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  • 1. Alesii, Roberto
    et al.
    Congiu, Roberto
    Santucci, Fortunato
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Architectures and protocols for fast identification in large-scale RFID systems2014In: ISCCSP 2014 - 2014 6th International Symposium on Communications, Control and Signal Processing, Proceedings, 2014, p. 243-246Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Passive tags based on backscattered signals yield low energy consumption for large-scale applications of RFIDs. In this paper, system architectures and protocol enhancements for fast identifications in ISO/IEC 18000-6C systems that integrate UWB technology are investigated. The anti-collision protocol is studied by considering various tag populations. A novel algorithm is proposed to adapt the UHF air interface parameters with the use of UWB ranging information. The results show that the proposed algorithm yields up to 25% potential performance improvement compared to the ISO/IEC 18000-6C standard.

  • 2.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Modeling and design of multi-hop energy efficient wireless networks for control applications2010Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Energy efficiency is essential for many industrial and commercial wireless network applications. In this thesis, we propose an analytical framework to model and design protocols for multi-hop wireless networks for industrial control and automation. We study the mutual interaction among medium access control (MAC), routing, and application layers. Accordingly, we provide three main contributions. First, MAC and routing layers are considered. The carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) of the unslotted IEEE 802.15.4 standard is modeled for multi-hop communications using the specifications of the IETF routing over low power and lossy networks (ROLL). The analysis considers the effects induced by heterogeneous traffic due to the routing mechanism and the node traffic generation patterns, and the hidden terminals due to the reduced carrier sensing capabilities. The interde-pendence between end-to-end performance indicators (reliability, delay, and energy consumption) and routing decisions is described. It is shown that routing decisions based on reliability or delay tend to direct traffic toward nodes with high packet generation rates, with significant negative effects on the energy consumption. Second, we propose TREnD, a cross-layer protocol solution that takes into account tunable performance requirements from the control application. An optimization problem is posed and solved to select the protocol parameters adaptively. The objective is to minimize the energy consumption while fulfilling reliability and delay constraints. TREnD is implemented on a test-bed and it is compared to existing protocols. The protocol model and analysis are validated through experiments. It is shown that TREnD ensures load balancing and dynamic adaptation for static and time-varying scenarios. Eventually, a building automation application is presented by considering the design of a robust controller for under floor air distribution system regulation. The communication performance of an IEEE 802.15.4 network is included in the controller synthesis. We show the impact of reliability and delay on the temperature regulation for synchronous and asynchronous networks.

     

  • 3.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Modeling and Design of Wireless Protocols for Networked Control Applications2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless networking offers great potentials for the development of new applications in real-time monitoring and control. However, current design processes do not simultaneously consider energy efficiency, system requirements, and standards compatibility. Modeling, optimization, and integration of communication and control protocols are essential to achieve efficient overall operations. We propose a holistic design framework, which includes physical channels, medium access control (MAC), multi-hop routing, and control applications. Accordingly, we provide the following contributions.

    First, we investigate the performance of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC through an accurate Markov chain model and its simplified representation. The effects of traffic load, number of devices, and MAC parameters on reliability, delay, and energy consumption are determined analytically and experimentally. We show that the delay distribution is different with respect to commonly used models in networked control systems design. Moreover, we introduce an adaptive mechanism to minimize the energy consumption while fulfilling reliability and delay constraints.

    Second, we extend the analysis to multi-hop networks, including heterogeneous traffic distribution and limited carrier sensing range. Due to the contention-based channel access, routing decisions based on reliability or delay typically direct traffic toward nodes with high packet generation rates, leading to unbalanced performance and higher energy consumption. A load balancing metric is proposed for the IETF routing protocol for low-power and lossy networks. Furthermore, a mechanism to optimally select routes and MAC parameters is implemented.

    Third, we include a realistic channel model in the analysis. Multi-path and shadowing are modeled by a Nakagami-lognormal distribution. A moment matching approximation is used to derive the statistics of aggregate signals. The impact of fading on MAC and routing is determined for various traffic regimes, distances among devices, and signal-to-(interference plus noise)-ratio settings. The results show that a certain level of fading actually improves the network performance.

