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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Guarin, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Crack propagation under water pressure2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cracks in concrete structures such as a concrete dam can be exposed to water pressure, for example, uplift pressure. The water pressure can be significant and may result in cracks propagating through the structures and thus it may result in reduced service life. However, the knowledge of water pressure within the cracks is relatively limited and is often neglected or just roughly estimated. The influence of crack opening rate on the uplift pressure distribution in the crack and the pressure variation during opening or sudden crack closure are questions needed to investigate. As an attempt to answer those questions, a pilot study presented here describes the possibilities and limitations of the proposed experimental setup; and technology (penetrability meter and tomography) as an examination method for water pressure in propagation concrete cracks. The test specimens examined here are exclusively cylinders cast of concrete with or without an initial crack.

    The penetrability meter can be used to apply water pressure and to visualize the crack opening, X-Ray computed tomography test, was performed. KTH Civil and Architectural Engineering department has organized the laboratory resources.

    The examples reported in this work show that the technology and equipment have great potential for future work on crack propagation, however, sample design and preparation, as well as testing need further development.

  • 2.
    Draganović, Almir
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Nejad Ghafar, Ali
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Issues in Measurements and Evaluation of Penetrability of Cement-Based Grout Measured with Filter Pump and Penetrability Meter in the Field2017In: Grouting 2017, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2017, Vol. 2, no 288 GSP, p. 404-414Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grouting of underground constructions is important to decrease water inflow into constructions. It is therefore important to use grout with good penetration ability to achieve this goal. The purpose of this paper is to show issues connected to measuring of the penetration ability of cement-based grouts in the field with a filter pump and penetrability meter and show the need for improvement or use of some other method. Three main reasons which contribute to a different estimated critical aperture with these two methods are: different maximum test volume in regression analysis of measured data, limited maximum test volume in the filter pump, and different test pressure. Test volume should be related to volume of designed grout spread in the critical aperture and test pressure should be related to grout spread velocity in the field.

  • 3.
    Hesami, Ebrahim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Nejad Ghafar, Ali
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Kringos, Niki
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Multi-Scale Characterization of Asphalt Mastic Rheology2013In: Multi-Scale Modeling and Charactrization of Infrastructure Materials: Proceedings of the International RILEM Symposium Stockholm, June 2013 / [ed] Niki Kringos, Björn Birgisson, David Frost and Linbing Wang, Springer, 2013, p. 45-61Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the influence of the fundamental parameters on asphalt mastic rheology is an important step towards improving the quality of asphalt mixtures. Due to the size of fillers and the sensitivity of the rheological behaviour of mastic, it is not always possible to study the effect of all parameters at one scale. Hence in this study, a theoretical framework is established for calculating the relative viscosity of asphalt mastics as a function of its filler concentration. Furthermore, a new test protocol is introduced for measuring the viscosity of asphalt mastic at higher temperatures and different filler concentrations.  To characterize the fillers and their agglomeration and distribution inside solid mastics, X-ray tomography, laser scattering, scanning electron microscopy, BET and Helium Pycnometery were utilized. To characterize the energy dissipation potential of the mastics under cyclic loads, as a function of their fillers, the dynamic mechanical analyzer was utilized. The research shown in this paper further investigated the various dominant parameters related to fillers and bitumen in mastics and relate them to the workability and resulting mechanical properties and developed an overall framework to connect different scales. The developed characterization protocols have the potential to allow the asphalt engineers to design their hot and warm asphalt mixtures on a more fundamental and thus sustainable basis.         

  • 4.
    Nejad Ghafar, Ali
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    An Experimental Study to Measure And Improve the Grout Penetrability2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An essential demand in any underground facility is to seal it against the water ingress to reduce the time and cost of the construction and the corresponding environmental hazards. To achieve this, obtaining sufficient grout spread is of great importance. Among the grouts, cement grouts with lower costs and environmental issues have been more reliable, whereas their main problem is filtration that restricts the grout spread. Several investigations have been therefore aimed to develop instruments to measure the grout penetrability as a fundamental means to improve the grout spread. Due to the difference in assumptions, limitations, and test conditions, and the deficiency in design their results are occasionally in contradiction. The question here is how to measure the grout penetrability more realistic? To answer this, two of the most frequently used instruments, Filter pump and Penetrability meter, were adjusted to approach the test conditions in Short slot. The results were discussed with respect to the origins of contradictions to better evaluate the reliability and functionality of the instruments.

