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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden; University of Iceland.
    Characterisation of heavy traffic axle load spectra for mechanistic-empirical pavement design applications2015In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 488-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy traffic axle load spectrum (ALS) is one of the key inputs for mechanistic-empirical analysis and design of pavement structures. Frequently, the entire ALS is aggregated into number of equivalent single axle loads or assumed to have constant contact area (CCA) or constant contact pressure. These characterisations affect the accuracy and computational performance of the pavement analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate these characterisations based on predicted performances to rutting and fatigue cracking of several pavement structures subjected to ALS data collected from 12 bridge weigh in motion stations. The results indicated that for layers below the top 25cm, all characterisations produced similar values of predicted rutting. However, for the top 25cm, the methods differed in the predicted performances to rutting and fatigue cracking. Furthermore, an improvement to the CCA approach was proposed that enhanced the accuracy while maintaining the same level of computational performance.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering. VTI.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering. VTI.
    Characterization of heavy traffic axle load spectra for mechanistic-empirical pavement design applicationsIn: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Evaluation of a permanent deformation model for asphalt concrete mixtures using extra-large wheel tracking and heavy vehicle simulator tests2015In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 154-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates a mechanistic–empirical permanent strain model for asphalt concrete mixtures. The evaluation was carried out based on two different types of tests: an extra-large wheel-tracking (ELWT) test and a full-scale accelerated pavement test using a heavy vehicle simulator (HVS). Asphalt slabs from three different types of asphalt mixtures were prepared for the ELWT test and tested at several pavement temperatures and tyre inflation pressures. Lateral wandering was also incorporated. The measured permanent deformations in the asphalt slabs were thereafter modelled using the permanent strain model from the US Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide and model parameters were estimated for the three types of mixes. For validation, data from an HVS tested pavement structure consisting of the same asphalt mixtures as those tested using the ELWT were used. A set of calibration factors for the three mixtures were therefore obtained between the two tests. In all cases, the calibration factors were within ±20% from unity. Differences in geometry, scale, wheel loading configuration as well as the speed of loading between the two test devices could be the possible reasons for the differences in observed calibration factors.

  • 4.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Pavement Technology, VTI, Linköping, Sweden .
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Pavement Technology, VTI, Linköping, Sweden .
    Modeling of flexible pavement structure behavior - Comparisons with Heavy Vehicle Simulator measurements2012In: Advances in Pavement Design Through Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Accelerated Pavement Testing, 2012, p. 493-503Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A response model to be employed in a mechanistic-empirical pavement performance prediction model based on multilayer elastic theory has been developed.An iterative approach using a method of successive over-relaxation of a stress dependency model is used to account for the nonlinear behavior of unbound materials. Asphalt and subgrade materials are assumed to be linear elastic. The response model was verified against two series of Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) response measurements made under a variety of wheel load configurations and at different pavement temperatures.A comparison with FallingWeight Deflectometer (FWD) data was also carried out. The model was subsequently used to predict permanent deformation from the HVS testing using simplework hardening models.Atime hardening approach has been adopted to combine permanent deformation contributions from stress levels of different magnitude.The response model outputs and the predicted permanent deformations were generally in good agreement with the measurements.

  • 5.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway Engineering Laboratory. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway Engineering Laboratory. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Numerical validation of viscoelastic responses of a pavement structure in a full-scale accelerated pavement test2017In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 47-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates the application of a generalised layered linear viscoelastic (LVE) analysis for estimating the structural response of flexible pavements. A comparison of the direct layered viscoelastic responses with approximate solutions based on the linear elastic (LE) and LVE collocation methods was also carried out. The different approaches were implemented by extending a layered elastic program with an improved computational performance. The LE and LVE collocation methods were further extended for analysis of pavements under moving loads. The methods were illustrated by analysing a pavement structure subjected to moving wheel loads of 30, 50, 60 and 80kN using a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS). The various responses (stresses and strains) in the pavement, at pavement temperatures of 0, 10 and 20 degrees C, were measured using various types of sensors installed in the structure. It was shown that the approximated LVE solution based on the LE collocation method agreed very well with the measurements and is computationally the least expensive.