    Fourth, we propose TREnD, a cross-layer protocol that takes into account tunable application requirements. Duty cycling, data aggregation, and power control are employed to provide energy efficiency and an optimization problem is solved to select the protocol parameters adaptively. TREnD is implemented on a test-bed and it is compared to existing protocols. Experimental results show load balancing and adaptation for static and dynamic scenarios.

    Finally, the analytical models developed in the thesis are formalized into a contract-based design framework. We consider a building automation example with a feedback control system over a heterogeneous network. We include the effects of delays and losses in the controller synthesis and we compare various robust control strategies. The use of contracts allows for a compositional design that handles performance, heterogeneity, and reconfigurability in a systematic and efficient way.

  • 4.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Alesii, R.
    Santucci, F.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    An UWB-enhanced identification procedure for large-scale passive RFID systems2014In: Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband, 2014, p. 421-426Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the integration of UWB and UHF technologies for RFID systems is investigated. A fast and energy efficient identification algorithm that makes use of UWB ranging is proposed for ISO/IEC 18000-6C tags. Compatibility with the standard, cooperation between the UHF and UWB technologies and solutions for asynchronism management are the main subjects of our analysis. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm guarantees approximately 25% performance improvement in terms of success rate and energy consumption with respect to the ISO/IEC 18000-6C standard.

  • 5.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Athanasiou, Georgios
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. Institute of Communications and Computer Systems, National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Mekikis, Prodromos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. Signal Theory and Communications Dept., Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    MAC-aware routing metrics for the internet of things2015In: Computer Communications, ISSN 0140-3664, E-ISSN 1873-703XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of the internet of things (IoT) has significantly affected the concept of wireless networking. As the number of wireless devices is rising, new medium access control (MAC) and routing protocols have been developed to guarantee end-to-end network performance. When existing layered solutions are stacked together, there might be detrimental effects on the overall network performance. In this paper, an analysis of MAC and routing protocols for IoT is provided with focus on the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the IETF RPL standards. It is shown that existing routing metrics do not account for the complex interactions between MAC and routing, and thus novel metrics are proposed. This enables a protocol selection mechanism for selecting the routing option and adapting the MAC parameters, given specific performance constraints. Extensive analytical and experimental results show that the behavior of the MAC protocol can hurt the performance of the routing protocol and vice versa, unless these two are carefully optimized together by the proposed method.

  • 6.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Athanasiou, George
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Mekikis, Prodromos
    Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain.
    Harmonizing MAC and routing in low power and lossy networks2013In: 2013 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), IEEE , 2013, p. 231-236Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Medium access control (MAC) and routing protocols are fundamental blocks in the design of low power and lossy networks (LLNs). As new networking standards are being proposed and different existing research solutions patched, evaluating the performance of the network becomes challenging. Specific solutions that can be individually efficient, when stacked together may have unexpected effects on the overall network behavior. In this paper, we provide an analysis of the fundamental MAC and routing protocols for LLNs: IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and IETF RPL. Moreover, a characterization of their cross-layer interactions is presented by a mathematical description, which is essential to truly understand the protocols mutual effects and their dynamics. Novel metrics that guide the interaction between MAC and routing are compared to existing metrics. Furthermore, a protocol selection mechanism is implemented to select the appropriate routing metric and MAC parameters given specific performance constraints. Analytical and experimental results show that the behavior of the MAC protocol can hurt the performance of the routing protocol and vice versa, unless these two are carefully optimized together.

  • 7.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Athanasiou, George
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Mekikis, Prodromos-Vasileios
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    MAC-aware routing metrics for low power and lossy networks2013In: 2013 Proceedings IEEE Infocom, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 13-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, routing metrics for low power and lossy networks are designed and evaluated. The cross-layer interactions between routing and medium access control (MAC) are explored, by considering the specifications of IETF RPL over the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC. In particular, the experimental study of a reliability metric that extends the expected transmission count (ETX) to include the effects of the level of contention and the parameters at MAC layer is presented. Moreover, a novel metric that guarantees load balancing and increased network lifetime by fulfilling reliability constraints is introduced. The aforementioned metrics are compared to a routing approach based on back-pressure mechanism.

