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  • 1.
    Andersson, E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Stichel, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Orvnäs, Anneli
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Persson, R.
    Passenger Trains Division, Bombardier Transportation, Västerås, Sweden.
    How to find a compromise between track friendliness and the ability to run at high speed2012In: Civil-Comp Proceedings, ISSN 1759-3433, Vol. 98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When designing and optimizing a rail vehicle there is a contradiction between, on the one hand, stability on straight track at high speed and, on the other hand, reasonable wheel and rail wear in small- and medium-radius curves. This paper describes the process of developing and optimizing a track-friendly bogie. A simulation model has been used to investigate dynamic stability on straight track at high speeds along with the wheel and rail wear in sharper curves. The result is a bogie with relatively soft wheelset guidance allowing passive radial self-steering, which in combination with appropriate yaw damping ensures stability on straight track at higher speeds. This bogie has been tested according to EN 14363 at speeds up to about 300 km/h and in curves with radii ranging from 250 m and up. 

  • 2.
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Green Train Concept proposal for a Scandinavian high-speed train: Final report,  part B2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gröna Tåget (English: Green Train) is a research and development programme, the aim of which is to define a concept and develop technology for future high-speed trains for the Nordic European market. The target is a train for Scandinavian interoperability (Denmark, Norway and Sweden), although the pan-European minimum standards must be applied.

    Gröna Tåget is a concept for long-distance and fast regional rail services. It should be suitable for specific Nordic conditions with a harsh winter climate as well as mixed passenger and freight operations on non-perfect track.

    Gröna Tåget delivers a collection of ideas, proposals and technical solutions for rail operators, infrastructure managers and industry. The programme aims to define a fast, attractive, environmentally friendly and economically efficient high-speed train concept based on passenger valuations and technical possibilities. Proposals do not take corporate policies into account as these may vary between companies and over time.

    This is one of the final reports, specifying the functional requirements for the train concept from a technical, environmental and economic perspective, with an emphasis on the areas where research and development have been carried out within the Gröna Tåget programme. It is not a complete specification of a new train, but concentrates on issues that are particularly important for successful use in the Scandinavian market. It should be regarded as a complement to the pan-European standards. Research and development within the Gröna Tåget programme, including analysis and testing activities, are summarized. References are given to reports from the different projects in the programme but also to other relevant work.

    Other summary reports deal with market, economy and operational aspects as well as a design for an attractive, efficient and innovative train from a traveller’s point of view.

    The main alternative proposed in this concept specification is a train for speeds up to 250 km/h, equipped with carbody tilt for short travel time on existing main-line track. The train is proposed to have high-power permanent magnet motors, low aerodynamic drag and modest adhesion utilization. It has low noise emissions and a track-friendly bogie design. The train should be equipped with active highperformance suspension to produce superior ride qualities on non-perfect track and minimize suspension motions. Due to the approximately 3.30 m interior width of the carbody, one more comfortable seat can be accommodated abreast, which will reduce cost and energy use per seat-km and also maximize the capacity of the train and of the railway system. One most important and critical issue is that the train must be able to run in a Nordic winter climate, where technologies have been tested, proposed and also compiled in a special report.

    Most technologies developed can also be used for modified train concepts, such as non-tilting trains, trains for higher speeds than 250 km/h, trains with continental width carbodies, and others. Further, many technologies developed in the programme are also useful for lower speeds. Newly developed technologies were type-tested in a special test train from 2006 to 2009. Endurance tests in commercial service were performed between 2009 and 2011.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Berg, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Greenhouse gas emissions from rail services: Present and future2010In: Proceedings of Railways and Environment, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Berg, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    TOSCA. Rail freight transport: Techno-economic analysis of energy and greenhouse gas reductions2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Stage 1 of the EU/FP7-funded project TOSCA (Technology Opportunities and Strategies toward Climate-friendly trAnsport) the techno-economical feasibility of different technolo-gies and means to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is being analysed for different modes of transport. This is made over the long-term perspective until 2050, with 2009 as the reference year. This is the report on the rail freight transport market, applicable to the European Union (EU-27).The analysis presented in this report estimates that a number of efficient technologies and means are available, individually and in combination, to significantly reduce energy use and the resulting GHG emissions on the rail freight market until 2050. The analysis has considered the following technologies and means:

    – heavy freight trains (high payload capacity per metre of train as well as longer trains)

    – eco-driving, including traffic flow management

    – energy recovery

    – high-efficiency machinery in locomotives and electric supply

    – low air drag

    – incremental improvements, in particular reduced tare mass of wagons.

