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  • 1.
    Dincbas-Renqvist, Vildan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Lendel, Christofer
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Dogan, Jakob
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Wahlberg, Elisabet
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Härd, Torleif
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Thermodynamics of folding, stabilization, and binding in an engineered protein-protein complex2004In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 126, no 36, p. 11220-11230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyzed the thermodynamics of a complex protein-protein binding interaction using the (engineered) Z(SPA-1) affibody and it's Z domain binding partner as a model. Free Z(SPA-1) exists in an equilibrium between a molten-globule-like (MG) state and a completely unfolded state, wheras a well-ordered structure is observed in the Z:Z(SPA-1) complex. The thermodynamics of the MG state unfolding equilibrium can be separated from the thermodynamics of binding and stabilization by combined analysis of isothermal titration calorimetry data and a separate van't Hoff analysis of thermal unfolding. We find that (i) the unfolding equilibrium of free Z(SPA-1) has only a small influence on effective binding affinity, that (ii) the Z:Z(SPA-1) interface is inconspicuous and structure-based energetics calculations suggest that it should be capable of supporting strong binding, but that (iii) the conformational stabilization of the MG state to a well-ordered structure in the Z:Z(SPA-1) complex is associated with a large change in conformational entropy that opposes binding.

  • 2.
    Dogan, Jakob
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Molecular Biotechnology.
    Structural and thermodynamical basis for molecular recognition between engineered binding proteins2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The structural determination of interacting proteins, both as individual proteins and in their complex, complemented by thermodynamical studies are vital in order to gain in-depth insights of the phenomena leading to the highly selective protein-protein interactions characteristic of numerous life processes. This thesis describes an investigation of the structural and thermodynamical basis for molecular recognition in two different protein-protein complexes, formed between so-called affibody proteins and their respective targets. Affibody proteins are a class of engineered binding proteins, which can be functionally selected for binding to a given target protein from large collections (libraries) constructed via combinatorial engineering of 13 surface-located positions of the 58-residue three-helix bundle Z domain derived from Staphylococcal protein (SPA).

    In a first study, an affibody:target protein pair consisting of the ZSPA-1 affibody and the parental Z domain, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of approximately 1 µM, was investigated. ZSPA-1 was in its free state shown to display molten globule-like characteristics. The enthalpy change on binding between Z and ZSPA-1 as measured by isothermal titration calorimetry, was found to be a non-linear function of temperature. This nonlinearity was found to be due to the temperature dependent folded-unfolded equilibrium of ZSPA-1 upon binding to the Z domain and, the energetics of the unfolding equilibrium of the molten globule state of ZSPA-1 could be separated from the binding thermodynamics. Further dissection of the binding entropy revealed that a significant reduction in conformational entropy resulting from the stabilization of the molten globule state of ZSPA-1 upon complex formation could be a major reason for the moderate binding affinity.

    A second studied affibody:target complex (Kd ~ 0.1 µM) consisted of the ZTaq affibody protein originally selected for binding to Taq DNA polymerase and the anti-ZTaq affibody protein, selected for selective binding to the ZTaq affibody protein, thus constituting an "anti-idiotypic" affinity protein pair. The structure of the ZTaq:anti-ZTaq affibody complex as well as the free state structures of ZTaq and anti-ZTaq were determined using NMR spectroscopy. Both ZTaq and anti-ZTaq are well defined three helix bundles in their free state and do not display the same molten globule-like behaviour of ZSPA-1. The interaction surface was found to involve all of the varied positions in helices 1 and 2 of the anti-ZTaq, the majority of the corresponding side chains in ZTaq, and also several non-mutated residues. The total buried surface area was determined to about 1670 Å2 which is well inside the range of what is typical for many protein-protein complexes, including antibody:antigen complexes. Structural rearrangements, primarily at the side chain level, were observed to take place upon binding. There are similarities between the ZTaq:anti-ZTaq and the Z:ZSPA-1 structure, for instance, the binding interface area in both complexes has a large fraction of non-polar content, the buried surface area is of similar size, and certain residues have the same positioning. However, the relative orientation between the subunits in ZTaq:anti-ZTaq is markedly different from that observed in Z:ZSPA-1. The thermodynamics of ZTaq:anti-ZTaq association were investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry. A dissection of the entropic contributions showed that a large and favourable desolvation entropy of non-polar surface is associated with the binding reaction which is in good agreement with hydrophobic nature of the binding interface, but as in the case for the Z:ZSPA-1 complex a significant loss in conformational entropy opposes complex formation.