  • 8.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Athanasiou, Georgios
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Mekikis, Prodromos Vasileios
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    MAC-aware routing metrics for low power and lossy networks2013In: 2013 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (Infocom Wkshps), IEEE , 2013, p. 79-80Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, routing metrics for low power and lossy networks are designed and evaluated. The cross-layer interactions between routing and medium access control (MAC) are explored, by considering the specifications of IETF RPL over the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC. In particular, the experimental study of a reliability metric that extends the expected transmission count (ETX) to include the effects of the level of contention and the parameters at MAC layer is presented. Moreover, a novel metric that guarantees load balancing and increased network lifetime by fulfilling reliability constraints is introduced. The aforementioned metrics are compared to a routing approach based on back-pressure mechanism.

  • 9.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Santucci, F.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Effects of Rayleigh-lognormal fading on IEEE 802.15.4 networks2013In: Communications (ICC), 2013 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 1666-1671Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEEE 802.15.4 communication protocol is a de-facto standard for wireless applications in industrial and home automation. Although the performance of the medium access control (MAC) of the IEEE 802.15.4 has been thoroughly investigated under the assumption of ideal wireless channel, there is still a lack of understanding of the cross-layer interactions between MAC and physical layer in the presence of realistic wireless channel models that include path loss, multi-path fading and shadowing. In this paper, an analytical model of these dynamics is proposed. The analysis considers simultaneously a composite Rayleigh-lognormal channel fading, interference generated by multiple terminals, the effects induced by hidden terminals, and the MAC reduced carrier sensing capabilities. It is shown that the reliability of the contention-based MAC over fading channels is often far from that derived under ideal channel assumptions. Moreover, it is established to what extent fading may be beneficial for the overall network performance.

  • 10.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Santucci, F.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Modeling cross-layer interactions of IEEE 802.15.4 wireless networks in cyber-physical systemsArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Santucci, Fortunato
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Modeling IEEE 802.15.4 Networks Over Fading Channels2014In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 5366-5381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the performance of the medium access control (MAC) of the IEEE 802.15.4 has been investigated under the assumption of ideal wireless channel, the understanding of the cross-layer dynamics between MAC and physical layer is an open problem when the wireless channel exhibits path loss, multi-path fading, and shadowing. The analysis of MAC and wireless channel interaction is essential for consistent performance prediction, correct design and optimization of the protocols. In this paper, a novel approach to analytical modeling of these interactions is proposed. The analysis considers simultaneously a composite channel fading, interference generated by multiple terminals, the effects induced by hidden terminals, and the MAC reduced carrier sensing capabilities. Depending on the MAC parameters and physical layer thresholds, it is shown that the MAC performance indicators over fading channels can be far from those derived under ideal channel assumptions. As novel results, we show to what extent the presence of fading may be beneficial for the overall network performance by reducing the multiple access interference, and how this information can be used for joint selection of MAC and physical layer parameters.

  • 12.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Park, Pan Gun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    A dynamic energy-efficient protocol for reliable and timely communications for wireless sensor networks in control and automation2009In: 2009 6th IEEE Annual Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks Workshops, 2009, Vol. SECON Workshops 2009, p. 146-148Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing quality of service (QoS) guaranteed communication protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is essential to exploit the advantages and flexibilities offered by this technology for real-time control and actuation applications. A novel cross-layer protocol that embraces altogether a semirandom routing, MAC, data aggregation, and radio power control for clustered WSNs is presented. The protocol leverages the combination of a randomized and a deterministic approach to ensure robustness over unreliable channels and packet losses. An optimization problem, whose objective function is the network energy consumption, and the constraints are reliability and latency of the packets is modelled and solved to adaptively select the protocol parameters by a simple algorithm. As a relevant contribution, the proposed protocol is completely implemented on a test-bed, and it is compared to existing protocols. Experimental results validate the analysis and show excellent performance in terms of reliability, latency, low node duty cycle, load balancing and dynamic adaptation to the application requirements.

