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  • 1.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Bertilson, Michael C.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Chubarova, Elena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hofsten, Olov Von
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Holmberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Lindblom, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Lundström, Ulf
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Reinspach, Julia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Skoglund, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Takman, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Laboratory X-ray micro- and nano-imaging2009In: Frontiers in Optics (FiO) 2009, Optical Society of America, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We summarize recent progress in laboratory x-ray imaging systems based on compact high-brightness liquid-jet sources, including <25 nm soft x-ray zone-plate microscopy and <10 μm (lens-free) hard x-ray phase-contrast imaging.

  • 2.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Bertilson, Michael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Chubarova, Elena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Ewald, Johannes
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Gleber, S-C
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Henriksson, M.
    von Hofsten, Olov
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Holmberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Lindblom, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Mudry, Emeric
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Reinspach, Julia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Schlie, Moritz Gustav
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Skoglund, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Takman, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Thieme, J.
    Sedlmair, J.
    Tjörnhammar, Richard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vita, M.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Laboratory x-ray micro imaging: Sources, optics, systems and applications2009In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We summarize the recent progress in laboratory-scale soft and hard x-ray micro imaging in Stockholm. Our soft x-ray work is based on liquid-jet laser-plasma sources which are combined with diffractive and multilayer optics to form laboratory x-ray microscopes. In the hard x-ray regime the imaging is based on a liquid-metal-jet electron-impact source which provides the necessary coherence to allow phase-contrast imaging with high fidelity.

  • 3.
    Hertz, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Metod för alstring av röntgenstrålning genom elektronbestrålning av en flytande substans2006Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Lindblom, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Holmberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Wilhein, Thomas
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    High-resolution differential-interference-contrast x-ray zone plates: Design and Fabrication2007In: Spectrochimica Acta Part B - Atomic Spectroscopy, ISSN 0584-8547, E-ISSN 1873-3565, Vol. 62, no 6-7, p. 539-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differential interference contrast is a potentially powerful technique for contrast enhancement in soft X-ray microscopy. We describe the design and fabrication of single-element diffractive optical elements suitable as objectives for high-resolution differential interference contrast microscopy in the water-window spectral range. A one-dimensional pattern calculation followed by an extension to two dimensions results in a pattern resolution of 1 nm, which is well below fabrication accuracy. The same fabrication process as for normal zone plates is applicable, but special care must be taken when converting the calculated pattern to a code for e-beam lithography.

  • 5.
    Lindén, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Theoretical Physics.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Jonsson, Ann-Beth
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala Biomedical Center, Uppsala University.
    Wallin, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Theoretical Physics, Statistical Physics.
    Force generation in small ensembles of Brownian motors2006In: Physical Review E, ISSN 1539-3755, Vol. 74, no 2, p. 021908-1-021908-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The motility of certain gram-negative bacteria is mediated by retraction of type IV pili surface filaments, which are essential for infectivity. The retraction is powered by a strong molecular motor protein, PilT, producing very high forces that can exceed 150 pN. The molecular details of the motor mechanism are still largely unknown, while other features have been identified, such as the ring-shaped protein structure of the PilT motor. The surprisingly high forces generated by the PilT system motivate a model investigation of the generation of large forces in molecular motors. We propose a simple model, involving a small ensemble of motor subunits interacting through the deformations on a circular backbone with finite stiffness. The model describes the motor subunits in terms of diffusing particles in an asymmetric, time-dependent binding potential (flashing ratchet potential), roughly corresponding to the ATP hydrolysis cycle. We compute force-velocity relations in a subset of the parameter space and explore how the maximum force (stall force) is determined by stiffness, binding strength, ensemble size, and degree of asymmetry. We identify two qualitatively different regimes of operation depending on the relation between ensemble size and asymmetry. In the transition between these two regimes, the stall force depends nonlinearly on the number of motor subunits. Compared to its constituents without interactions, we find higher efficiency and qualitatively different force-velocity relations. The model captures several of the qualitative features obtained in experiments on pilus retraction forces, such as roughly constant velocity at low applied forces and insensitivity in the stall force to changes in the ATP concentration.