  • 6.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering. VTI.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering. VTI.
    Viscoelastic modelling of pavement structure behaviour in a full scale accelerated pavement testManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7. Björnsson, G
    et al.
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Sego, D
    Thaw induced bearing capacity of road materials2007In: Proceedings of the XIV European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2007, Vol. 3, p. 1613-1618Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8. Charlier, R
    et al.
    Chazallon, C
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Gajewska, B
    Hornych, P
    Kraszewski, K
    Pavsic, P
    Water Influence on Mechanical Behaviour of Pavements: Experimental Investigations2009In: Water in road structures: movement, drainage and effects / [ed] Andrew Dawson, Springer, 2009, p. 217-242Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9. Charlier, R
    et al.
    Hornych, P
    Srsen, M
    Hermansson, A
    Bjarnason, G
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Pavsic, P
    Water Influence on Bearing Capacity and Pavement Performance: Field Observations2009In: Water in Road Structures: movement, drainage and effects / [ed] Andrew Dawson, Springer, 2009, p. 175-192Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents a mechanical behaviour study, i.e. the bearing capacity as a function of the moisture degree. The field point of view is expressed and the chapter summarises a number of observations on road behaviour, in relation to variations of moisture. First, the road structure is recalled with respect to the mechanical analysis point of view. Then some observations on field under temperate climate, humid, are given. In a second step, the specific case of frost and thawing are discussed.

  • 10. Charlier, R
    et al.
    Laloui, L
    Brencic, M
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Hansson, K
    Hornych, P
    Modelling Coupled Mechanics, Moisture and Heat in Pavement Structures2009In: Water in Road Structures: movement, drainage and effects / [ed] Andrew Dawson, Springer, 2009, p. 243-281Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different physical problems have been analysed in the preceding {chapters}: they relate to water transfer, to heat transfer, to pollutant transfer and to mechanical equilibrium. All these problems are governed by differential equations and boundary conditions but analytical solutions are, in general, unobtainable because of the complex interaction of the various aspects which are always present in real-world situations. In such circumstances, numerical modelling can give a valuable alternative methodology for solving such highly coupled problems. The first part of this chapter is dedicated to a brief statement of the finite element method for highly coupled phenomena. In the second part, a number of numerical simulations are summarised as an illustration of what could be done with modern tools. The chapter shows that it is possible to achieve realistic results although, at present, some simplification is often required to do so.

  • 11.
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, VTI, Dept Highway Engn.
    Numerical Modeling of Thin Pavements Behavior in Accelerated HVS Tests2007In: International Journal of Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 719-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two thin road structures have been tested in accelerated testing by using a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS). Both were surface dressed structures, one with a target 20 cm thick unbound base course layer and the other with the base divided into a 10 cm bitumen stabilized base over 10 cm unbound base. The tested road structures were instrumented to estimate deflections, strains and stresses in various locations inside the structure. Numerical analyses, by using two different techniques, the multilayer elastic theory (MLET) and the finite element (FE) have been carried out to simulate the response behaviour of the tested structure and compared with the actual measurements. For both techniques linear and non-linear behaviour of the base was assumed. For the FE method both 2D axisymmetric and a 3D analysis were carried out. The results have further been used to model the permanent deformation development in each layer. The main finding of the study was that induced vertical stresses were generally well predicted in both structures. Better agreement was generally found between the vertical stresses and the actual response with the non-linear response, especially for high loading conditions. The best prediction of surface deflections was obtained in a three dimensional linear elastic analysis where a rectangular loading area was used instead of a circular one in the two dimensional axisymmetric solutions. Generally poor or moderate agreement was found between the strain measurements and the numerical estimations. The simple work. hardening model used to model the accumulated deformation relied on results from repeated load triaxial test results and gave generally good agreement with the results from the testing.