  • 13.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Park, Pan Gun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Analytical Modeling of Multi-hop IEEE 802.15.4 Networks2012In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 61, no 7, p. 3191-3208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of existing analytical studies of the IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control (MAC) protocol are not adequate because they are often based on assumptions such as homogeneous traffic and ideal carrier sensing, which are far from reality for multi-hop networks, particularly in the presence of mobility. In this paper, a new generalized analysis of the unslotted IEEE 802.15.4 MAC is presented. The analysis considers the effects induced by heterogeneous traffic due to multi-hop routing and different traffic generation patterns among the nodes of the network and the hidden terminals due to reduced carrier-sensing capabilities. The complex relation between MAC and routing protocols is modeled, and novel results on this interaction are derived. For various network configurations, conditions under which routing decisions based on packet loss probability or delay lead to an unbalanced distribution of the traffic load across multi-hop paths are studied. It is shown that these routing decisions tend to direct traffic toward nodes with high packet generation rates, with potential catastrophic effects for the node's energy consumption. It is concluded that heterogeneous traffic and limited carrier-sensing range play an essential role on the performance and that routing should account for the presence of dominant nodes to balance the traffic distribution across the network.

  • 14.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Park, Pan Gun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    TREnD: A timely, reliable, energy-efficient and dynamic wsn protocol for control applications2010In: IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Control applications over wireless sensor networks (WSNs) require timely, reliable, and energy efficient communications. Cross-layer interaction is an essential design paradigm to exploit the complex interaction among the layers of the protocol stack and reach a maximum efficiency. Such a design approach is challenging because reliability and latency of delivered packets and energy are at odds, and resource constrained nodes support only simple algorithms. In this paper, the TREnD protocol is introduced for control applications over WSNs in industrial environments. It is a cross-layer protocol that embraces efficiently routing algorithm, MAC, data aggregation, duty cycling, and radio power control. The protocol parameters are adapted by an optimization problem, whose objective function is the network energy consumption, and the constraints are the reliability and latency of the packets. TREnD uses a simple algorithm that allows the network to meet the reliability and latency required by the control application while minimizing for energy consumption. TREnD is implemented on a test-bed and compared to some existing protocols. Experimental results show good performance in terms of reliability, latency, low duty cycle, and load balancing for both static and time-varying scenarios.

  • 15.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Park, Pangun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Analytical Modelling of IEEE 802.15.4 for Multi-hop Networks with Heterogeneous Traffic and Hidden Terminals2010In: 2010 IEEE GLOBAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE GLOBECOM 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IEEE 802.15.4 multi-hop wireless networks are an important communication infrastructure for many applications, including industrial control, home automation, and smart grids. Existing analysis of the IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control (MAC) protocol are often based on assumptions of homogeneous traffic and ideal carrier sensing, which are far from the reality when predicting performance for multi-hop networks. In this paper, a generalized analysis of the unslotted IEEE 802.15.4 MAC is presented. The model considers heterogeneous traffic and hidden terminals due to limited carrier sensing capabilities, and allows us to investigate jointly IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and routing algorithms. The analysis is validated via Monte Carlo simulations, which show that routing over multi-hop networks is significantly influenced by the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC performance. Routing decisions based on packet loss probability may lead to an unbalanced distribution of the traffic load across paths, thus motivating the need of a joint optimization of routing and MAC.

  • 16.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Santucci, F.
    Fiscione, C.
    Modeling anti-collision protocols for RFID Systems with multiple access interference2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Passive tags based on backscattered signals yield low energy consumption and enable a rich set of applications. In this paper, the performance of the dynamic framed ALOHA of the ISO/IEC 18000-6C standard is investigated. A Markov chain model of the protocol is developed by including the effects of the channel under different propagation scenarios. Depending on the air interface parameters and the fading components, it is shown that multiple access interference determines complex and unexpected effects on the system performance. An explicit analysis of the successful interrogation probability is obtained with respect to the number of tags, number of interrogation rounds and fading severity. It is shown that channel statistics may induce significant degradation, although a moderate spread of the fading can be beneficial especially for those contexts that include time-varying conditions.

