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  • 1.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Molander, Linda
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The substitution principle2011In: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 454-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the substitution principle, hazardous chemicals should be replaced by less hazardous alternatives. In this paper, the major issues concerning the more precise definition of the principle are analyzed, and a general purpose definition is proposed. It is claimed that the priority between reducing hazard, functionality and economical considerations in the application of the substitution principle is a matter for adjustment in each particular case that cannot be settled beforehand. None of these objectives can have absolute priority over the others, but the substitution principle is aimed at increasing the priority given to the reduction of hazards to human health and the environment. Major methods to promote and implement the principle are summarized, current legislative approaches are discussed, and proposals for efficient implementation are made. It is emphasized that the primary responsibility for avoiding hazardous substances and processes rests with industry.

  • 2.
    Molander, Linda
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Chemicals in consumer products: Towards a safe and sustainable use2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Health and environmental risks associated with emissions of hazardous chemicals from articles, including everyday consumer products such as clothes and toys, have become widely acknowledged internationally, particularly in the EU. This thesis contributes to new understandings of how these risks are currently managed within the EU and recommends actions for ensuring a safe and sustainable use of chemicals in articles.

    Paper I provides an overview and comparative analysis of regulatory strategies for managing risks of chemicals in articles in the EU. The in-depth analysis, which is focused on the Toys Safety Directive, the RoHS Directive, and REACH, shows that the legislations differ significantly. Differences include e.g. what criteria are used for the selection of substances to be targeted for regulation, and the kind of requirements and restrictions applied to the selected substances. It is concluded that product-specific directives are important complements to REACH in order to ensure a safe use of chemicals in articles.

    Paper II evaluates to what extent the regulation of chemicals in articles under REACH is coherent with the rules concerning chemicals in the Sewage Sludge Directive (SSD) and the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The results show that the majority of the chemicals that are prioritized for phase-out under the WFD or for concentration restrictions in sludge and soil under the SSD are allowed to be used in articles according to REACH. In order to avoid end-of-pipe problems and to increase resource efficiency, it is argued that it is necessary to minimize the input of chemicals identified as hazardous to health or the environment into articles.

    Paper III aims to clarify what the substitution principle means and how it can reasonably be applied as part of chemical policies. A general definition is proposed that gives equal weight to hazard, functionality and economical considerations, while at the same time recognizing that the aim of the substitution principle is to reduce hazards to human health and the environment. This paper also summarizes major methods to promote and implement the principle, discusses legislative approaches with regard to their ability to promote substitution of hazardous chemicals, and makes proposals for an efficient implementation of the principle.

  • 3.
    Molander, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Beronius, Anna
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hanberg, Annika
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Endpoints and dose-response relationships of low-dose studies of Bisphenol A2012In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 211, p. S130-S130Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Molander, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Breitholtz, M.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Missing links in the regulatory chain controlling life cycle emissions of hazardous chemicals from articles2011In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 205, p. S243-S243Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely acknowledged that the management of risks associated with chemicals in articles, including consumer products, needs to be improved.

    The purpose of the present study is to empirically analyze to what extent European legislations that control emissions of hazardous chemicals from articles during different life cycle phases are coherent or not. To illustrate this, the regulation of a number of case-study chemicals, used in various consumer products and in high volumes, is scrutinized. This analysis identifies missing regulatory links between the rules that are relevant for the use phase and the rules applicable to the waste phase. With the exception of the RoHS directive, a clear connection to the rules for waste is missing in the regulatory system. Clear links are also missing between the rules regulating chemical emissions during the articles’ life cycle and maximum environmental concentration limits set for sludge, soil and surface water. The Waste Directive, the WEEE Directive, and the Water Framework Directive refer to EU environmental and waste policies. These policies state that environmental damage should be rectified at source. The lack of connection between the rules regulating different phases of an article's life cycle makes these objectives difficult to fulfill. These legislative gaps will encourage end-of-pipe solutions, rather than actions to manage the source of the problem. We argue that it is necessary to minimize the input of hazardous chemicals into articles, so that waste and other end-products can be recovered and used without harming human health or the environment.