  • 12.
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    Univ Iceland, Fac Engn, IS-107 Reykjavik, Iceland .
    Numerical Modeling of Unbound Granular Materials in Pavement Structures2005In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering: Vols 1-5: GEOTECHNOLOGY IN HARMONY WITH THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT , 2005, p. 1699-1702Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     New pavement design methods are under development where the aim is to predict functional and structural conditions of the road over time. To be able to take advantage of these new design methods a better understanding of the ability to calculate the response of pavement structures due to vehicle load is needed were the mechanical properties of the constituent materials are properly presented. For thin pavement structures the granular materials, base and subbase layers, play an essential role in the overall structural performance. However they show a complex elasto-plastic behaviour under external loading. An instrumented thin surface dressed pavement structure has been tested in accelerated testing by using a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS). The response of the structure due to traffic loading was measured and thereafter two different numerical techniques used to predict the structural behaviour, the Multilayer Elastic Theory (MLET) and the Finite Element (FE) method. Both linear and nonlinear elastic analyses have been carried out to simulate the response of the structure. It was found that analyses where the nonlinear base behaviour is taken into account gave better agreement with measurements compared to a linear elastic analyses. Based on the calculated response of vertical strain in the pavement structure as well as from results from Repeated Load Triaxial (RLT) testing a simple power law function is used to estimate the development of rutting in the pavement structure and compared to actual measurements. Good agreement was found between the actual measurements and the calculations.

  • 13.
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    On Forecasting the Resilient Modulus from the CBR Value of Granular Bases2007In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 783-797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unbound granular materials (UGM), base and subbase layers, play an essential role in the overall structural performance of thin pavement structures. They show complex stress dependent elasto-plastic behaviour under external loading. Therefore the UGM are commonly tested using the Repeated Load Triaxial (RLT) testing method to estimate the stiffness of the material by applying haversine loading pulses. The RLT testing method represents the actual stress situation quite adequately and gives satisfactorily estimates of the stiffness characteristics of UGM. A simple test that has been used for a long time in structural design of flexible pavements is the CBR (California Bearing Ratio) test. In the CBR test, the load-deformation curve is acquired while a plunger is penetrated into the material at a constant rate. In the literature one can find a number of relationships for UGM where the CBR value is used to predict the stiffness. These connections usually do not take into account that stiffness of UGM is both stress and moisture dependent. To investigate if a relationship between the two tests exists, twenty materials have been tested with both methods and the test results compared. The materials were of varying quality and were tested at four different moisture contents. The results indicate that a simple power law can be used to forecast the stiffness if the CBR-value is known.

  • 14.
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Rutting development in pavements in a HVS test at Sunninge, Sweden2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Water impact on the structural behaviour of a pavement structure2009In: BEARING CAPACITY OF ROADS, RAILWAYS AND AIRFIELDS, VOLS 1 AND 2, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An accelerated load test using a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) has been performed at VTI's test facility. The objective was to investigate the response behavior and performance of a commonly used flexible pavement structure in Sweden. The instrumented structure consists of 10 cm bounded layers, granular base and subbase resting on sandy subgrade. The test was divided into three phases: a pre-loading phase, a response phase and the main accelerated loading test where 1,000,000 load cycles were applied. After applying the first 500,000 load cycles the water table was raised and further 500,000 loading cycles were applied. Raising the groundwater table increased the rate of rutting developed in all unbound layers. From the sensor registrations it is clearly seen that the stiffness of all unbound layers decreased as the water table was raised, thus the pressure cells revealed lower registrations but the vertical strain gauges increased their readings. Further, it was observed that the rate of rutting accelerated. This has been interpreted as the impact of higher water content on the characteristics of the unbound layers, the subgrade, subbase and base course.