  • 6.
    Otendal, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hemberg, Oskar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Microscopic High-Speed Liquid-Metal Jets in Vacuum2005In: Experiments in Fluids, ISSN 0723-4864, E-ISSN 1432-1114, Vol. 39, p. 799-804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a novel electron-impact x-ray source based on a high-speed liquid-metal-jet anode. Thermal power load calculations indicate that this new anode concept potentially could increase the achievable brightness in compact electron-impact x-ray sources by more than a factor 100 compared to current state-of-the-art rotating-anode or microfocus sources. A first, successful, low-power proof-of-principle experiment is described and the feasibility of scaling to high-brightness and high-power operation is discussed. Some possible applications that would benefit from such an increase in brightness are also briefly

  • 7.
    Otendal, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Touhimaa, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    A 9 keV electron-impact liquid-gallium-jet x-ray source2008In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 016102-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a high-brightness compact 9 keV electron-impact microfocus x-ray source based on a liquid-gallium-jet anode. A similar to 30 W, 50 kV electron gun is focused onto the similar to 20 m/s, 30 mu m diameter liquid-gallium-jet anode to produce an similar to 10 mu m full width at half maximum x-ray spot. The peak spectral brightness is >2 x 10(10) photons/(s mm(2) mrad(2) x 0.1% BW). Calculation and experiments show potential for increasing this brightness by approximately three orders of magnitude, making the source suitable for laboratory-scale x-ray crystallography and hard x-ray microscopy.

  • 8.
    Otendal, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hemberg, Oscar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Status of the liquid-metal-jet-anode electron-impact x-ray source2004In: X-RAY SOURCES AND OPTICS / [ed] MacDonald, CA; Macrander, AT; Ishikawa, T; Morawe, C; Wood, JL, BELLINGHAM: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2004, Vol. 5537, p. 57-63Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have demonstrated a new electron-impact hard-x-ray source based on a liquid-metal-jet anode in a proof-of-principle experiment. Initial calculations show that this new anode concept potentially allows a >100x increase in source brightness compared to today's compact hard-x-ray sources. In this paper we report on the scale up of the system to medium electron-beam power resulting in a brightness comparable to current state-of-the-art sources. The upgraded system combines a similar to20-mum diameter liquid-tin jet operating at similar to60 m/s with a 50 kV, 600 W electron beam focused to similar to150 mum FWHM. We describe the properties of the current system, experimental results, as well as a brief discussion of key issues for future high-power scaling.

  • 9.
    Otendal, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Stability and debris in high-brightness liquid-metal-jet-anode microfocus x-ray sources2007In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 101, no 2, p. 026102-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the x-ray spot stability and the debris emission in liquid-metal-jet anode electron-impact x-ray sources operating in the 10-100 W microfocus regime. The x-ray spot size is 15-23 mu m in diameter and the electron-beam power density is up to similar to 210 kW/mm(2), an order of magnitude higher than for conventional microfocus sources. In the power range of the investigation the source is stable in terms of spot size and position. The debris emission rate increases exponentially with the applied electron-beam power but may be reduced by combining larger and faster target jets with smaller e-beam foci and by mitigation schemes. It is concluded that the investigated factors will not limit the performance and function of liquid-metal-jet-anode electron-impact microfocus sources when operating in this high-brightness regime.

  • 10.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Liquid-Jet-Target Microfocus X-Ray Sources: Electron Guns, Optics and Phase-Contrast Imaging2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Thesis describes the development of an electron-impact microfocus x-ray source and its application for phase-contrast imaging. The source is based on a novel, liquid-jet target concept. Stable and continuous operation can be achieved at substantially higher electron-beam power densities than conventional solid target based systems. The maximum x-ray brightness can potentially be increased by a factor of 10-1000, which would provide significantly improved performance in applications such as imaging. In order to reach the high x-ray brightness, comparable performance from the electron gun is needed. A LaB6-cathode-based electron gun is analyzed in terms of achievable e-beam brightness and beam quality and is found capable to deliver power densities in the 10-100 MW/mm2 range using optimized electro-optics. A proof-of-principle microfocus source has been developed. Experiments show that the liquid-metal-jet target can be operated at more than an order of magnitude higher e-beam power densities than modern solid-metal targets. This brightness enhancement has been utilized to acquire in-line phase-contrast images of weakly absorbing objects. The source potentially enables the application of high-resolution phase-contrast x-ray imaging with short exposure times in clinics and laboratories.

    Different liquid-jet-target materials have been tested. The Sn-jet (Ka=25.3 keV) could be suitable for mammography, whereas the Ga-jet ((Ka=9.2 keV) may be utilized for x-ray diffraction studies. In addition, a non-metallic methanol jet has been the demonstrated in stable x-ray operation. All materials and compounds found in liquid form can, thus, potentially be used for electron-impact liquid-jet-target x-ray generation.

    Scaling to higher e-beam power density and x-ray brightness levels is discussed and is determined to be feasible. Potential difficulties, such as debris emission and instabilities of the x-ray emission spot, are investigated in some detail. Larger and/or faster jets could overcome the present limitations because of their inherently higher heat load capacities. Dynamic-similarity experiments show that liquid jets can in principle be operated in a stable manner at much higher speeds than previously shown.