    Despite anticipated higher train speeds in most future train operations the above-mentioned technologies and means have, according to the analysis, the potential to reduce the average energy use per net-tonne-km (tkm) of payload by 40–50 % until 2050. As a consequence also the direct and indirect GHG emissions will be reduced. Energy use and GHG emissions are measured per net-tonne-km, assuming representative load factors in different operations.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Berg, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    TOSCA. Rail passenger transport: Techno-economic analysis of energy and greenhouse gas reductions2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Stage 1 of the EU/FP7-funded project TOSCA (Technology Opportunities and Strategies toward Climate-friendly trAnsport) the techno-economical feasibility of different technologies and means to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is being analysed for the different modes of transport. This is made in the long-term perspective until 2050, with 2009 as the reference year. This is the report on rail passenger transport, applicable to the European Union (EU-27).The present report has been subject to review among railway experts, representing train suppliers, railway operators as well as academia. They have also responded to a questionnaire. Further, a workshop was held, where the report with assumptions and results was discussed.In the analysis presented in this report it is estimated that a number of efficient improvements that, individually and in combination, are available in order to significantly reduce energy use and the resulting GHG emissions on the rail passenger market until 2050. The analysis has considered different technologies and means:

    – low air drag

    – low train mass

    – energy recovery

    – eco-driving, including traffic flow management

    – space efficiency in trains (increasing payload per metre of train)

    – incremental improvements of energy efficiency, in particular reduced losses.