  • 5.
    Molander, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University.
    Rybacka, Aleksandra
    Umeå University.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Are chemicals in articles an obstacle for reaching environmental goals? - Missing links in EU chemical management2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 435, p. 280-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely acknowledged that the management of risks associated with chemicals in articles needs to be improved. The EU environmental policy states that environmental damage should be rectified at source. It is therefore motivated that the risk management of substances in articles also takes particular consideration to those substances identified as posing a risk in different environmental compartments. The primary aim of the present study was to empirically analyze to what extent the regulation of chemicals in articles under REACH is coherent with the rules concerning chemicals in the Sewage Sludge Directive (SSD) and the Water Framework Directive (WFD). We also analyzed the chemical variation of the organic substances regulated under these legislations in relation to the most heavily used chemicals. The results show that 16 of 24 substances used in or potentially present in articles and regulated by the SSD or the WFD are also identified under REACH either as a substance of very high concern (SVHC) or subject to some restrictions. However, for these substances we conclude that there is limited coherence between the legislations, since the identification as an SVHC does not in itself encompass any use restrictions, and the restrictions in REACH are in many cases limited to a particular use, and thus all other uses are allowed. Only a minor part of chemicals in commerce is regulated and these show a chemical variation that deviates from classical legacy pollutants. This warrants new tools to identify potentially hazardous chemicals in articles. We also noted that chemicals monitored in the environment under the WFD deviate in their chemistry from the ones regulated by REACH. In summary, we argue that to obtain improved resource efficiency and a sustainable development it is necessary to minimize the input of chemicals identified as hazardous to health or the environment into articles.

  • 6.
    Molander, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Cohen, Alison K.
    EU and US regulatory approaches to information on chemicals in products: Implications for consumers2012In: European Journal of Risk Regulation, ISSN 1867-299X, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 521-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information dissemination across the supply chain to consumers about chemicals' hazardous properties and presence in consumer products has been recognized as insuffi cient to improve to enable both producers and end-users to avoid hazardous chemicals and to manage risks to human health and the environment. A comparative analysis of the information requirements in four EU legislations (the CLP, the Cosmetics regulation, REACH, and the Toys Safety Directive) and three US legislations (California's Proposition 65 and Senate Bill 509, and the national TSCA) was conducted with the aim of studying to what extent existing regulatory information approaches require information to be disseminated to consumers. In general, the European legislations address and promote consumers' access to information on chemicals in products more comprehensively than the American legislations, but the amount and type of information required to be disseminated to consumers varies widely. These differences include which chemicals are prioritised, if the chemical is used in a mixture or an article, what information dissemination strategies are used, and who is responsible for consumers accessing the information. It is recommended that chemical information policies should, at minimum, require chemical suppliers to inform consumers of hazardous chemicals present in their products and, if possible, recommend risk management measures to ensure a safe use of consumer products.

  • 7.
    Molander, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Narrow-and-sharp or broad-and-blunt - Regulations of hazardous chemicals in consumer products in the European Union2012In: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 523-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemicals are incorporated into a vast number of consumer products, and it has been recognized that considerable exposures of humans and the environment to chemicals are due to diffuse emissions from everyday products. Different approaches to the management of risks concerning chemicals in products are discussed on the international arena, but no general strategy has yet been adopted. The aim of this study is to investigate how health and environmental risks associated with chemicals in consumer products are currently managed in European Union legislations, mainly by the Toys Directive, the RoHS Directive, and REACH. Significant differences were found between the risk reduction strategies in these legislations, including substance prioritization, type of restrictions and requirements, and information dissemination to consumers. REACH regulates chemicals in products to a limited extent, and via quite complicated processes. Product-specific rules are therefore useful supplements to REACH for regulating chemicals in products. The combined effects of the RoHS and WEEE directives seem to be effective in promoting substitution of substances identified as problematic in electrical and electronic equipment, and it is recommended that the possibility to develop similar systems should be considered also for other product categories.

  • 8.
    Molander, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    WikiPharma: A database with environmental effect data for pharmaceuticals2010In: Towards sustainable pharmaceuticals in a healthy society, Stockholm: MistraPharma , 2010, p. 98-147Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Molander, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    WikiPharma - A freely available, easily accessible, interactive and comprehensive database for environmental effect data for pharmaceuticals2009In: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 367-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant number of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) have been identified in the environment and in surface waters. Data on the environmental hazards associated with these substances are emerging but are still scarce. We have compiled publicly available ecotoxicity data for APIs into a database called WikiPharma. The use of the database is free of charge. It can be accessed and updated continuously as a "wiki". The aim of WikiPharma is to provide an easily accessible, comprehensive and up-to-date overview of effects caused by pharmaceuticals on non-target organisms. The database currently contains basic information, i.e. substance name, ATC code(s) and pharmaceutical group(s), for 831 APIs representing 35 different drug classes. Effect data have been identified and included for 116 of these substances. These ecotoxicity test data have been extracted from 156 different sources. The development of a comprehensive database on ecological hazard of APIs can facilitate identification of data gaps and promote environmental risk assessment of these substances. The database is available at www.wikipharma.org.

1 - 9 of 9
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  • ieee
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  • en-US
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  • Other locale
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  • html
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