    A comparison with complexes involving affibody proteins or SPA domains suggests that affibody proteins inherit intrinsic binding properties from the original SPA surface. The structural and biophysical data suggest that although extensive mutations are carried out in the Z domain to obtain affibody proteins, this does not necessarily affect the structural integrity or lead to a significant destabilization.

  • 3.
    Dogan, Jakob
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Lendel, Christofer
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Härd, Torleif
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    NMR assignments of the free and bound-state protein components of an anti-idiotypic affibody complex2006In: Journal of Biomolecular NMR, ISSN 0925-2738, E-ISSN 1573-5001, Vol. 36, p. (Electronic publication ahead of print Feb. 6; doi:10.1007/s10858-005-5350-8)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Dogan, Jakob
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Molecular Biotechnology.
    Lendel, Christofer
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Molecular Biotechnology.
    Härd, Torleif
    Thermodynamics of folding and binding in an affibody:affibody complex2006In: Journal of Molecular Biology, ISSN 0022-2836, E-ISSN 1089-8638, Vol. 359, no 5, p. 1305-1315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affibody binding proteins are selected from phage-displayed libraries of variants of the 58 residue Z domain. Z(Taq) is an affibody originally selected as a binder to Taq DNA polymerase. The anti-Z(Taq) affibody was selected as a binder to Z(Taq) and the Z(Taq):anti-Z(Taq) complex is formed with a dissociation constant K-d = 0.1 mu M. We have determined the structure of the Z(Taq):anti-Z(Taq) complex as well as the free state structures of Z(Taq) and anti-Z(Taq) using NMR. Here we complement the structural data with thermodynamic studies of Z(Taq) and anti-Z(Taq) folding and complex formation. Both affibody proteins show cooperative two-state thermal denaturation at melting temperatures T-M similar to 56 degrees C. Z(Taq):anti-Z(Taq) complex formation at 25 degrees C in 50 mM NaCl and 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.4) is enthalpy driven with Delta H degrees(bind) = -9.0(+/- 0.1) kcal mol(-1). The heat capacity change Delta C-P degrees,(bind) = -0.43(+/- 0.01) kcal mol(-1) K-1 is in accordance with the predominantly non-polar character of the binding surface, as judged from calculations based on changes in accessible surface areas. A further dissection of the small binding entropy at 25 degrees C (-T Delta S degrees(bind) = -0.6(+/- 0.1) kcal mol(-1)) suggests that a favourable desolvation of non-polar surface is almost completely balanced by unfavourable conformational entropy changes and loss of rotational and translational entropy. Such effects can therefore be limiting for strong binding also when interacting protein components are stable and homogeneously folded. The combined structure and thermodynamics data suggest that protein properties are not likely to be a serious limitation for the development of engineered binding proteins based on the Z domain.

  • 5.
    Jonsson, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Molecular Biotechnology.
    Dogan, Jakob
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Molecular Biotechnology.
    Harne, Nina
    Abrahmsén, Lars
    Nygren, Per-Åke
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Molecular Biotechnology.
    Engineering of a femtomolar affinity binding protein to human serum albumin2008In: Protein Engineering Design & Selection, ISSN 1741-0126, E-ISSN 1741-0134, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 515-527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the development of a novel serum albumin binding protein showing an extremely high affinity (K(D)) for HSA in the femtomolar range. Using a naturally occurring 46-residue three-helix bundle albumin binding domain (ABD) of nanomolar affinity for HSA as template, 15 residues were targeted for a combinatorial protein engineering strategy to identify variants showing improved HSA affinities. Sequencing of 55 unique phage display-selected clones showed a strong bias for wild-type residues at nine positions, whereas various changes were observed at other positions, including charge shifts. Additionally, a few non-designed substitutions appeared. On the basis of the sequences of 12 variants showing high overall binding affinities and slow dissociation rate kinetics, a set of seven 'second generation' variants were constructed. One variant denoted ABD035 displaying wild-type-like secondary structure content and excellent thermal denaturation/renaturation properties showed an apparent affinity for HSA in the range of 50-500 fM, corresponding to several orders of magnitude improvement compared with the wild-type domain. The ABD035 variant also showed an improved affinity toward serum albumin from a number of other species, and a capture experiment involving human serum indicated that the selectivity for serum albumin had not been compromised from the affinity engineering.