    Despite anticipated higher average train speeds in the future these combined approaches will, according to the analysis, have the potential to reduce the average specific energy use per passenger-km (pkm) in the order of 45–50 % in the very long term until 2050. As a consequ-ence also the direct and indirect GHG emissions will be reduced. The highest reductions are possible in city and regional rail operations. Reductions are more limited in high-speed opera-tions, because of the advanced technologies already applied. However, high-speed rail has today a comparatively low energy use per passenger-km, partly due to its high average load factor. To be consistent with other work packages of TOSCA, energy use and GHG emissions are measured per passenger-km, assuming representative load factors in different operations.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Berg, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Stichel, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Casanueva, Carlos
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Rail Systems and Rail Vehicles: Part 2: Rail Vehicles2016 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This compendium is mainly intended for MSc education in rail vehicle engineering at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The objective is to give an overview and fundamental knowledge of different rail systems, followed by a more thorough introduction to rail vehicles. In this way most rail aspects are covered. The compendium consists of 20 chapters.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Carlsson, U.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Lukaszewicz, Piotr
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Leth, Siv
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    On the environmental performance of a high-speed train2014In: International Journal of Rail transportation, ISSN 2324-8378, E-ISSN 2324-8386, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 59-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental performance is one of the major considerations of future high-speed trains. Two main issues have been closely investigated in the Green Train programme, namely (1) energy use and (2) external noise. Analysis, development and testing in the Green Train programme have focused primarily on speeds up to 250 km/h, although the energy issues have also been studied at top speeds up to 320 km/h. The energy use is estimated for both long-distance trains with few stops and for fast regional services with relatively tight underway stops. These estimations result in an energy use of 46–62 Wh per passenger-km – or 30–40 Wh per seat-km – accounted as electricity taken from the public electric power grid. Improved aerodynamic performance, efficient space utilization, electric regenerative brakes, eco-driving advice and improved energy efficiency in the propulsion system make this possible. Trackside noise has also been analysed and tested in the programme. In order to maintain the same or lower noise level at 250 km/h as at lower speeds with current trains, a number of measures are proposed. These include bogie skirts, wheel absorbers and careful aerodynamic design of the front area and of all protruding objects. In sensitive residential areas, further improvement may be achieved with rail absorbers or low trackside screens.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Stichel, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Bustad, Tohmmy
    Trafikverket.
    Henrik, Tengstrand
    Bombardier Transportation.
    Green Train: concept and technology overview2014In: International Journal of Rail Transportation, ISSN 2324-8386, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 2-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green Train (in Swedish, Gröna Tåget) is a research, development and demonstrationprogramme with the overall objective to define an economical, flexible and environmentallyfriendly train concept. The objective is also to develop technology for futurehigh-speed trains for the northern European market, particularly for Scandinavia. Mostof the technology developed is also applicable to other world markets, as well as toslower trains. The programme has covered many important areas, including economy,capacity and market aspects, conceptual design, traveller attractiveness and interiors,travel time, energy efficiency and noise, winter performance, track friendliness and carbody tilt, aerodynamics, electric propulsion and current collection. The programme hasconducted fundamental analysis and research on the different issues as well as designand testing of new technologies. A number of crucial technologies have undergoneperformance and type testing both in lab and on a test train. Experience feedback wasachieved in commercial train service during the period 2006−2013 including harshwinters. This paper summarises a great deal of research and development that has beenperformed in the Green Train programme.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Vehicle Engineering.
    Haggstrom, J
    Sima, M
    Stichel, Sebastian
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Vehicle Engineering.
    Assessment of train-overturning risk due to strong cross-winds2004In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 218, no 3, p. 213-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the methodology for safety assessment related to the risk of a train overturning in strong cross-winds. As an example, this methodology is applied on the high-speed line Botniabanan being built for a maximum speed of 250 km/h in the northeast coastal region of Sweden. The process starts with a systematic identification of locations along the line having a potential high risk of overturning due to cross-winds. This is followed by a cross-disciplinary study. The first step is to estimate the probabilities of wind velocity and wind directions. The next step is aerodynamic computation of overturning forces and moments acting on relevant types of train. Further, the critical overturning wind velocity is determined by a multi-body simulation technique. Finally, the overturning accident frequency is calculated. The calculated risk is compared with generally accepted risk levels in modern train operation.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Lukaszewicz, Piotr
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Energy Consumption and Related Air Pollution for Scandinavian Electric Passenger Trains2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy consumption of a number of modern Scandinavian electric passenger train operations is studied. The trains are X 2000, Regina, OTU (Øresundstoget), Type 71 “Flytoget”and Type 73 “Signatur”. Energy measurements are made in regular train operations inSweden, Denmark and Norway. For Regina and Flytoget long time series (at least oneyear) are available, while shorter time series are available for the other train types. Energydata for new trains (introduced since 1999) are collected in the years 2002-2005. Energydata from 1994 are used for X 2000 and are corrected for operational conditions of 2004.For comparison, energy data for an older loco-hauled train of 1994 is also used.In the present study energy consumption for propulsion, on-board comfort and catering, aswell as idling outside scheduled service, is determined. The energy consumption includeslosses in the railway’s electrical supply, i.e. the determined amount of energy is as suppliedfrom the public electrical grid.Emissions of air pollutants, due to production of the electric energy used, are alsodetermined, in this case CO2, NOx, HC and CO. Three alternative determinations are made:(1) Pollution from average electric energy on the common Nordic market;(2) Pollution from “Green” electric energy from renewable