isotropic and from 2,13 MPa to 3.86 MPa for the anisotropic aerogels, the compressive yield strength increased from 3.3 kPa to 18.0 kPa for the isotropic and from 32.3 kPa to 52.5 kPa for the anisotropic aerogels, and the toughness increased from 6.3 kJ/m(3) to 24.1 kJ/m(3) for the isotropic and from 22.9 kJ/m(3) to 46.2 kJ/m(3) for the anisotropic aerogels. The great range of properties, which can be achieved through compositional as well as architectural variations, makes these aerogels highly attractive for a large range of applications, for which either a specific composition, or a particular pore morphology, or both are required. Finally, because NFC is flammable, gasification experiments were performed, which revealed that the inclusion of MMT increased the heat endurance and shape retention functions of the aerogels dramatically up to 800 degrees C while the mechanical properties were retained up to 300 degrees C.

  • 49.
    Dvinskikh, Sergey V.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Physical Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Industrial NMR Centre.
    Henriksson, Marielle
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Furó, István
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Physical Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Industrial NMR Centre.
    A multinuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of wood with adsorbed water: Estimating bound water concentration and local wood density2011In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, Vol. 65, no 1, 103-107 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction between moisture and the macromolecular wood tissue is of critical importance to wood properties. In this context, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is very promising as this method could deliver molecular information on the submillimeter scale (i.e., along concentration gradients) about both free and adsorbed water and the cell wall polymers. In the present study, it is demonstrated for the first time that wood containing adsorbed heavy water ((H2O)-H-2) can be studied by MRI based on separated images due to water (H-2 MRI) and cell wall polymers (H-1 MRI). Data confirm that in specimens equilibrated at controlled humidity there is a direct correlation between bound water content and relative density of the polymers in wood tissue; there is a strong variation across annual rings.

  • 50. Eichhorn, S. J.
    et al.
    Dufresne, A.
    Aranguren, M.
    Marcovich, N. E.
    Capadona, J. R.
    Rowan, S. J.
    Weder, C.
    Thielemans, W.
    Roman, M.
    Renneckar, S.
    Gindl, W.
    Veigel, S.
    Keckes, J.
    Yano, H.
    Abe, K.
    Nogi, M.
    Nakagaito, A. N.
    Mangalam, A.
    Simonsen, J.
    Benight, A. S.
    Bismarck, A.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Peijs, T.
    Review: current international research into cellulose nanofibres and nanocomposites2010In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 45, no 1, 1-33 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an overview of recent progress made in the area of cellulose nanofibre-based nanocomposites. An introduction into the methods used to isolate cellulose nanofibres (nanowhiskers, nanofibrils) is given, with details of their structure. Following this, the article is split into sections dealing with processing and characterisation of cellulose nanocomposites and new developments in the area, with particular emphasis on applications. The types of cellulose nanofibres covered are those extracted from plants by acid hydrolysis (nanowhiskers), mechanical treatment and those that occur naturally (tunicate nanowhiskers) or under culturing conditions (bacterial cellulose nanofibrils). Research highlighted in the article are the use of cellulose nanowhiskers for shape memory nanocomposites, analysis of the interfacial properties of cellulose nanowhisker and nanofibril-based composites using Raman spectroscopy, switchable interfaces that mimic sea cucumbers, polymerisation from the surface of cellulose nanowhiskers by atom transfer radical polymerisation and ring opening polymerisation, and methods to analyse the dispersion of nanowhiskers. The applications and new advances covered in this review are the use of cellulose nanofibres to reinforce adhesives, to make optically transparent paper for electronic displays, to create DNA-hybrid materials, to generate hierarchical composites and for use in foams, aerogels and starch nanocomposites and the use of all-cellulose nanocomposites for enhanced coupling between matrix and fibre. A comprehensive coverage of the literature is given and some suggestions on where the field is likely to advance in the future are discussed.

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