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  • 1.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Bergsten, Eddie
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Omgivningsfysiologi.
    G-protection mechanisms afforded by the anti-G suit abdominal bladder with and without pressure breathing.2011Inngår i: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, E-ISSN 1943-4448, Vol. 82, nr 10, s. 972-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: G protection afforded by the abdominal bladder of a pneumatic anti-G suit is usually attributed to counteraction of G-induced caudad displacement of the heart and pooling of blood in the abdominal veins. The study examined whether the abdominal bladder might provide G protection also via other mechanisms.

    METHODS: Each subject was exposed to +Gz loads while sitting relaxed, wearing a full-coverage anti-G suit modified to permit separate pressurization of the abdominal and leg bladders. In two experimental series (N = 8, N = 14), subjects were breathing at positive airway pressure (PPB); in a third series, five subjects were breathing at atmospheric airway pressure. Intrathoracic pressures were estimated by use of esophageal catheters.

    RESULTS: During PPB at high G loads, intrathoracic pressure was higher with than without the pressurized abdominal bladder. In 7 of the 14 subjects, basilar intrathoracic pressure exceeded airway pressure during PPB when the abdominal bladder was pressurized. The mean arterial pressure response at high G loads was higher in this subset of subjects (55 +/- 23 mmHg) than in the subjects in whom airway pressure exceeded intrathoracic pressure (41 +/- 27 mmHg). Without PPB at increased G load, the intrathoracic pressure gradient was higher with than without the pressurized abdominal bladder.

    DISCUSSION: During PPB, the abdominal bladder acts as an airway counterpressure, thereby facilitating pressure transmission from the airways to the thorax and hence improving G protection. It also appears that in several individuals, pressure may be transmitted from the abdominal bladder to the thorax and heart.

  • 2.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Kölegärd, Roger
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Bergsten, Eddie
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    G protection: interaction of straining maneuvers and positive pressure breathing2007Inngår i: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, E-ISSN 1943-4448, Vol. 78, nr 4, s. 392-398Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: G protection in the 39 Gripen aircraft is provided by a full coverage anti-G suit, a pressure-breathing system, and anti-G straining maneuvers (AGSM). The purpose was to study (1) the interaction of pressure breathing and AGSM while wearing an anti-G suit; and (2) the G-protective properties of the anti-G suit alone and in combination with the pressure-breathing system.

    METHODS: During rapid onset rate G-time profiles (< or =9 G), 10 subjects were investigated in 5 conditions: (I) sitting relaxed, without any G-protective garment; (II) sitting relaxed and wearing an anti-G suit; (III) sitting relaxed, wearing an anti-G suit, and pressure breathing; IV) wearing an anti-G suit and performing AGSM; and V) wearing an anti-G suit, pressure breathing, and performing AGSM. In supplementary experiments (n=9), the share of the anti-G suit protection afforded by the abdominal bladder was investigated.

    RESULTS: G tolerance was 3.4 Gz (range: 2.8-4.3) in condition I, > or = 6.5 Gz (4.5-9.0) in II, > or = 8.0 Gz (6.5-9.0) in III, > or = 8.9 Gz (8.5-9.0) in IV and > or = 9.0 Gz (8.5-9.0) in V. In the supplementary experiments, the anti-G suit afforded a 2.8-G protection, a third of which was contributed by the abdominal bladder. In the relaxed state, pressure applied to the airways was transmitted undistorted to the intrathoracic space. During AGSM, intrathoracic pressure rose to 10-14 kPa, regardless of whether AGSM was performed with or without pressure breathing.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The anti-G suit and the pressure breathing system provide G protection of > or = 4.6 G, of which the anti-G suit contributes about 3.0 G. The C-protective properties of the anti-G suit and those of pressure breathing appears to be additive, whereas the G protection afforded by pressure breathing does not add to that provided by AGSM.

  • 3.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Bergsten, Eddie
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Effekter av tryckbortfall i G-skyddssystemet i JAS 39 Gripen2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Bergsten, Eddie
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Loss of pressure in the anti-G system at high G-loads2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Bergsten, Eddie
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Eiken, Ola
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Lung mechanics and transpulmonary pressures during unassisted pressure breathing at high Gz loads2008Inngår i: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, E-ISSN 1943-4448, Vol. 79, nr 11, s. 1041-1046Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Positive pressure breathing (PPB) is commonly used in modern fighter aircraft as part of the anti-G ensemble. PPB is combined with a chest counterpressure bladder which is pressurized to the same magnitude as the breathing mask (balanced PPB). The chest counterpressure is expected to reduce the expiratory work of breathing, reduce the risk for lung rupture, and increase G tolerance. In a previous study we did not find any effect from chest counterpressure on G tolerance or G endurance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chest counterpressure on the work of breathing and the risk for lung rupture.