sources;(3) Marginal contribution for an additional train or passenger, short-term and long-term.The newly introduced EU Emissions Trading Scheme with emission allowances willmost likely limit the long-term emissions independently of the actual amount ofelectric energy used by electric trains.It is shown that the investigated modern passenger train operations of years 2002- 2005 usea quite modest amount of energy, in spite of the higher speeds compared with trains of1994. For comparable operations the energy consumption is reduced by typically 25 – 30 %per seat-km or per passenger-km if compared with the older loco-hauled trains. The reasonsfor the improved energy performance are:(1) Improved aerodynamics compared with older trains (reduced air drag);(2) Regenerative braking (i.e. energy is recovered when braking the train);(3) Lower train mass per seat;(4) Improved energy efficiency in power supply, partly due to more advancedtechnologies of the trains.Energy consumption per passenger-km is very dependent of the actual load factor (i.e. ratiobetween the number of passenger-km and the offered number of seat-km). For longdistance operations load factors are quite high, typically 55 - 60 % in Scandinavia. In thismarket segment energy consumption is determined to around 0.08 kWh per pass-km. Forfast regional services with electric trains, the load factors vary from typically 20 to about40 %, while the energy consumption varies from 0.07 kWh per pass-km (for the highestload factor) to 0.18 kWh/pass-km.However, also in the latter cases the investigated trains are very competitive to other modesof transport with regard to energy consumption and emissions of air pollutants.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Orvnäs, Anneli
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Persson, Rickard
    On the Optimization of a Track-Friendly Bogie for High Speed2009In: 21st International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks, IAVSD'09, Stockholm, August 17-21, 2009., 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When designing and optimizing a rail vehicle there is a contradiction between, on the one hand, stability on straight track at high speed and, on the other hand, reasonable wheel and rail wear in small- and medium radius curves. Higher speeds require to some extent stiffer wheelset guidance to avoid hunting and ensure stability. However, with stiffer wheelset guidance the risk of increased wheel and rail wear in curves is imminent. In this paper, the process of developing and optimizing a track-friendly bogie is described. A multi-body system (MBS) simulation model was used, taking due consideration to nonlinearities in suspension and wheel-rail contact, as well as realistic flexibilities in the track. Adequate and systematic consideration is taken to a wide range of possible non-linear wheel-rail combinations. Dynamic stability is investigated both on straight track and in wide curves at high speeds. The balance between flange wear and tread wear is studied in order to maximize wheel life between re-profiling operations in the intended average operation. The result is a bogie with relatively soft wheelset guidance allowing passive radial self-steering, which in combination with appropriate yaw damping ensures stability on straight track at higher speeds. The bogie has been subject to both certification testing and long-term service testing in the Gröna Tåget (the Green Train) research and development programme.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Orvnäs, Anneli
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Persson, Rickard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Radial self-steering bogies - Development, advantages and limitations2007In: ZE Vrail - Glasers Annalen: Zeitschrift fuer das gesamte System Bahn, ISSN 1618-8330, Vol. 131, no Suppl., p. 248-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the total cost of railway operations, It is important to reduce the deterioration caused to the track by rail vehicles and vice versa. Radial steering running gear, where the wheelsets take up approximate radial positions in curves, is an important mean of reducing rail and wheel wear. They also allow curves to be negotiated at higher lateral acceleration on non-perfect track, without exceeding stipulated limits for lateral track shift forces. In order to run dynamically stable at high speed, the damping of the bogie must be appropriate, in particular the yaw damping between bogies and car body. Since the mid-1970's radial self-steering bogles have been developed and used in about 1 200 passenger rail vehicles in Scandinavia. This development continues and during 2006 a test train with radial self-steering bogies is run in speeds up till 281 km/h as part of the Swedish R&D program "GrönaTå get" (GreenTrain). Although there are limitations in the performance of passively self-steering bogles they are a simple and proven solution. Ultimately, In the future actively controlled radial steering may be considered asan appropriate mean to achieve higher performance and track-friendliness.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Orvnäs, Anneli
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Persson, Rickard
    Radial Self-Steering Bogies: Recent Developments for High Speed2009In: 7th International Conference on Railway Bogies and Running Gears / [ed] István Zobory, 2009, p. 63-72Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the total cost of railway operations, it is important to reduce the deterioration caused to the track by rail vehicles and vice versa. Radial steering running gear, where the wheelsets take up approximate radial positions in curves, is an important mean of reducing rail and wheel wear. They also allow curves to be negotiated at higher lateral acceleration on non-perfect track, without exceeding stipulated limits for lateral track shift forces. In order to run dynamically stable at high speed, the damping of the bogie must be appropriate, in particular the yaw damping between bogies and carbody. Radial self-steering bogies are used on more than 1200 rail passenger vehicles in Scandinavia since the early 1980’s. The maximum service speed of these vehicles ranges up to 210 km/h. Ongoing development seems to confirm that the use of such bogies can be extended into the very high-speed area of at least 250 km/h. There has previously been some scepticism on the feasibility of soft wheelset guidance for higher speeds, in particular with respect to running stability. Although there are some limitations in the performance of radial self-steering bogies, this solution is robust and well-proven since about 25 years. The ultimate future may be a mechatronic bogie, where the wheelsets are guided in the most optimal way through controlled and forced radial steering. Such bogies may be justified if performance is out of the possible range of passive self-steering solutions.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Stichel, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Gröna Tåget - Green Train - Train for tomorrow's travellers2011In: ZEVrail, ISSN 1618-8330, Vol. 135, p. 140-153Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gröna Tåget (Green Train) is a Swedish research and development programme aiming at defining a concept and developing technology for the next generation high-speed trains, suitable for the Northern European countries. The programme involves almost all major stakeholders in the railway business in Sweden. Main sponsors are Trafikverket (former Banverket) as well as the railway industry and operators (Bombardier, SJ and others). The total budget is around 15 million EUR. The technical coordination is with the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm. The program started in 2005 and will continue until the end of 2011.