    Among the influencing parameters on grout spread, applied pressure is a key element. The stepwise pressure increment is the method currently used to improve the grout spread in rock. Application of dynamic grouting has been studied as a solution to improve the grout spread for almost three decades. Despite some promising results, the method has not been yet industrialized due to the limited efficiency and issues in the type and frequency of the applied pressure, and the geometry of the test equipment. Therefore, finding a more efficient alternative of the applied pressure was the second goal of this study. A pneumatic pressure control system was consequently employed to examine the efficiency of the method in Short slot. The results conclusively revealed the effectiveness of the method and provided a strong basis for further development of the dynamic grouting.

  • 5.
    Nejad Ghafar, Ali
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    An Experimental Study to Measure Grout Penetrability, Improve the Grout Spread, and Evaluate the Real Time Grouting Control Theory2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the significant influence of the grout penetrability properties on spread of grout in rock fractures, this study aimed to investigate the grout penetrability from four different aspects. In Part (a), after review of all the existing methodologies developed to measure the grout penetrability, Filter-pump and Penetrability-meter were examined against Short-slot to figure out which one is more reliable. The study decisively considered Short-slot more reliable. In part (b), the so-called varying aperture long slot (VALS), an artificial fracture with apertures of 230-10 μm, was developed to study the gout penetrability more realistically. In part (c), a low-frequency rectangular pressure impulse was introduced to improve the grout spread by successive erosion of the produced filter cakes in consecutive cycles. The results showed considerable improvement in experiments using Short-slot. The dissipation of the pressure impulses was then investigated using VALS with noticeable remaining amplitudes after 2.0-2.7 m. In part (d), VALS was once more introduced to examine RTGC theory in a fracture with variable aperture. The study showed a relatively satisfactory agreement between the experimental results and the predictions of the grout propagation using the hydraulic aperture, whereas the predictions using the mean physical aperture showed considerably faster spread.

  • 6.
    Nejad Ghafar, Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Ali Akbar, Saman
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Al-Naddaf, Manar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Draganovic, Almir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Uncertainties in Grout Penetrability Measurements; Evaluation and Comparison of Filter pump, Penetrability meter and Short slot2017In: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To measure grout penetrability in fractured hard rock, various measuring instruments have been developed over the years. Penetrability meter and Filter pump have been designed to use in both the lab and the field. Short slot has been applicable mainly in the lab due to its complexity. The fact, that these instruments have been built based on different assumptions, limitations, and test conditions, makes their results occasionally in contradict. Deficiency in design of the instruments as well as the methods of evaluating grout penetrability is additionally a basis for uncertainty in results. This study is an experimental effort to determine and thoroughly perceive the nature of the most governing uncertainties in grout penetrability measurements. The test apparatus, procedure, and method used to evaluate the grout penetrability in both Penetrability meter and Filter pump were thus modified. The aim was to control the corresponding uncertainties and make their limitations and test conditions as similar as possible with the ones in Short slot. The results suggested that to obtain a more realistic evaluation of the grout penetrability, measurement should be accomplished at both the high and the low pressures with sufficient grout volume using Short slot. Moreover, application of both Filter pump and Penetrability meter is no longer recommended due to the revealed uncertainties.

  • 7.
    Nejad Ghafar, Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Draganovic, Almir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF DYNAMIC PRESSURE ON IMPROVING GROUT PENETRABILITY2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to increase the sealing efficiency in rock grouting, the fractures should be entirely grouted while the filtration of cement particles is an obstacle. By reducing the filtration, penetrability of grout will be increased resulting in a more reliable grouting. Some of the advantages of controlling filtration are decreas in time, costs and the environmental impacts of the projects. Increase in the safety margins of the projects during both the construction and the operation are also among the benefits of regulating the filtration.

    Use of variable pressure for improving grout penetrability has been studied in both the lab and the field over the years. The focus of the previous investigations was mainly on application of high frequency oscillating pressure using artificial parallel plates without constrictions with openning sizes larger than 100 μm. The mechanism of improvement of grout penetrability was interpreted as reduction in viscosity due to the oscillation in all those studies. The missing parts of the resulted knowledge are the influences of different shapes of the variable pressure and the effects of low frequencies i.e. longer cycle periods to penetrate through micro fractures smaller than 100 μm with constrictions. Moreover, other mechanisms of improvement of grout penetrability might also be more efficient than reduction in viscosity due to the oscillation.