  • 17. Ergen, S. C.
    et al.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    MAC protocol engine for sensor networks2009In: GLOBECOM - IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel approach for Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol design based on protocol engine. Current way of designing MAC protocols for a specific application is based on two steps: First the application specifications (such as network topology and packet generation rate), the requirements for energy consumption, delay and reliability, and the resource constraints from the underlying physical layer (such as energy consumption and data rate) are specified, and then the protocol that satisfies all these constraints is designed. Main drawback of this procedure is that we have to restart the design process for each possible application, which may be a waste of time and efforts. The goal of a MAC protocol engine is to provide a library of protocols together with their analysis such that for each new application the optimal protocol is chosen automatically among its library with optimal parameters. We illustrate the MAC engine idea by including an original analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 unslotted random access and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) protocols, and implementing these protocols in the software framework called SPINE, which runs on top of TinyOS and is designed for health care applications. Then we validate the analysis and demonstrate how the protocol engine chooses the optimal protocol under different application scenarios via an experimental implementation.

  • 18.
    Fodor, Gabor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Telek, M.
    On the impact of antenna correlation on the pilot-data balance in multiple antenna systems2015In: 2015 IEEE International Conference On Communications (ICC), IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, Vol. 2015, p. 2590-2596Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the uplink of a single cell single input multiple output (SIMO) system, in which the mobile stations use intra-cell orthogonal pilots to facilitate uplink channel estimation. In such systems, the problem of transmission power balancing between pilot and data is known to have a large impact on the mean square error (MSE) for the received signal and, consequently, on the achievable uplink data rate. In this paper, we derive a closed form expression of the MSE for the received signal as a function of the pilot and data power levels under a per-user sum pilot-data power constraint. As a major contribution, our model is developed for arbitrary channel covariance matrices and it enables us to study the impact of the number of antennas and antenna correlation structures, including the popular 3GPP spatial channel model. Numerical results suggest that the effect of the antenna spacing is limited, but the angle of arrival and angular spread have a strong and articulated impact on the MSE performance. Moreover, as the number of antennas at the base station grows large, we show that a higher percentage of the power budget should be allocated to pilot signals than with a lower number of antennas.

  • 19.
    Fodor, Gabor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Telek, Miklos
    Performance analysis of block and comb type channel estimation for massive MIMO systems2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 1st International Conference on 5G for Ubiquitous Connectivity, 5GU 2014, 2014, p. 62-69Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For pilot sequence based multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel estimation, the arrangements of pilot symbols, such as the block or comb type arrangement, is known to play an important role. In this paper we compare the performance of block and comb pilot symbol patterns in terms of uplink mean square error (MSE) and spectral efficiency when the receiver at the base station employs least square (LS) or minimum mean square error (MMSE) channel estimation and MMSE equalizer for uplink data reception. For this system, we derive a closed form solution for the MSE and spectral efficiency that allows us to obtain exact results for an arbitrary number of antennas. Our key observation is that the comb pilot arrangement allows for unequal pilot-data power allocation in the frequency domain, which leads to a significant spectral efficiency increase. This spectral efficiency increase is particularly important with LS estimation and as the number of base station antennas grows large. It also gives noticeable gains with MMSE estimation. Our main conclusion is that with a large number of antennas, unequal power allocation facilitated by comb arrangement can give large gains over alternative pilot arrangements.

  • 20.
    Fodor, Gabor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Telek, Miklos
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    On the Impact of Antenna Correlation on the Pilot-Data Balance in Multiple Antenna Systems2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the uplink of a single cell single input multiple output (SIMO) system, in which the mobile stations use intra-cell orthogonal pilots to facilitate uplink channel estimation. In such systems, the problem of pilot-data transmission power balancing is known to have a large impact on the performance on the achievable uplink data rates. In this paper we derive a closed form expression for the mean square error (MSE) as a function of the pilot and data power levels under a per-user sum pilot-data power constraint. Our major contribution is the derivation of the MSE formula for Gaussian channels under arbitrary channel covariance matrices. For example, our model readily allows to study the MSE as a function of the number of antennas and antenna correlation structures, including the popular spatial channel model (SCM). Numerical results suggest that the impact of antenna spacing on the MSE is limited, but the angle of arrival (AoA) and angular spread have a more articulated impact on the MSE performance. We also find that as the number of antennas at the base station grows large, a higher percentage of the power budget should be allocated to pilot signals than with a low number of antennas.