    Gröna Tåget is intended to be a fast, track-friendly, electric tilting train that can not only maintain higher speeds than conventional trains on sections with curves, but special versions could allow 300 km/h or more on future dedicated high-speed lines. Gröna Tåget shall be more attractive and more cost effective both to travellers and to operators than today’s trains. Environmental perfor­mance (energy use per passenger, noise) is expected to be still better than existing trains at lower speed. 

  • 15.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Öberg, J.
    Models for infrastructure costs related to the wheel-rail interface2009In: Wheel-Rail Interface Handbook, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2009, p. 608-629Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model for determination of costs for track deterioration is presented. In particular, the model is able to discriminate between vehicles with different characteristics operating on the track, as well as incorporating operating data (speed, cant deficiency, etc.) and track geometry. The model is implemented in an Excel™ environment. Its use is exemplified by a Swedish case of mainline passenger and freight traffic. Some results are presented on the influence of vehicle characteristics, track geometry, track lubrication and speed. The model predicts that axle load, radial steering ability, unsprung mass and track lubrication are decisive for track deterioration and its associated costs.

  • 16.
    Brabie, Dan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Alternative substitute guidance mechanisms: means of minimizing catastrophic lateral deviation after derailments at high speedManuscript (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Brabie, Dan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    An overview of some high-speed train derailments: means of minimizing consequences based on empirical observations2008In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, ISSN 0954-4097, Vol. 222, no 4, p. 441-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies published on rail vehicles' post-derailment behaviour as ameans of minimizing consequences are surprisingly scarce. This paper sets a first step to reduce this lack of knowledge by analysing a collection of incident/accident case studies, with the main focus on the course of events immediately after derailments. This is mainly with respect to whether the train stays upright and close to the track centre-line and is 'safe' or deviates laterally with a probable serious consequence. Accordingly, an empirical database is established containing as much relevant information as possible of past incidents and accidents occurring at speeds over 70 km/h due to mechanical failure close to the running gear/track interface, as well as other causes that ultimately brought the train into a derailed situation. Although two derailments are never the same, certain patterns appeared to emerge based on the descriptions available in each incident or accident report. Mechanical restrictions between axles and bogie frames appear to minimize the risk of derailments after an axle failure on the outside of the wheel. Once derailed, evidence suggests that certain low-reaching parts on the wheelset or the bogie frame may act as substitute guidance mechanisms, thereby minimizing large lateral train deviations. However, for a large number of events, the available information does not allow conclusions based on observations only. This paper is the first in a forthcoming series dealing with the possibilities of minimizing devastating consequences of high-speed derailments by appropriate measures and features in the train design including the running gear.

  • 18.
    Brabie, Dan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Analysis of vehicle features influencing train derailment processes and consequences2008In: ZEVrail Glasers Annalen, ISSN 1618-8330, Vol. 132, p. 172-184Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Brabie, Dan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Railway Technology.
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Railway Technology.
    Dynamic simulation of derailments and its consequences2006In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 44, no Suppl 1, p. 652-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the necessary prerequisites and methodology in progress for studying train vehicle derailments and means of minimising the risk of catastrophic consequences. A comprehensive model has been developed and used in the multi-body system (MBS) simulation software for studying pre- and post-derailment vehicle behaviour. An axle-mounted brake disc and vertically extended bogie frames have shown empirically, as well as by MBS simulations, a potential to favourably influence the sequence of events in case of wheel flange climbing derailments. The MBS simulation methodology has been presented. Examples of how critical geometrical parameters affect the ability of these mechanisms to act as substitute guidance are presented. Further, a finite element (FE) model is developed for studying the impact phenomenon between a rail vehicle wheel and concrete sleepers. In particular, the proposed FE model will be used for obtaining hysteresis data for the wheel-sleeper force as functions of concrete indentation, for further development of the MBS simulations technique.