    Download full text (pdf)
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  • 11.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Ewald, Johannes
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Schlie, Moritz Gustav
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Fernandez-Varea, J. M.
    Facultat de Física (ECM), Universitat de Barcelona.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    A microfocus x-ray source based on a nonmetal liquid-jet anode2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 92, no 23, p. 233509-1-233509-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate stable operation of a nonmetallic anode in an electron-impact x-ray source. A high-brightness electron beam is focused on a similar to 70 m/s speed, similar to 10 mu m diameter methanol jet producing stable x-ray emission with peak spectral brightness at similar to 5.4 x 10(5) photons/(s x mu m(2) x sr x 0.1% BW). The jet is fully evaporated in the interaction point. The shape of a simulated spectrum using Monte Carlo methods shows good agreement with experimental data, and the theoretical brightness values give an upper limit for the achievable x-ray emission from jets with very high velocities. Using this anode concept, all compounds and elements found in liquid form are potentially usable for x-ray generation.

  • 12.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    High-intensity electron beam for liquid-metal-jet anode hard x-ray generation2005In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 5918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on our progress towards the experimental realization of a liquid-metal-jet-anode x-ray source with high brightness. We have previously shown that this electron-impact source has potential for very high x-ray brightness by combining small-spot high-flux operation of the electron beam with high-speed operation of the regenerative liquid-metal-jet anode. In the present paper we review the system and describe theoretical calculations for improving the 50 kV, 600 W electron-beam focussing to ∼30 μm spot size. With such a system the power density on the liquid-metal-jet would be ∼400 kW/mm 2, i.e., more than an order of magnitude higher than the power density on a state-of-the-art rotating anode.

  • 13.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with a liquid-metal-jet-anode microfocus source2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 91, no 7, p. 074104-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phase-contrast methods increase contrast, detail, and selectivity in x-ray imaging. Present compact x-ray sources do not provide the necessary spatial coherence with sufficient power to allow the laboratory-scale high-resolution phase-contrast imaging with adequate exposure times. In this letter, the authors demonstrate phase-contrast imaging with few-micron detail employing a compact similar to 6.5 mu m spot liquid-metal-jet-anode high-brightness microfocus source. The 40 W source is operated at more than ten times higher electron-beam power density than present microfocus sources and is shown to provide sufficient spatial coherence as well as scalability to high power, thereby enabling the application of phase-contrast x-ray imaging with short exposure times in clinics and laboratories.

  • 14.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Otendal, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    X-Ray Imaging with an Electron- Impact Liquid-Metal-Jet-Anode SourceIn: Radiology, ISSN 0033-8419, E-ISSN 1527-1315Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Lindblom, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Jansson, Per A. C.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi T.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Holmberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Wieland, M.
    Wilhein, M.
    Towards Soft X-Ray Phase-Sensitive Imaging with Diffractive Optical Elements2006In: Proc. 8th International Conference X-ray Microscopy, 2006, p. 91-93Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this contribution we present the first diffractive optical elements for soft x-ray differential interference contrast microscopy.Due to an improved calculation method the nanofabrication accuracy of these optics is the same as for comparable normal zoneplate optics with the same outermost zone width. Different diffractive optical elements were fabricated with outermost zone widthof 100 nm, different spot separation directions and different phase relations between the two spots. The optics were successfullyused in experiments both at the synchrotron radiation based TWINMIC microscope and at the Stockholm compact liquid-nitrogenlaser-plasma source based microscope.

  • 16.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Lindblom, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Jansson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Tuohimaa, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Holmberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Wieland, M.
    University of Applied Sciences Koblenz, Rhein Ahr Campus Remagen.
    Wilhein, Thomas
    University of Applied Sciences Koblenz, Rhein Ahr Campus Remagen.
    Single-optical-element soft-x-ray interferometry with a laser-plasma x-ray source2005In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 30, no 15, p. 2167-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a compact interferometer for the water-window soft-x-ray range that is suitable for operation with laser-plasma sources. The interferometer consists of a single diffractive optical element that focuses impinging x rays to two focal spots. The light from these two secondary sources forms the interference pattern. The interferometer was operated with a liquid-nitrogen jet laser-plasma source at lambda = 2.88 nm. Scalar wave-field propagation was used to simulate the interference pattern, showing good correspondence between theoretical and experimental results. The diffractive optical element can simultaneously be used as an imaging optic, and we demonstrate soft-x-ray microscopy with interferometric contrast enhancement of a phase object.

1 - 16 of 16
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