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  • 1.
    Crawford, James
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Moreno, Luis
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in recommended, generic rock K-d values used in performance assessment studies2006In: Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXIX, WARRENDALE, PA: MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY , 2006, Vol. 932, p. 251-258Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade or so there has been an explosion in the number of sorption modelling approaches and applications of sorption modelling for understanding and predicting solute transport in natural systems. The most widely used and simplest of all models, however, is that employing a constant distribution coefficient (K-d) relating the sorbed concentration of a solute on a mineral surface and its aqueous concentration. There are a number of reasons why a constant partitioning coefficient is attractive to environmental modellers for predicting radionuclide retardation, and in spite of all the shortcomings and pitfalls associated with such an approach, it remains the leitmotif of most performance assessment transport modelling. This paper examines the scientific basis underpinning the K-d-approach and its broad defensibility in a performance assessment framework. It also examines sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty that undermine confidence in K-d-values reported in the open literature. The paper focuses particularly upon the use of so-called "generic" data for generalised rock types that may not necessarily capture the full material property characteristics of site-specific materials. From the examination of recent literature data, it appears that there are still a number of outstanding issues concerning interpretation of experimental laboratory data that need to be considered in greater detail before concluding that the recommended values used in performance assessments are indeed conservative.

  • 2.
    Liu, Longcheng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Moreno, Luis
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Permeability and expansibility of natural bentonite MX-80 in distilled water2011In: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, ISSN 1474-7065, E-ISSN 1873-5193, Vol. 36, no 17-18, p. 1783-1791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural bentonite MX-80 differs from the purified and fully Na-exchanged bentonite in that it contains approximately 20.0% accessory minerals, in addition to the montmorillonite particles. Since the accessory minerals and montmorillonite particles have very different physical and chemical properties, natural bentonite MX-80 is found to expand much more slowly in distilled water, leading actually to a three-component system that has very different hydraulic properties from that of the fully Na-exchanged bentonite. To better understand and simulate the special features of expansion of natural bentonite MX-80 in distilled water, the focus is put primarily on the development of a Kozeny-Carman-like equation for its hydraulic permeability in the same way as it was done for Na-exchanged bentonite. With this permeability model, the dynamic force balance model that was originally developed for colloidal expansion of montmorillonite in a two-component system is applied to the natural MX-80 system. Without making any changes to the model, however, two strategies are used to account for both physical and chemical effects of the accessory minerals. The "lumped" strategy assumes that the accessory minerals are stuck onto the montmorillonite particles in such a way that they behave just like one solid component. The "stepwise" strategy changes the pore water chemistry gradually from initially distilled water to eventually achievement of the equilibrium condition. These strategies are simple but proved to function well. The agreement between the simulations and the experimental results indicates that the two-component dynamic force balance model works well in predicting the general features and the behavior of upward expansion of natural bentonite MX-80 in distilled water in a vertical test tube.

  • 3.
    Moreno, Luis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Crawford, James
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Modelling of transport in fractures with complex matrix properties2006In: Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXIX, WARRENDALE, PA: MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY , 2006, Vol. 932, p. 267-274Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the ongoing Swedish site investigations it has been found that the rock matrix adjacent to many open fractures has been altered. The alteration can extend from mm to several cm. The altered rock can have different sorption and diffusion properties compared to the undisturbed rock and this may influence the retardation of the nuclides. The paper presents how the Channel Network model has been adapted to handle diffusion into a matrix composed of several layers with different properties in addition to the infinite undisturbed matrix. For one channel, the solution for the Residence Time Distribution, RTD, may be found in the Laplace-plane. For the transport in the Channel Network, a particle tracking technique is used to determine the paths followed by solute particles. The RTD for this path is obtained using convolution, which in the Laplace-plane means multiplication of the transfer functions for each channel. The inversion to the time-plane is made by numerical inversion of the Laplace transforms for each path. The method has been tested with data from the TRUE (Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments) project, Task 6F, fluid flow and solute transport in two features in 100 in scale where a complex matrix was modelled. The model was used to predict the transport of the tracers (I-129), Cs-137, and Am-241) over some 20 m. The paper also addresses how the RTD is influenced by the different retardation mechanisms under Site Characterisation (SC) as well as Performance Assessment (PA) conditions.

  • 4.
    Zhao, Zhihong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Moreno, Luis
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Analytical solution of coupled stress-flow-transport processes in a single rock fracture2011In: Computers & Geosciences, ISSN 0098-3004, E-ISSN 1873-7803, Vol. 37, no 9, p. 1437-1449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A closed-form solution is presented for modeling the coupled stress-flow-transport processes along a single fracture embedded in a porous rock matrix. Necessary assumptions were made to simplify the subject into a two-dimensional (2D) problem, considering the changes of fracture aperture and matrix porosity under various stress conditions. The cubic law was assumed to be valid for the fluid flow in the fracture, with an impermeable rock matrix. For transport mechanisms, advective transport along the fracture, longitudinal hydrodynamic dispersion in the flow direction, and the matrix diffusion were considered in three different transport models under constant concentration or constant flux (Danck- werts’) inlet boundary conditions. This analytical solution can be used as a constitutive model, or as an example for validation of similar constitutive models, for modeling the coupled hydro-mechanical- chemical (HMC) processes in fracture networks of crystalline rocks. The influences of stress/deformation processes on different transport mechanisms in a single fracture under different inlet boundary conditions were studied for the first time. The results show that changes of fracture, as controlled by a combination of normal closure and shear dilatancy, have a significant influence on the solute concentration distribution both along the fracture and in the rock matrix, as well as on the solute residence/breakthrough time, especially when shear-induced dilatancy occurs. Under compressions, the decreasing matrix porosity slightly increases the solute concentration along the fracture and in the rock matrix.

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