  • 20.
    Brabie, Dan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    High-Speed Train Derailments: Minimizing Consequences through Innovative Design2008In: Proceedings of the World Congress of Railway Research (WCRR'08), 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current paper, various possibilities of minimizing consequences of high-speed rail vehiclederailments have been studied through a combination of empirical observations and multi bodysystem (MBS) simulations. In order to assess the appropriate measures and features for an increasedderailment-worthy design, a comprehensive MBS model is developed to predict the pre and postderailmentvehicle behaviour. Preventing wheel flange climbing derailment after axle journal failureson curved track is accomplished by implementing mechanical restrictions in the bogie frame. Threealternative substitute guidance mechanisms are presented and a systematic feasibility analysis forone of them, a low-reaching axle journal box, is presented. Three conventionally coupled passengertrailing cars are investigated after derailments on tangent and curved track as a function of themaximum centre coupler yaw angle, carbody height of centre of gravity, coupler and bogie transversalbeam height. Furthermore, the articulated train concept is investigated as a function of different intercarbodydamper characteristics.

  • 21.
    Brabie, Dan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Means of minimizing catastrophic consequences after derailments at high speed: vehicle inter-connections and running gear design featuresManuscript (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Brabie, Dan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Means of Minimizing Post-Derailment Consequences by Alternative Guidance Mechanisms2007In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Railway Bogies and Running Gears (BOGIE'07), 2007, p. 303-310Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Brabie, Dan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Railway Technology.
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Railway Technology.
    On minimizing derailment risks and consequences for passenger trains at higher speeds2009In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 223, no 6, p. 543-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first part of this article deals with the possibility of preventing wheel climbing derailments after an axle journal failure by implementing mechanical restrictions between the wheelsets and the bogie. A multi-body system (MBS) computer model is developed to account for such an axle failure condition, which is successfully validated by comparing the pre-derailment sequence of events with two authentic cases. An extensive parameter analysis on the maximum vertical and longitudinal play between the wheelset and the bogie, required to prevent a highspeed power or trailer car to derail, is performed for various combinations of running conditions in curves. Once an actual derailment has Occurred on conventional passenger trains at 200 km/h, extensive MBS simulations are performed on the feasibility of utilizing alternative substitute guidance mechanisms, such as low-reaching parts of bogie frame, axle box, or brake disc, as means of minimizing the lateral deviation. Results are presented in terms of geometrical parameters that lead to a successful engagement with the rail for a total of 12 different derailment scenarios. These are caused by an axle journal failure, an impact with a small object on the track, or a high rail failure. Minimizing the lateral deviation is also investigated by means of restraining the maximum Coupler yaw angle and altering the bogie yaw stiffness. Time-domain simulations are also performed in terms of lateral track forces and derailment ratio when negotiating a tight horizontal 'S-curve'. Further, the articulated train concept is investigated in terms of the post-derailment vehicle behaviour after derailments on tangent and curved track at a speed of 200 km/h. In this respect, a trainset consisting of one power car and four articulated passenger trailer cars is modelled in the MBS software. Results in terms of lateral deviation and maximum carbody roll angle are presented as a function of different inter-carbody damper characteristics and running gear features. The feasibility of these damper characteristics is also tested in terms of lateral track forces and derailment ratio when negotiating a tight horizontal S-curve.

  • 24.
    Brabie, Dan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Post-derailment dynamic simulation of rail vehicles: Methodology and applications2008In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 46, no Suppl. S, p. 289-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An earlier developed multi-body system post-derailment module. that predicts the wheelsets' behaviour after impact with concrete sleepers, is upgraded to account for possible wheel-rail fastener impact after train derailments at high speed. The vertical stiffness describing the wheel-fastener impact behaviour is calibrated and validated based on two authentic derailment cases. Geometrical specifications that permit it brake disc and a bogie frame to act as substitute guidance mechanisms after Hart e climbing derailments on Curved track are presented for an X 2000 trailer car. Further, an introductory analysis on the post-derailment vehicle behaviour on tangent track after a 'flange on rail head' derailment condition is also presented its a function of bogie yaw resistance. The risk of carbody overturning after derailments on tangent track is assessed as a function of coupler height and carbody centre of gravity as well as bogie transversal beam position.

