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  • 1.
    Goncharov, Alexander F.
    et al.
    Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington.
    Montoya, Javier A.
    Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington.
    Subramanian, Natarajan
    Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington.
    Struzhkin, Viktor V.
    Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington.
    Kolesnikov, Anton
    Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington.
    Somayazulu, Maddury
    Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington.
    Hemley, Russell J.
    Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington.
    Laser heating in diamond anvil cells: Developments in pulsed and continuous techniques2009Inngår i: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, ISSN 0909-0495, Vol. 16, nr 6, s. 769-772Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Developments in continuous and pulsed laser-heating techniques, and finite-element calculations for diamond anvil cell experiments are reported. The methods involve the use of time-resolved (5 ns gated) incandescent light temperature measurements to determine the time dependence of heat fluxes, while near-IR incandescent light temperature measurements allow temperature measurements to as low as 500 K. Further optimization of timing in pulsed laser heating together with sample engineering will provide additional improvements in data collection in very high P-T experiments.

  • 2.
    Kolesnikov, Anton
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Experimental investigation of hydrocarbon formation and transformation under Earth´s upper mantle conditions2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The theory of the abyssal abiotic petroleum origin considers oil and natural gas to begenerated in the Earth’s upper mantle. Hydrocarbons migrate further through the deep faults into the Earth’s crust, where they can form oil and gas deposits in any kind of rock in any kind of structural position. Until recently one of the main obstacles for further development of this theory has been the lack of the data covering processes of generation and transformations of hydrocarbons.

    Experimental data, presented in this thesis, confirms the possibility of hydrocarbons formation from mantle inorganic compounds (water, Fe, CaCO3 or graphite) at temperature and pressure of the upper mantle (1500 K and 5 GPa). Experiments were carried out in CONAC high pressure device and multianvil apparatus BARS. Compositions of received gas mixtures were similar to natural gas. Quantity of hydrocarbons depended on the cooling regime of reaction mixture under pressure. Slow cooling favored higher quantity. We found that donor of carbon (CaCO3 or graphite) determines formation of “dry” (methane-rich) gas or “wet” (light hydrocarbons-rich) gas.

    Experiments in laser-heated diamond anvil cells showed that methane and ethane partially react under upper mantle thermobaric conditions (2-5 GPa, 1000-1500 K) to form mixture of hydrocarbons: methane, ethane, propane and n-butane – main compounds of natural gas. Similarity of final product mixture obtained from methane and ethane means thermodynamic stability of hydrocarbons in the thermobaric conditions of the upper mantle and equilibrium character of the observed processes.

  • 3.
    Kolesnikov, Anton
    et al.
    Carnegie Inst Washington, Geophys Lab.
    Kutcherov, Vladimir G.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Goncharov, Alexander F.
    Methane-derived hydrocarbons produced under upper-mantle conditions2009Inngår i: Nature geosicence, ISSN 1752-0894, Vol. 2, nr 8, s. 566-570Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is widespread evidence that petroleum originates from biological processes(1-3). Whether hydrocarbons can also be produced from abiogenic precursor molecules under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions characteristic of the upper mantle remains an open question. It has been proposed that hydrocarbons generated in the upper mantle could be transported through deep faults to shallower regions in the Earth's crust, and contribute to petroleum reserves(4,5). Here we use in situ Raman spectroscopy in laser-heated diamond anvil cells to monitor the chemical reactivity of methane and ethane under upper-mantle conditions. We show that when methane is exposed to pressures higher than 2 GPa, and to temperatures in the range of 1,000-1,500 K, it partially reacts to form saturated hydrocarbons containing 2-4 carbons (ethane, propane and butane) and molecular hydrogen and graphite. Conversely, exposure of ethane to similar conditions results in the production of methane, suggesting that the synthesis of saturated hydrocarbons is reversible. Our results support the suggestion that hydrocarbons heavier than methane can be produced by abiogenic processes in the upper mantle.

  • 4.
    Kutcherov, Vladimir G.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Kolesnikov, Anton
    Dyuzheva, T.
    Brazhkin, V.
    Synthesis of hydrocarbons under upper mantle conditions: evidence for the theory of abiotic deep petroleum origin2010Inngår i: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HIGH PRESSURE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, JOINT AIRAPT-22 AND HPCJ-50, 2010, s. 012103-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A theory of abiotic deep petroleum origin explains that hydrocarbon compounds are generated in the upper mantle and migrate through the deep faults into the Earth's crust. There they form oil and gas deposits in any kind of rock in any kind of the structural position. Until recently one of the main obstacles for further development of this theory has been the lack of reliable and reproducible experimental results confirming the possibility of the spontaneous synthesis of complex hydrocarbon systems at high pressure and temperature. Our experimental results demonstrate that abiotic synthesis of hydrocarbons under mantle conditions is a real chemical process. Different paths of hydrocarbon synthesis under mantle conditions are discussed. Obtained experimental results place the theory of the abiotic deep petroleum origin in the mainstream of modern experimental physics and physical chemistry.

  • 5.
    Kutcherov, Vladimir
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    Kolesnikov, Anton
    Dyuzheva, T. I.
    Kulikova, L. F.
    Nikolaev, N. N.
    Sazanova, O. A.
    Braghkin, V. V.
    Synthesis of complex hydrocarbon systems at temperatures and pressures corresponding to the Earth's upper mantle conditions2010Inngår i: Doklady. Physical chemistry, ISSN 0012-5016, E-ISSN 1608-3121, Vol. 433, s. 132-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Mukhina, Elena
    et al.
    KTH.
    Kolesnikov, A
    KTH.
    Kudryavtsev, D
    KTH.
    Kutcherov, V
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Deep genesis of hydrocarbons under oxidized conditionsInngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Mukhina, Elena
    et al.
    KTH.
    Kudryavtsev, D
    KTH.
    Kolesnikov, A
    Serovaisky, A
    KTH.
    Kutcherov, Vladimir G.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    The influence of a sample container material on high pressure formation of hydrocarbonsInngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
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