  • 16.
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, VTI.
    Water influence on the performance of a pavement structure in a HVS test2008In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Accelerated Pavement Testing, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Baltzer, S
    Baena, J
    Jarnason, B
    Measurements Techniques for Water Flow2009In: Water in road structures: movement, drainage and effects / [ed] Andrew Dawson, Springer, 2009, p. 45-67Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Brencic, M
    Dawson, A
    Water Flow Theory for Saturated and Unsaturated Pavement Materials2009In: Water in road structures: movement, drainage and effects / [ed] Andrew Dawson, Springer, 2009, p. 23-44Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Jonsdottir, A
    Thorsteinsson, T
    Gaps, kinematics and driving behaviour2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Jonsdottir, A
    Thorsteinsson, T
    Traffic stream modelling of road facilities2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Magnusdottir, M
    Prediction of stiffness of unbound granular materials based on the CBR-value2005In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Bearing capacity of roads, railways and airfields, Trondheim, Norway, 27 – 29 June, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Evaluation of Permanent Deformation Characteristics of Unbound Granular Materials by Means of Multistage Repeated-Load Triaxial Tests2013In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2369, p. 11-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rutting in flexible pavements is often associated with permanent deformation of the unbound granular layer. The current permanent deformation models are applicable only to a single stress path in repeated-load triaxial (RLT) tests, in which the load pulses are of constant amplitude. In this paper, a general approach using the time-hardening concept was introduced to model the permanent deformation of unbound granular materials (UGMs) continuously in multistage (MS) RLT tests, in which load pulses of a range of different amplitudes are applied, to represent field conditions realistically. With this formulation, three existing permanent deformation models were reconstructed, and one of the models was slightly modified, to suit MS loading conditions better. The material parameters of these models were then optimized for three UGMs used in pavement construction with data from MS RLT tests and application of a least squares curve-fitting method to the test data. The goodness-of-fit statistics were computed to evaluate and compare the quality of fit achieved with these models. The shakedown ranges were also calculated for each stress path of the MS RLT tests to compare these models in simulating these ranges. Generally, the time-hardening approach, for which the quality of fit is dependent on the chosen model, was found to work successfully. In this study, the selected models performed quite well, with the modified model showing the closest agreement to the test data. Thus, this approach has the potential to be applied for better modeling and prediction of pavement performance.

  • 23. Faisca, J
    et al.
    Baena, J
    Baltzer, S
    Gajewska, B
    Nousiainen, A
    Hermansson, A
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Brencic, M
    Dawson, A
    Control of Pavement Water and Pollution Preventation2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24. Hermansson, Åke
    et al.
    Charlier, Robert
    Collin, Frédéric
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Laloui, Lyesse
    Srsen, Mate
    Heat Transfer in Soils2009In: Water in Road Structures, Springer, 2009, p. 69-79Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temperature highly affects pavement performance. High and low temperatures not only affects the viscosity of asphalt concrete but also has an impact on the moisture flow within pavements. At temperatures below 0°C the freezing of pavements dramatically changes the permeability and frost action might occur forcing water to flow upwards to the freezing front resulting in frost heave and other pavement distress.

  • 25. Hoff, I
    et al.
    Arvidson, H
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Houben, H
    Kolisoja, P
    Schwartz, Charles
    Round Robin Investigation on the Cyclic Triaxial Test for Unbound Granular Materials2005In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conferenceon Bearing Capacity of Roads, Railways and Airfields, Trondheim, Norway, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26. Huvstig, A
    et al.
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Hoff, I
    Saba, R
    NordFoU: Pavement Performance Models, Project Level2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27. Huvstig, A
    et al.
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Saba, R
    Hoff, I
    Pavement Performance Models on Project Level2008In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Application of Advanced Technologies in Transportation, Athens, 27-31 May 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28. Laloui, L.
    et al.
    Charlier, R.
    Chazallon, C.
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Hornych, P.
    Pavsic, P.
    Srsen, M.
    Water Influence on Mechanical Behaviour of Pavements: Constitutive Modelling2009In: Water in road structures: movement, drainage and effects / [ed] Andrew Dawson, Springer, 2009, p. 193-216Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter deals with the effects of water on the mechanical behaviour of pavements. The analysis is based on constitutive considerations. Constitutive models devoted to both routine and advanced pavement analysis and design are introduced and both the resilient behaviour as well as the long term elasto-plastic approaches are presented. As soon as the approach considers the material as a two phase (solid matrix and a fluid), the introduction of the effective stress concept is required. In the last section an analysis is made on the extension of the constitutive models to the characterisation of partially saturated materials