  • 25.
    Brabie, Dan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Rail vehicle axle failure on the outside of the wheels: means of minimizing the risk of derailmentIn: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, ISSN 0954-4097Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Forsberg, Tobias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Berg, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Stichel, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Condition Monitoring of Train Ride Stability2007In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Railway Bogies and Running Gears, BOGIE'07, Budapest, September 3-6, 2007, 2007, p. 271-280Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Kottenhoff, Karl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Green Train concept and interior design2014In: International Journal of Rail Transportation, ISSN 2324-8378, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 28-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Green Train research programme, the objective is to develop an attractive trainconcept in the form of a concept proposal based on economic assessments. Green Trainis to be an attractive express train for both business and leisure-time travellers. Highstandards of comfort can be motivated by passengers’ willingness to pay. One fundamentalidea is the wide carbody for services in Scandinavia to achieve lower total costsfor train traffic than a carbody with a normal, quite narrow European continentalprofile. The trains are thereby made shorter and 2 + 3 seating arrangements areoptimised for optimal comfort. Another principle is that the train must be designedto allow punctual station stops, also during periods of peak load. Boarding andalighting must take place within very tight margins, which means that doors, entrancesand luggage racks must be in well-considered locations and correctly dimensioned.

  • 28.
    Jönsson, Per-Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Stichel, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Freight Wagon Link Suspension2006In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 220, no 4, p. 361-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Link suspension is the most prevailing suspension system for two-axle freight wagons and still frequently used for four-axle freight wagons in central and western Europe. The system design is simple and has existed for more than 100 years. However, still, the characteristics are not fully understood. This article focuses on the lateral characteristics of the link suspension. First, results from stationary measurements on freight wagons and laboratory tests on single links are presented. Then, a simulation mathematical model is proposed. Finally, the influence of various parameters on the link characteristics is investigated. With the developed simulation model, many of the stability problems of link suspension running gears can be explained, but further research is needed to fully understand the characteristics and to be able to recommend improvements. From the tests, it also becomes obvious that the characteristics of different links can vary significantly from each other depending on age and maintenance status.

  • 29.
    Jönsson, Per-Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Railway Technology.
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Railway Technology.
    Stichel, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Railway Technology.
    Influence of link suspension characteristics variation on two-axle freight wagon dynamics2006In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 44, no Supplement 1, p. 415-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The link suspension is the most prevailing suspension system for freight wagons in central and western Europe. Link suspension systems have strong non-linear characteristics including a hysteresis loop. The loop exhibits usually three characteristic sections with different tangential stiffnesses. The actual contact geometry of the links and end bearings has a significant influence on the characteristics. By wear in ordinary service. the contact geometry changes considerably, thus causing the characteristics to change. In summary, it appears that the link suspension characteristics are very sensitive to several factors. being hard to control in the real world of freight wagon operations. The various stiffnesses and hysteresis loops are found to have a strong influence on the ride qualities of vehicles. This paper presents non-linear multibody simulations investigating these matters. As long as the characteristics cannot be controlled within closer limits than found in this study, there is a strong need for the sensitivity analysis to be made, both in predictive multibody simulations of vehicle dynamics as well as for verification and acceptance tests.

  • 30.
    Jönsson, Per-Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Railway Technology.
    Stichel, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Railway Technology.
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Railway Technology.
    Improving Ride Comfort in Freight Wagons with Link Suspension Running Gear using Hydraulic Dampers2007In: ZEV Rail Glasers Annalen, ISSN 1618-8330, Vol. 131, no Suppl., p. 230-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of the traffic related track deterioration cost originates from freight traffic, With heavier and faster freight trains the maintenance cost Is likely to increase. The present paper focuses on the possibility to improve ride comfort and reduce track forces on standard freight wagons with link suspension. The variation of characteristics in link suspension running gear is considerable and unfavourable conditions leading to hunting are likely to occur. Supported by on-track tests and multibody dynamic simulations it is concluded that the running behaviour of two-axle wagons with UIC double-link suspension as well as wagons with link suspension bogies (G-type) can be improved when the running gear are equipped with supplementary hydraulic dampers.