    The focus of this study is therefore to investigat the influence of low frequency instantaneous variable pressure with different peak and rest periods on regulating the filtration. A pneumatic pressure control system has been thus employed using parallel plates with constrictions of 43 and 30 μm. The proposed mechanism of action was change of flow pattern due to the change in pressure and the corresponding velocity. Comparison of results of the variable and the constant pressures revealed the great impact of the examined variable pressure on improving grout penetrability.

  • 8.
    Nejad Ghafar, Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Mentesidis, Anastasios
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Draganovic, Almir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    An Experimental Approach to the Development of Dynamic Pressure to Improve Grout Spread2016In: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, ISSN 0723-2632, E-ISSN 1434-453X, Vol. 49, no 9, p. 3709-3721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic grouting is one of the methods to improve grout spread in rock that have been investigated since 1985. The results were promising, but all tests were performed under noticeable simplifications related to conditions in rock fractures. This study is an experimental approach to improve the grout spread using low-frequency instantaneous variable pressure as a new alternative with better control of filtration. The method is tested through parallel plates with constrictions of 30 and 43 µm under the applied pressures with 4 s/8 s and 2 s/2 s peak/rest periods. The results reveal conclusively the effectiveness of the method and provide a basis for further development of dynamic grouting.

  • 9.
    Nejad Ghafar, Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Mentesidis, Anastasios
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Draganovic, Almir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Ett nytt sätt att förbättra inträngnigs egenskaperna hos cementbaserat injekteringsbruk med momentant varierande tryck2016In: Bygg & teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 1, p. 17-22Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett mycket viktig moment i samband med undermarksbyggande är tätning av konstruktioner för att hindra vatteninflöde eller ett eventuellt läckage av lagrade material i konstruktionen. Sedan mitten på 1980-talet har man på Kungliga tekniska högskolan (KTH) forskat kring injekteringen av sprickor i berg med varierande tryck för att förbättra inträngningsförmågan av cementbaserade bruk. I tidigare studier har man huvudsakligen undersökt effekten av högfrekventa oscillerande tryck på brukets inträngningsförmåga men den uppnådda förbättringen har visat sig vara relativt begränsad. I ett doktorandprojekt på KTH har vi genomfört en experimentell studie för att undersöka påverkan av istället ett lågfrekvent tryck med en momentan tryckförändering på brukets inträngningsförmåga. Resultaten har visat på en betydande förbättring av inträngningsförmågan hos bruket jämfört med injektering med konstant tryck. Projektet har finansierats av Stiftelsen Bergteknisk Forskning (BeFo), Svenska Byggbranschens Utvecklingsfond (SBUF) och Trafikverket.

  • 10.
    Nejad Ghafar, Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Sadrizadeh, Sasan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Draganović, Almir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Håkansson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Application of Low-Frequency Rectangular Pressure Impulse in Rock Grouting2017In: Grouting 2017: Grouting, Drilling, and Verification / [ed] Byle, MJ Johnsen, LF Bruce, DA ElMohtar, CS Gazzarrini, P Richards, TD, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2017, Vol. 2, no 288, p. 104-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to sufficiently seal an underground facility in fractured rock, it is essential to obtain adequate grout spread into the surrounding fractures. The grout spread itself depends on parameters, the most significant of which are the filtration tendency and rheological properties. These properties can be affected by the applied pressure. High-frequency oscillating pressure has been shown to improve grout spread by virtue of reducing the grout viscosity. However, this method has not yet been industrialized due to the quick dissipation of the oscillation along a fracture. In a recent investigation, we examined a low-frequency rectangular pressure-impulse using a short slot. The results showed significant improvements in the injected grout volume in comparison to the static pressure results. In this paper, we examine the method in a considerably longer artificial fracture in order to investigate the dissipation of the pressure impulses. The study indicates the potential of the method to improve the grout spread in rock grouting.