    METHODS: Eight male test subjects were exposed to 20-s periods of PPB at +1.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 Gz. Each Gz level was accomplished twice, with and without pressurization of the chest bladder. Inspiratory and expiratory flows were measured and esophageal pressures were measured in the lower and upper third of the thorax. Subsequently, work and power of breathing and apical transpulmonary pressure were estimated.

    RESULTS: The apical transpulmonary pressure was slightly larger without than with chest counterpressure at 1.0 Gz, while chest counterpressure did not affect apical transpulmonary pressure at increased Gz load. Nor did the chest counterpressure affect work or power of breathing at any Gz load.

    CONCLUSION: Inflation of the chest bladder does not seem to have any effects on work or power of breathing or risk for lung rupture during PPB at high Gz loads.

  • 6.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Bergsten, Eddie
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Skyddsdräkter för ytbärgare; Utvärdering under 2 timmars immersion i 6-gradigt vatten2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Bergsten, Eddie
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Eiken, Ola
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Gustafsson, Per M
    Inter- and intraregional ventilation inhomogeneity in hypergravity and after pressurization of an anti-G suit2003Inngår i: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 94, nr 4, s. 1353-1364Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assessed the effects of increased gravity in the head-to-foot direction (+G(z)) and anti-G suit (AGS) pressurization on functional residual capacity (FRC), the volume of trapped gas (V(TG)), and ventilation distribution by using inert- gas washout. Normalized phase III slope (Sn(III)) analysis was used to determine the effects on inter- and intraregional ventilation inhomogeneity. Twelve men performed multiple-breath washouts of SF(6) and He in a human centrifuge at +1 to +3 G(z) wearing an AGS pressurized to 0, 6, or 12 kPa. Hypergravity produced moderately increased FRC, V(TG), and overall and inter- and intraregional inhomogeneities. In normogravity, AGS pressurization resulted in reduced FRC and increased V(TG), overall, and inter- and intraregional inhomogeneities. Inflation of the AGS to 12 kPa at +3 G(z) reduced FRC markedly and caused marked gas trapping and intraregional inhomogeneity, whereas interregional inhomogeneity decreased. In conclusion, increased +G(z) impairs ventilation distribution not only between widely separated lung regions, but also within small lung units. Pressurizing an AGS in hypergravity causes extensive gas trapping accompanied by reduced interregional inhomogeneity and, apparently, results in greater intraregional inhomogeneity.

  • 8.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Bergsten, Eddie
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Gustafsson, Per M.
    Effects of body posture and tidal volume on inter- and intraregional ventilation distribution in healthy men2002Inngår i: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 92, nr 2, s. 634-642Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influences of body posture and tidal volume (VT) on inter- and intraregional ventilation inhomogeneity were assessed by normalized phase III slope (Sn(III)) analysis of multiple-breath washout recordings of SF(6) and He in 11 healthy men. Washouts with target VT of 750, 1,000, and 1,250 ml were performed standing and supine. A linear-fit method was used to establish the contributions of convection-dependent (interregional) (cdi) and diffusion-convection interaction-dependent (intraregional) inhomogeneity (dcdi). Overall inhomogeneity was defined as the sum of cdi and dcdi. The difference in first-breath Sn(III) for SF(6) vs. He, the (SF(6) - He)Sn(III), served as an index of intra-acinar inhomogeneity. Multiple-regression analysis revealed greater cdi supine vs. standing (P < 0.001) but no significant effects of posture on dcdi or overall inhomogeneity. Larger VT were associated with greater cdi (P < 0.001), particularly when supine, but reduced dcdi (P < 0.001), overall inhomogeneity (P < 0.001), and (SF(6) - He)Sn(III) (P = 0.031). In conclusion, during resting breathing overall and intraregional ventilation inhomogeneities remain unchanged when the supine posture is assumed and improve with larger VT, but supine posture and larger breaths result in greater interregional inhomogeneities.

  • 9.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Bergsten, Eddie
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Kölegård, Roger
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Linder, Jan
    Eiken, Ola
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    G tolerance and pulmonary effects of removing chest counterpressure during pressure breathing2005Inngår i: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, E-ISSN 1943-4448, Vol. 76, nr 9, s. 833-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In agile fighter aircraft positive pressure breathing is commonly used as part of the anti-G ensemble. To optimize G protection and prevent over-distention of the lungs, increased airway pressure is balanced by applying a counterpressure to the chest. The aim was to investigate the efficacy of chest counterpressure.