  • 31.
    Lukaszewicz, Piotr
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Green Train Energy Consumption: Estimations on High-Speed Rail Operations2009Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Mode shift as a measure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions2012In: Transport Research Arena 2012, Elsevier, 2012, p. 3187-3197Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forecasts indicate that it is not possible to reduce total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transport to fulfil the target of two degrees global warming with technology means alone. It is possible to reduce GHG-emissions for all modes but still rail will be the most efficient mode by 2050. Rail has a modest market share in the EU in comparison with 'best practice' rail systems in the world. There is a big potential if the rail system is developed with new high speed rail and freight corridors as well as an upgraded conventional network and intermodal systems. This paper presents an estimation of the effects of a partial mode shift to rail transport applying world's 'best practice' by the year 2050. It is shown that such a mode shift to rail can reduce EU transport GHG emissions over land by about 20 %, compared with a baseline scenario. In combination with low-carbon electricity production a reduction of about 30 % may be achieved. A developed rail system can thus substantially contribute to the EU target of reducing GHG emissions in the transport sector by 60 % below 1990 levels. To enable such a mode shift and to manage the demand for capacity, there is a need of investments. This will also maintain and increase mobility for passengers and freight transport.

  • 33.
    Orvnäs, Anneli
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Persson, Rickard
    Development of Track-Friendly Bogies for High Speed: A Simulation Study2007Report (Other academic)
  • 34. Persson, Richard
    et al.
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Stichel, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Orvnäs, Anneli
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Bogies towards higher speed on existing tracks2014In: International Journal of Rail transportation, ISSN 2324-8378, E-ISSN 2324-8386, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Running faster on existing tracks is a common operator’s wish that should be set in relation to the necessary infrastructure maintenance costs for track quality enhancement. Designing a track-friendly running gear that exerts moderate forces on the track is a key to relax this relation. A design providing good ride quality even on non-perfect track is preferred to avoid excessive track maintenance costs when speeds are higher. This paper describes how simulations and tests have been performed to optimise certain parts of a high-speed bogie. The result is a bogie with relatively soft wheelset guidance allowing passive radial self-steering in common curve radii, which in combination with appropriate yaw damping ensures stability at higher speeds. It also includes active secondary suspension to further ease the maintenance requirements on the track and/or to improve ride quality. This bogie has been tested and approved according to EN 14363 for a service speed of 250 km/h in combination with enhanced curving speed. Both simulations and recently performed on-track tests further showed that the ride comfort with active secondary suspension at 250 km/h can be at least as good as with passive suspensions at 200 km/h.

  • 35.
    Stichel, Sebastian
    et al.
    Bombardier Transportation, Västerås, Sweden .
    Persson, Rickard
    Bombardier Transportation, Västerås, Sweden .
    Himmelstein, Günther
    Andersson, Evert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Orvnäs, Anneli
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Development of Next Generation High-Speed Trains for Scandinavia2009In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering Computing, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development of new running gear technology for future high-speed trains within the Swedish development programme Gröna Tåget (Green Train). Three different technologies are developed and tested: a passive radial self-steering "soft" bogie, an active lateral suspension including also a Hold-Off-Device function and a mechatronic bogie actively controlling the wheelset motions with actuators attached to the bogie frame. In contrast to other high-speed train developments, focus is here the challenge of balancing the contradictory demands of good running behaviour at high speeds on straight track on the one hand and good curving performance with low track and wheel damage and maintained good ride comfort on the other hand. Results are presented which confirm that all three technologies in almost all aspects meet the goals set up in the beginning of the project.

  • 36. Öberg, J.
    et al.
    Andersson, Evert
    Determining the deterioration cost for railway tracks2009In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 223, no 2, p. 121-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cost of maintaining and renewing railway tracks affected by traffic-dependent deterioration is considerable. It is important not only to have proper maintenance regimes, but also to have knowledge of the interaction between vehicles and track in order to reduce the deterioration of both. In a joint project between Banverket (Swedish Rail Administration) and KTH (Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm), a model for track deterioration is developed, considering track settlement, component fatigue, abrasive wear, and rolling contact fatigue of rails. The basis of the model is taken from what is considered as state-of-the-art knowledge. The model is used as a basis for a proposed new track access charging regime for Banverket, able to differ between vehicle types based on their characteristics and tendency to deteriorate the tracks. The model is implemented in an Excel (R) environment and applied to Swedish mainline traffic and vehicles. Using representative vehicle characteristics in determining track deterioration, it is predicted that there are large differences between different vehicles regarding their deterioration of the tracks. The model predicts axle load, unsprung mass, and wheelset steering capability as decisive for track deterioration. The model is believed to predict realistic results also for heavy-haul rail operations.

1 - 36 of 36
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