  • 29.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials. VTI - Statens Väg- och Transportforskningsinstitut.
    Janhäll, Sara
    VTI - Statens Väg- och Transportforskningsinstitut.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    VTI - Statens Väg- och Transportforskningsinstitut.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering. VTI - Statens Väg- och Transportforskningsinstitut / Islands Universitet.
    Calibration of the Swedish Studded Tyre Abrasion Wear Prediction Model and the Implication for the NORTRIP Road Dust Emission Model2018In: Transportation Research Board 97th annual meeting, Washington, D.C., 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimentally based prediction model of rut development due to studded tyres is available in 3 Sweden and which had been found to work well. However, since it has not been validated since 4 2007, during which traffic as well as road and tyre design have developed, the question has 5 arisen regarding the model’s current validity. Also, since the prediction model is used in the 6 NORTRIP (NOn-exhaust Road Traffic Induced Particle emission) emission model, a natural 7 question is how a change in the wear model will affect the emission model. In this paper, two 8 versions of the abrasion model are compared to measurements at several recently constructed 9 roads in Sweden to investigate the validity, while also proposing changes to allow for continued 10 use. In addition, the impact on NORTRIP is briefly investigated. The paper first describes the 11 abrasion models and their calibration, as well as the test sections for calibration. Both versions of 12 the model, as expected, overestimated the wear and an update was suggested. It was also found 13 that NORTRIP is indicatively affected by overestimating the contribution of pavement wear to 14 the emissions.

  • 30.
    Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    A Model for Predicting Permanent Deformation of Unbound Granular Materials2015In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 653-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple model has been proposed to characterize the accumulation of permanent deformation (PD) in Unbound Granular Materials (UGMs) under cyclic loading of variable magnitudes. The model was developed based on Multi-Stage (MS) Repeated-Load Triaxial (RLT) tests. The material parameters of this model can be evaluated using an MS RLT test. The model was validated by calibrating it for a few UGMs with a range of grain size distributions, moisture contents and degrees of compaction. The calibrated model was further validated by predicting the PD behaviour of some of these UGMs for different stress conditions. Generally, quite satisfactory predictions were obtained with this model with the advantage of reduced effort required for its calibration compared to some existing models. Additionally, the sensitivity of the parameters of this model to moisture, degree of compaction and grain size distribution was investigated with the aim of incorporating them into the model in future.

  • 31.
    Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    Characterizing the Impact of Moisture on the Permanent Deformation Behavior of Unbound Granular Materials2015In: Compendium of Papers of the 94th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of moisture on the permanent deformation (PD) behavior of several Unbound Granular Materials (UGMs) was investigated through Multi-stage (MS) Repeated-load Triaxial (RLT) tests. Results showed that the accumulation of PD with the number of load applications increased with increased moisture content for all the UGMs. The UGMs with the finer grain size distributions showed greater sensitivity to moisture variations. A simple model was developed to characterize the PD behavior of UGMs under cyclic loading of varying magnitudes. The model was calibrated for the UGMs using the experimental data. Using the model, reasonably good quality of fit was obtained for the UGMs within the range of moisture content used for the tests. Then the material parameters of the model were studied for their sensitivity to moisture. It was found that one parameter varied linearly with the moisture content while the others remained fairly constant. Thus the proposed model with one of its parameters as a linear function of moisture content can be used for predicting the PD behavior of UGMs with variation in moisture.

  • 32.
    Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    Characterizing the Impact of Moistureon the Permanent Deformation Behaviour of Unbound Gronular Materials2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    Moisture Influence on the Resilient Deformation Behaviour of Unbound Granular Materials2016In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, Vol. 17, no 9, p. 763-775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of moisture on the resilient deformation (RD) properties of unbound granular materials (UGMs) was investigated based on repeated load triaxial (RLT) tests. Results showed that the resilient modulus (MR) decreased with increasing moisture for a relatively low number of load cycles (N) where the deformation behaviour was mostly resilient with a negligible amount of associated accumulated permanent deformation (PD). Modelling attempts on this behaviour were quite satisfactory. Furthermore, the MR showed an increasing trend with increasing moisture, up to the optimum, when the N was relatively large with a significant amount of accumulated PD. Above the optimum, the MR generally decreased. Further investigation suggested that moisture aided the post-compaction (PC) and possible particle rearrangement that resulted in the increased PD and increased MR. The existing model did not work in this case indicating that the effect of PC on MR should be considered in modelling.