  • 11.
    Nejad Ghafar, Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Sadrizadeh, Sasan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    Magakis, Konstantinos
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Draganovic, Almir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Varying aperture long slot (VALS), a method for studying grout penetrability into fractured hard rock2017In: ASTM geotechnical testing journal, ISSN 0149-6115, E-ISSN 1945-7545, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 871-882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design, manufacturing, and assembly of a new laboratory apparatus for investigation of grout filtration tendency and penetrability into rock fractures. The method makes it possible to examine grout samples composed of a wide range of cements and additives/ admixtures with different water-to-solid ratios. The apparatus can be used to investigate the influence of different parameters on grout penetrability. Examples of these parameters include the cement particle size/distribution curves/chemical compositions, and the type and ratio of additives/admixtures that provide a variety of setting/hardening times, and rheological and strength properties. The grouting operation into the rock fractures is replicated using an artificial slot with 4-m-long constrictions varying from 230 to 10 μm, and selective inlet and outlet. The apparatus can also accommodate grouting experiments under both static and dynamic pressure conditions up to 1, 500 kPa to study their influence. Illustrative results are also provided.

  • 12.
    Nejad Ghafar, Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Sadrizadeh, Sasan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Pronina, Elizaveta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Draganovic, Almir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Evaluation of the Real Time Grouting Control (RTGC) Theory using an Artificial Fracture with Variable Aperture2018Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The real time grouting control (RTGC) theory has been developed to monitor the spread of grout in rock fractures. It predicts the extent of the grout spread over time using the grout properties and the applied pressure. Despite extensive work conducted to verify it in both the lab and the field, it has not yet been sufficiently investigated in the lab under geometry conditions similar to a real fracture in rock. This paper presents a novel effort to examine the performance of the RTGC theory in the presence of constrictions by using an artificial fracture, the so-called varying aperture long slot (VALS). The paper compares the predictions of grout propagation with the experimental results. The predictions obtained using a hydraulic aperture, the way that the theory was previously used in the early stages of development, showed relatively good agreement with the experimental results. In predictions obtained using the mean-physical aperture, the way that the theory is currently used in field applications, the results showed considerably faster spread than the experimental results. This suggests that use of the mean-physical aperture does not always give a good approximation of the apertures to employ in predictions using the RTGC theory. Depending on the geometry conditions, the hydraulic aperture might be more realistic.

  • 13. Place, Joachim
    et al.
    Nejad Ghafar, Ali
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Draganovic, Almir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    On using the thin fluid-layer approach at ultrasonic frequencies for characterising grout propagation in an artificial fracture2016In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 89, p. 68-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the ultrasonic transport properties of such an idealised fracture whose 100 µm aperture is about 0.02 the wavelength, and filled with various fluids flowing under external forcing. As the artificial fracture is made of two solid and parallel walls separated by a thin fluid layer, we use the thin fluid layer concept to study the compressional (P-) wavefield transmitted across and reflected off the fracture, with no mode-conversion considered. We demonstrate that air and various fluids (water, grouts of varied w/c – water to cement ratio) can be distinguished when injected into the fracture, both at atmospheric pressure or under over-pressure as done in real grouting cases in the field. Then, using an analytical solution, we verify our experimental data and predict the results that can be obtained with a different fracture aperture. Our results illustrate that replicating such ultrasonic measurements both in space and time would allow successfully monitoring the grout propagation within an artificial fracture.

  • 14.
    Sadrizadeh, Sasan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Nejad Ghafar, Ali
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Halilovic, Armin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Håkansson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Numerical, Experimental and Analytical Studies on Fluid Flow through a Marsh Funnel2017In: Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1735-3572, E-ISSN 1735-3645, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 1501-1507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the application of computational fluid dynamics technique in civil and underground industries to evaluate fluid behaviour in a Marsh funnel. The numerical approach, based on computational fluid dynamics, simulated an incompressible two-phase Newtonian flow by means of the Volume-of-Fluid method. A complementary analytical proposed which provided a quick, field-ready method to assess the fluid field in the Marsh funnel. A supplemental experimental effort evaluated the results obtained from both the analytical calculation and numerical simulation. Results showed that the application of computational fluid dynamics technique gives the desired results in studying fluid flows in civil and underground industries. Proposed analytical solution is also capable of accurately predicting the fluid flow and thus can complement the experimental and numerical approaches. Further, the proposed analytical approach can be an alternative method for faster evaluation of fluid, although it needs to be calibrated with either the numerical or the experimental studies.

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