    METHODS: Three series of experiments were performed using the anti-G ensemble of the 39 Gripen aircraft (AGE-39) and exposing the subjects to 20-s G time profiles; in the first (n = 12) up to +8.0 Gz, in the second (n = 9) up to + 9.0 Gz, and also to simulated aerial combat maneuvers (SACM). Central and peripheral vision, arterial and airway pressures, pressure in the lower portion of the esophagus, and chest wall distension were measured. In the third series, six subjects were exposed to up to +7.0 Gz and esophageal pressure was measured in the upper thorax. In all series, two conditions were compared: with and without pressurized chest bladder.

    RESULTS: During the 20-s profiles arterial and esophageal pressures, chest wall distension, and visual impairment were similar with and without pressurized chest bladder. Upper esophageal pressure was slightly higher by 10-24% with than without chest bladder (p = 0.03). During SACM, time to exhaustion and the level of perceived exertion were similar with and without pressurized chest bladder.

    SUMMARY: The results suggest that the chest counterpressure can be removed from the AGE-39 without diminishing G tolerance or G endurance or significantly increasing the risk of lung parenchyma disruption.

  • 10.
    Grönkvist, Mikael J
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Bergsten, Eddie
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Eiken, Ola
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Gustafsson, Per M
    Contributions of lower limb and abdominal compression to ventilation inhomogeneity in hypergravity2005Inngår i: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, ISSN 1569-9048, E-ISSN 1878-1519, Vol. 148, nr 1-2, s. 113-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gravito-inertial load in the head-to-foot direction (Gz) and compression of the lower body half by an anti-G suit (AGS) are both known to influence ventilation distribution in the lungs. To study the interaction of Gz and AGS and to asses the separate contributions from lower limbs and abdominal compressions to large and small-scale ventilation inhomogeneities nine males performed SF6/He vital capacity (VC) single-breath washouts at 1, 2, and 3 Gz in a centrifuge, with abdominal and/or lower limbs compressions. SF6/He and (SF6-He) phase III slopes were used for determination of overall and small-scale ventilation inhomogeneity. Closing volume and phase IV height were used as measures of large-scale inhomogeneity. VC decreased marginally with G-load but markedly with lower limbs compression. Small-scale ventilation inhomogeneity increased slightly with G-load, but substantially with AGS pressurization. Small-scale ventilation inhomogeneity increased with AGS pressurization. Large-scale inhomogeneity increased markedly with G-load. Translocation of blood to the lungs might be the key determinant for changes in small-scale ventilation inhomogeneity when pressurizing an AGS.

  • 11.
    Tribukait, Arne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Bergsten, Eddie
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Individual characteristics in the perception of roll tilt during a simulated coordinated turn2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Tribukait, Arne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Bergsten, Eddie
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Individuella särdrag i spatial orienteringsförmåga vid en simulerad koordinerad sväng i gondolcentrifug/dfs2013Inngår i: Hygiea, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Individuella särdrag i spatial orienteringsförmåga vid en simulerad koordinerad sväng i gondolcentrifug. Stora skillnader i skattningen av roll-position, dessa var ej slumpmässiga.

  • 13.
    Tribukait, Arne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi. KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Centra, Centrum för flyg- och rymdfysiologi, SAPC.
    Bergsten, Eddie
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Möjligheterna att i dynamisk flygsimulator (DFS) återskapa rörelsemönster som vid flygning är grundläggande. 2. Positionsändring vid hovring2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Tribukait, Arne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Bergsten, Eddie
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Pitch-Plane Angular Displacement Perception During Helicopter Flight and Gondola Centrifugation2016Inngår i: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance, ISSN 2375-6314, Vol. 87, nr 10, s. 852-861Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: During hovering with a helicopter, an involuntary change in attitude (during brownout) results in reduced lifting force and a horizontal acceleration component. This movement pattern is difficult to perceive via the otolith organs. If the angular displacement occurs rapidly, it will, however, activate the semicircular canals. The major aim of this study was to establish to what extent pitch-plane angular displacements can be perceived based on canal information when there is no tilt stimulus to the otoliths. METHODS: In a helicopter, 9 nonpilots (N) and 8 helicopter pilots (P) underwent 5-6 pitch-forward displacements (magnitude 14-33 degrees, angular velocity 2-7 degrees. s(-1)). In a swing-out gondola centrifuge, 9 N and 3 P were exposed to a similar canal-otolith conflict (acceleration, seated centripetally) with four displacements of 25 degrees and two of 60 degrees. The visually perceived eye level (VPEL) was continuously recorded using an adjustable luminous dot in darkness. For each helicopter dive and centrifuge run the gain was calculated as the ratio (VPEL deflection)/(displacement of helicopter or gondola). RESULTS: In the helicopter there was no difference between N (0.28 +/- 0.13) and P (0.36 +/- 0.22). In the centrifuge the gains were 0.34 +/- 0.18 degrees (25 degrees displacements) and 0.30 +/- 0.16 degrees (60 degrees displacements). Values obtained in the helicopter did not differ significantly from those in the centrifuge. There was a correlation between data obtained during the 25 degrees and 60 degrees displacements in the centrifuge. CONCLUSION: There was a pronounced underestimation of pitch angular displacements in a helicopter. The interindividual variability was considerable. Gains for perceived displacement were similar in helicopter and centrifuge.