  • 34.
    Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    Predicting permanent deformation behaviour of unbound granular materials2015In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 587-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reliably predict the permanent deformation behaviour of unbound granular materials (UGM) in a pavement structure, the material parameters of the constitutive models used in design should be evaluated using a multi-stage (MS) loading approach. This paper investigated the prediction of the accumulation of permanent strain in UGM using some current models, extended applying the time-hardening approach, based on MS repeated load triaxial tests (RLTTs). The material parameters of these models were optimised for five different UGM used in pavement construction using the MS RLTT data with a specific set of stress levels. With these models, the accumulations of permanent strain in the same materials for MS RLTTs with a different set of stress levels were predicted. Using this approach, three out of the four models performed very well, which may be further developed for field conditions for better prediction of rutting.

  • 35.
    Salour, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    University of Iceland; Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Falling Weight Deflectometer Interpretation of Pavement Behaviour during Spring Thaw2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A rural county road consisting of a thin flexible pavement structure in southern Sweden was instrumented in year 2009 in order to monitor changes in pavement characteristics caused by seasonal variations in environmental factors. Subsurface pavement temperatures, moisture phase and moisture contents were constantly measured throughout the study with main focus on the spring thaw and recovery periods. The pavement structural response was surveyed by conducting Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) measurements during these periods. Changes in pavement layers moduli were estimated by performing backcalculations on the deflection data using the Evercalc computer program. Furthermore, deflection basin indices were analysed using the FWD data. Pavement stiffness decreased significantly when the base and the subgrade began to thaw. Changes in backcalculated layers moduli showed clear correlation with layers moisture content measurements. The field data showed a considerable decrease in the bearing capacity of the pavement structure when the highest annual moisture in subgrade was also registered. Both deflection basin indices and backcalculated layers moduli indicated that the pavement was weakest when the subgrade completely thawed. Thereafter, the pavement gradually regained its stiffness as the excess water drained out from the layers. Complete recovery of the pavement took more than one month. Backcalculations of the FWD data showed 63 percent loss in the subgrade modulus and 48 percent loss in granular base and subbase moduli respectively during spring thaw compared to the summer values.

  • 36.
    Salour, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, VTI, Sweden .
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    University of Iceland.
    Resilient modulus modelling of unsaturated subgrade soils: laboratory investigation of silty sand subgrade2015In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 553-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In flexible pavement structures, stiffness of unbound granular layers and subgrade soil significantly contribute to the overall performance of the pavement system. The stiffness of pavement unbound materials is widely characterised by the resilient modulus, M-r, which is obtained from repeated load triaxial (RLT) tests. Although pavement unbound materials are usually in partially saturated conditions and experience seasonal moisture content and therefore suction variations in the field, their stiffness is conventionally characterised using the total stress approach in which the effect of soil suction is not taken into account. Thus, an enhanced approach in predicting the stiffness of subgrade soils has to account for the partially saturated conditions and incorporate soil suction (i.e. matric suction) in the M-r constitutive models. In this study, several M-r prediction models that take into account the effect of pore suction were investigated. The M-r data set from an experimental investigation of two silty sand subgrade soils that was conducted using a suction-controlled RLT testing apparatus was used to optimise the parameter of these models. The capability of the M-r predictive models in capturing the resilient modulus behaviour of the silty sand subgrade soils and its variation due to seasonal changes in the moisture content (soil suction) were evaluated. It was observed that the M-r models that combine the three fundamental stress state variables (confining stress, deviator stress and matric suction) performed better in capturing the resilient modulus behaviour of the subgrade materials.