  • 6.
    Lendel, Christofer
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Dincbas-Renqvist, Vildan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Flores, Alexander
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Wahlberg, Elisabet
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Dogan, Jakob
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Nygren, Per-Åke
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Härd, Torleif
    Biophysical characterization of ZSPA-1-A phage-display selected binder to protein A2004In: Protein Science, ISSN 0961-8368, E-ISSN 1469-896X, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 2078-2088Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affibodies are a novel class of binding proteins selected from phagemid libraries of the Z domain from staphylococcal protein A. The Z(SPA-1) affibody was selected as a binder to protein A, and it binds the parental Z domain with micromolar affinity. In earlier work we determined the structure of the Z:Z(SPA-1) complex and noted that Z(SPA-1) in the free state exhibits several properties characteristic of a molten globule. Here we present a more detailed biophysical investigation of Z(SPA-1) and four Z(SPA-1) mutants with the objective to understand these properties. The characterization includes thermal and chemical denaturation profiles, ANS binding assays, size exclusion chromatography, isothermal titration calorimetry, and an investigation of structure and dynamics by NMR. The NMR characterization of Z(SPA-1) was facilitated by the finding that trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) stabilizes the molten globule conformation in favor of the fully unfolded state. All data taken together lead us to conclude the following: (1) The topology of the molten globule conformation of free Z(SPA-1) is similar to that of the fully folded structure in the Z-bound state; (2) the extensive mutations in helices 1 and 2 destabilize these without affecting the intrinsic stability of helix 3; (3) stabilization and reduced aggregation can be achieved by replacing mutated residues in Z(SPA-1) with the corresponding wild-type Z residues. This stabilization is better correlated to changes in helix propensity than to an expected increase in polar versus nonpolar surface area of the fully folded state.

  • 7.
    Lendel, Christofer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Dogan, Jakob
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Härd, Torleif
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Structural basis for molecular recognition in an affibody:affibody complex2006In: Asia-Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0128-7451, Vol. 359, no 5, p. 1293-1304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affibody molecules constitute a class of engineered binding proteins based on the 58-residue three-helix bundle Z domain derived from staphylococcal protein A (SPA). Affibody proteins are selected as binders to target proteins by phage display of combinatorial libraries in which typically 13 side-chains on the surface of helices 1 and 2 in the Z domain have been randomized. The Z(Taq):anti-Z(Taq) affibody-affibody complex, consisting of Z(Taq), originally selected as a binder to Taq DNA polymerase, and anti-Z(Taq), selected as binder to Z(Taq), is formed with a dissociation constant K-d similar to 100 nM. We have determined high-precision solution structures of free Z(Taq) and anti-Z(Taq), and the Z(Taq):anti-Z(Taq) complex under identical experimental conditions (25 degrees C in 50 mM NaCl with 20 mM potassium phosphate buffer at pH 6.4). The complex is formed with helices 1 and 2 of anti-Z(Taq) in perpendicular contact with helices 1 and 2 of Z(Taq). The interaction surface is large (similar to 1670 angstrom(2)) and unusually non-polar (70 %) compared to other protein-protein complexes. It involves all varied residues on anti-Z(Taq), most corresponding (Taq DNA polymerase binding) side-chains on Z(Taq), and several additional side-chain and backbone contacts. Other notable features include a substantial rearrangement (induced fit) of aromatic side-chains in Z(Taq) upon binding, a close contact between glycine residues in the two subunits that might involve aliphatic glycine H alpha to backbone carbonyl hydrogen bonds, and four hydrogen bonds made by the two guanidinium (NH2)-H-eta groups of an arginine side-chain. Comparisons of the present structure with other data for affibody proteins and the Z domain suggest that intrinsic binding properties of the originating SPA surface might be inherited by the affibody binders. A thermodynamic characterization of Z(Taq) and anti-Z(Taq) is presented in an accompanying paper.

1 - 7 of 7
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