     

  • 21. Ludovici, Alessandro
    et al.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Calveras, Anna
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Analytical Model of Large Data Transactions in CoAP Networks2014In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 15610-15638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a novel analytical model to study fragmentation methods in wireless sensor networks adopting the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) and the IEEE 802.15.4 standard for medium access control (MAC). The blockwise transfer technique proposed in CoAP and the 6LoWPAN fragmentation are included in the analysis. The two techniques are compared in terms of reliability and delay, depending on the traffic, the number of nodes and the parameters of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC. The results are validated trough Monte Carlo simulations. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that evaluates and compares analytically the performance of CoAP blockwise transfer and 6LoWPAN fragmentation. A major contribution is the possibility to understand the behavior of both techniques with different network conditions. Our results show that 6LoWPAN fragmentation is preferable for delay-constrained applications. For highly congested networks, the blockwise transfer slightly outperforms 6LoWPAN fragmentation in terms of reliability.

  • 22.
    Park, Pan Gun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Soldati, Pablo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    A generalized Markov chain model for effective analysis of slotted IEEE 802.15.42009In: 2009 IEEE 6th International Conference on Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems, 2009, Vol. MASS '09, p. 130-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A generalized analysis of the IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control (MAC) protocol in terms of reliability, delay and energy consumption is presented. The IEEE 802.15.4 exponential backoff process is modeled through a Markov chain taking into account retry limits, acknowledgements, and unsaturated traffic. Simple and effective approximations of the reliability, delay and energy consumption under low traffic regime are proposed. It is demonstrated that the delay distribution of IEEE 802.15.4 depends mainly on MAC parameters and collision probability. In addition, the impact of MAC parameters on the performance metrics is analyzed. The analysis is more general and gives more accurate results than existing methods in the literature. Monte Carlo simulations confirm that the proposed approximations offer a satisfactory accuracy.

  • 23.
    Park, Pangun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Delay distribution analysis of wireless personal area networks2012In: IEEE 51st Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), 2012, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 5864-5869Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterizing the network delay distribution is a fundamental step to properly compensate the delay of Networked Control Systems (NCSs). Due to the random backoff mechanism employed by Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) protocols, it is difficult to derive such a distribution. In this paper, the probability distribution of the delay for successfully received packets in WPANs is characterized. The analysis uses a moment generating function method based on an extended Markov chain model. The model considers the exponential backoff process with retry limits, acknowledgements, unsaturated traffic, and variable packet size, and gives an accurate explicit expression of the probability distribution of the network delay. The probability distribution of the delay is a function of the traffic load, number of nodes, and parameters of the communication protocol. Monte Carlo simulations validate the analysis for different network and protocol parameters. We show that the probability distribution of the delay is significantly different from existing network models used for NCS design. Furthermore, the parameters of the communication protocol result to be critical to stabilize control systems.

  • 24.
    Park, Pangun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Modeling and optimization of the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol for reliable and timely communications2013In: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, ISSN 1045-9219, E-ISSN 1558-2183, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 550-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed processing through ad hoc and sensor networks is having a major impact on scale and applications of computing. The creation of new cyber-physical services based on wireless sensor devices relies heavily on how well communication protocols can be adapted and optimized to meet quality constraints under limited energy resources. The IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks can support energy efficient, reliable, and timely packet transmission by a parallel and distributed tuning of the medium access control parameters. Such a tuning is difficult, because simple and accurate models of the influence of these parameters on the probability of successful packet transmission, packet delay, and energy consumption are not available. Moreover, it is not clear how to adapt the parameters to the changes of the network and traffic regimes by algorithms that can run on resource-constrained devices. In this paper, a Markov chain is proposed to model these relations by simple expressions without giving up the accuracy. In contrast to previous work, the presence of limited number of retransmissions, acknowledgments, unsaturated traffic, packet size, and packet copying delay due to hardware limitations is accounted for. The model is then used to derive a distributed adaptive algorithm for minimizing the power consumption while guaranteeing a given successful packet reception probability and delay constraints in the packet transmission. The algorithm does not require any modification of the IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control and can be easily implemented on network devices. The algorithm has been experimentally implemented and evaluated on a testbed with off-the-shelf wireless sensor devices. Experimental results show that the analysis is accurate, that the proposed algorithm satisfies reliability and delay constraints, and that the approach reduces the energy consumption of the network under both stationary and transient conditions. Specif- cally, even if the number of devices and traffic configuration change sharply, the proposed parallel and distributed algorithm allows the system to operate close to its optimal state by estimating the busy channel and channel access probabilities. Furthermore, results indicate that the protocol reacts promptly to errors in the estimation of the number of devices and in the traffic load that can appear due to device mobility. It is also shown that the effect of imperfect channel and carrier sensing on system performance heavily depends on the traffic load and limited range of the protocol parameters.