  • 37.
    Salour, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    The Influence of Groundwater Level on the Structural Behaviour of a Pavement Structure Using FWD2013In: Proceedings Ninth International Conference on the Bearing Capacity of Roads, Railways and Airfields (BCRRA) / [ed] Inge Hoff, Helge Mork and Rabbira Garba Saba, Akademika forlag, 2013, p. 485-494Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of groundwater table level on the structural response of an instrumented flexible pavement in southern Sweden was studied using multilevel Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) testing. In order to raise the groundwater table level under the pavement structure, the outlets of the pavement’s subsurface drainage system was blocked for three months. Thereafter, it was unblocked, allowing the pavement to recover to its normal draining condition. During this period, variations in the groundwater level and subsurface volumetric moisture content were registered. Manipulation of the drainage system significantly affected the ground water level and the pavement unbound layers moisture conditions. Both the granular layer and the subgrade stiffness significantly decreased with increasing moisture content. In all the FWDs performed, the granular materials exhibited stress-hardening behaviour. However, the subgrade showed stress-softening response in unsaturated condition and stress-independent behaviour in saturated state. In an attempt to determine the k-theta model parameters from the backcalculated internal stresses and unboundlayers moduli, it was observed that the k1 parameter decreased with increasing moisture content for both the granular layer and the unsaturated subgrade materials.

  • 38.
    Salour, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Zapata, Claudia E.
    Arizona State University.
    Resilient Modulus Modeling of Unsaturated Subgrade Soils with Matric Suction Control2014In: Asphalt Pavements, London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2014, p. 1145-1154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stiffness of pavement subgrade materials that is commonly determined by the resilient modulus parameter is an important component in the mechanistic design of flexible pavement structures. Environmental effects such as seasonal variations in pavement moisture content can considerably influence this material property which should be properly consideredin any realistic pavement design. The seasonal changes in moisture condition affects the stress state in the subgrade due to changes in the matric suction which is an important stress state variable in unsaturated soil mechanics. In this study, a modified test procedure and apredictive resilient modulus model that takes into account the subgrade soil matric suction asa stress state variable is presented. Two different silty sand subgrade materials were tested inunsaturated conditions using a series of Repeated Load Triaxial (RLT) tests. The tests wereperformed under various matric suctions (moisture contents) to enhance the understandingof its effect on the resilient modulus. The results showed a considerable influence of the moisturecontent (matric suction) on the subgrade resilient modulus. The resilient modulus datatogether with the suction measurements were used and a set of parameters for the enhancedpredictive model were developed. This model accounts for seasonal variation of subgradematerial stiffness by incorporating suction as a stress state variable.

  • 39.
    Svensson, Markus
    et al.
    VTI.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    VTI.
    Modeling of performance for road structure ruttingand cracking based on data from the Swedish LTPP database2011In: 8th International Conference on Managing Pavement Assets, November 15-19, 2011, Santiago, Chile: "Fulfilling the Social, Economic and Environmental Responsibility for Sustainable, Well Managed, Better Roads", 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roads are in a state of constant form of degradation due to factors such as climate and heavy traffic loads and are therefore constructed to have a certain lifetime before being reconstructed. To minimize the cost of construction and reconstruction, robust models for predicting their performance are needed. The aim for this project is to develop prediction models for flexible pavement structures for initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in the bound layers and rutting for the whole structure. The models are based on observations from the Swedish Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) database. The intention is to use the models for planning maintenance as a part of a pavement management system (PMS). A statistical approach is used for the modeling where both cracking and rutting are related to traffic data, climate conditions and the subgrade characteristics as well as the pavement structure. The results for one arterial road are then shown.

  • 40.
    Svensson, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    VTI.
    Modeling performance prediction, based on rutting and cracking data2011In: 4th European Pavement and Asset Management Conference, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roads are in a state of constant form of deterioration, due to factors such as climate and heavy traffic loads and are therefore constructed to have a certain lifetime before being maintained. To minimize the cost of construction and rehabilitation, robust models for predicting their performance are needed. The aim of this project is to develop prediction models for flexible pavement structures for initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in the bound layers, and rutting for the whole structure. The models are based on observations from the Swedish Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) database. The intention is to use them for planning maintenance activities; as a part of a pavement management system (PMS). A statistical approach is used for the modeling where both cracking and rutting are related to traffic data, climate conditions, the subgrade characteristics as well as the pavement structure. This paper will present validated models, linking climate, environment, construction methods, material and traffic with road distress.

  • 41. Wiman, L.
    et al.
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Accelerated Pavement Testing by HVS: a Trans-national Testing Equipment2008Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 41 of 41
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