  • 15.
    Tribukait, Arne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Bergsten, Eddie
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Variability in Perceived Tilt During a Roll Plane Canal-Otolith Conflict in a Gondola Centrifuge2013Inngår i: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, E-ISSN 1943-4448, Vol. 84, nr 11, s. 1131-1139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During a simulated coordinated turn in a gondola centrifuge, the perceived roll-tilt, quantified as the subjective visual horizontal (SVH), may differ tenfold between individuals. One aim of this study was to discern whether this variability reflects real individual characteristics or is due to noise or day-to-day variation. We also wanted to establish whether there are any habituation or learning effects of the centrifuge test. Methods: In nine nonpilots (NP) and nine student pilots (SP), with a flight experience of 150 h, the SVH was measured using an adjustable luminous line in darkness. At two test occasions (T1, T2) (interval 5-14 d) subjects underwent two runs (R1, R2; acceleration to 2 G in 10 s, gondola inclination 60 degrees, 5 min at 2 G, deceleration to 1 g in 10 s, interval between runs 5 min) in a centrifuge (r = 9.1 m). Initial and final SVH was determined for each individual run. Results: Acceleration of the centrifuge induced a tilt of the SVH. At T1R1, this SVH tilt was, in NP, initially 24 +/- 18 degrees and finally 8 +/- 10 degrees. The corresponding values for SP were 28 +/- 18 degrees and 31 +/- 33 degrees. The SVH tilt was slightly larger at R2 than at R1. There was no difference between T1 and T2. Reliability coefficients ranged between 0.86 and 0.98 for NP and between 0.78 and 0.99 for SR. Conclusion: The large interindividual variability combined with a very high reproducibility suggests the existence of persistent individual characteristics in the perception of complex vestibular stimuli. Habituation or learning effects of gondola centrifugation appears to be small.

  • 16.
    Tribukait, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Bergsten, Eddie
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Eiken, Ola
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Visual sensations of roll rotation during complex vestibular stimulation2008Inngår i: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, E-ISSN 1943-4448, Vol. 79, nr 5, s. 479-487Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In aviation, vestibular-induced spatial disorientation is a significant cause of accidents. Recreating flight-like vestibular stimuli in simulators might be a means for training pilots to respond adequately in disorienting situations. Due to the physical constraints of land-based simulators, the question arises whether a given illusion may be created in different ways. For instance, is it possible to induce sensations of tilt by rotary stimuli? The present study concerns the relationship between sensations of rotation and tilt during complex vestibular stimulation.

    METHODS: The visual sensation of roll rotation was quantified by means of a velocity-matching procedure. In a large gondola centrifuge eight subjects underwent four runs (2 G, 2 min) with different heading positions (forward, backward, centripetally, and centrifugally). The inclination of the gondola persistently corresponded with the vector sum of the Earth gravity force and the centrifugal force (60 degrees at 2 G). Thus, the semicircular canal stimulus in roll was combined in different ways with stimuli in yaw and pitch, as well as with an increasing or decreasing G vector.

    RESULTS: The magnitude of the responses was only dependent on the roll component of the stimulus. The gain, defined as the ratio between the response and the roll stimulus, was 7-10%. The responses decayed with a time constant ranging from 4 to 5.5 s.

    CONCLUSION: The visual sensation of roll rotation reflects the roll plane canal velocity stimulus independently of other stimulus components. This is in contrast to earlier findings on the sensation of changes in position (roll tilt).

  • 17.
    Tribukait, Arne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi. KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Centra, Centrum för flyg- och rymdfysiologi, SAPC.
    Bergsten, Eddie
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi. KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Centra, Centrum för flyg- och rymdfysiologi, SAPC.
    Brink, Andreas
    Möjligheterna att i dynamisk flygsimulator (DFS) återskapa rörelsemönster som vid flygning är grundläggande. 1. Koordinerad kurvtagning2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
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