  • 25. Park, Pangun
    et al.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Cross-Layer Optimization for Industrial Control Applications Using Wireless Sensor and Actuator Mesh Networks2017In: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 3250-3259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When multiple control processes share a common wireless network, the communication protocol must provide reliable performance in order to yield stability of the overall system. In this paper, the novel cross-layer optimized control (CLOC) protocol is proposed for minimizing the worst case performance loss of multiple industrial control systems. CLOC is designed for a general wireless sensor and actuator network where both sensor to controller and controller to actuator connections are over a multihop mesh network. The design approach relies on a constrained max-min optimization problem, where the objective is to maximize the minimum resource redundancy of the network and the constraints are the stability of the closed-loop control systems and the schedulability of the communication resources. The optimal operation point of the protocol is automatically set in terms of the sampling rate, scheduling, and routing, and is achieved by solving a linear programming problem, which adapts to system requirements and link conditions. The protocol has been experimentally implemented and evaluated on a testbed with off-the-shelf wireless sensor nodes, and it has been compared with a traditional network design and a fixed-schedule approach. Experimental results show that CLOC indeed ensures control application stability and fulfills communication constraints while maximizing the worst case redundancy gain of the system performance.

  • 26. Talha, B.
    et al.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Kaveh, M.
    Application of an integrated PHY and MAC layer model for half-duplex IEEE 802.15.4 networks to smart grids2011In: ACM International Conference Proceeding, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper puts the spotlight on the home/building area network of the smart grid. The IEEE 802.15.4 standard provides the core infrastructure for collecting data from customers' premises and forwarding it to the operations as well as service providers. An integrated physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layer analytical model is introduced for half-duplex IEEE 802.15.4 networks. The PHY layer propagation channel is modeled as the composite path-loss K distribution while accommodating groundwave propagation, multipath fading, and shadowing. The MAC layer model caters for the unslotted carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) of IEEE 802.15.4 with unsaturated traffic conditions. Closed-form expressions are derived for the probability density function (PDF) of the instantaneous received power and the average outage probability. The packet success probability without and with capture effect is thoroughly studied for several environments as well as propagation scenarios. The correctness of all analytical results is validated through simulations.

  • 27. Witrant, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Park, Pan Gun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Briat, Corentin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Limitations and performances of robust control over WSN: UFAD control in intelligent buildings2010In: IMA Journal of Mathematical Control and Information, ISSN 0265-0754, E-ISSN 1471-6887, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 527-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to propose a model-based feedback control strategy for indoor temperature regulation in buildings equipped with underfloor air distribution. Supposing distributed sensing and actuation capabilities, a zero-dimensional model of the ventilation process is derived, based on the thermodynamics properties of the flow. A state-space description of the process is then inferred, including discrete events and non-linear components. The use of a wireless sensor network and the resulting communication constraints with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard are discussed. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are considered. Based on the linear part of the model, different H-infinity robust multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) controllers are designed, first with a standard mixed-sensitivity approach and then by taking into account the network-induced delay explicitly. The impact of the communication constraints and the relative performances of the controllers are discussed based on simulation results.

1 - 27 of 27
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