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  • 1. Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    Engström, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Kok, Rixt
    Indirect and Direct Energy Requirements of City Households in Sweden: Options for Reduction, Lessons from Modeling2005In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 9, no 1-2, p. 221-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to explore the potential for lowering household energy use given existing local support systems, in this case in the Stockholm inner city with the aid of the Dutch energy analysis program (EAP) that was adapted to Swedish conditions and that portrays total energy use for 300 consumption categories. Previously such modeling for Sweden was carried out using only Dutch databases. Our case-study area is well equipped with food stores, local markets, public transportation, and entertainment, facilitating some energy-efficient consumption choices. With maintained expenditure levels but changed consumption patterns, current reduction potentials are on the order of 10-20%. Options concerning diet can lower food indirect energy use by up to 30%, whereas options in other areas have a lower potential. Further reductions will require enhanced local support systems, external as well as internal. The results indicate that it is risky not to use nationally adapted figures for energy efficiency in the production sectors when modeling household energy use, because potential for change may be overlooked. Future work should include foreign energy intensities when modeling imported goods; otherwise, results may be less reliable. The Swedish EAP needs further work before it can be put to use as a modeling tool for everyday behavior but it is already generating important possibilities for producing reliable data that can be used by local energy counselors.

  • 2.
    Engström, Rebecka
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Environmental impacts from Swedish food production and consumption2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 3.
    Engström, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Food, energy and the environment from a Swedish perspective2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    National sector responsibility legislation places specific obligations on Swedish sector authorities to handle environmental issues within their sector. Because of this responsibility, there is a need to map environmental impacts from sectors and to identify key problems and strategies to reduce impacts in each sector. Agriculture and energy are two sectors causing severe environmental impacts, and these are therefore interesting as case studies.

    Employing a systems perspective when exploring impacts and options for their reduction ensures that problems are not simply shifted in time or space or between problems, but are considered in a holistic manner. Using this perspective, indirect effects such as changes upstream or downstream of the production chain, as well as among consumers, can be considered when seeking strategies to reduce environmental impacts in a sector.

    A method to investigate environmental impacts from a sector was developed and tested in the cases of agriculture and energy (Papers I and II). The method was based on environmentally extended Input-Output Analysis (IOA) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). IOA-data from Swedish Environmental Accounts were used as the starting point for the inventory. Such data provide information on direct and indirect impacts from the sector. To capture those aspects not included in the Environmental Accounts, the Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives were subsequently used as a checklist, and information on the missing aspects was obtained from literature. For further processing of the data, characterisation and weighting methods from LCA methodology were used to identify hotspots, i.e. the most important problems.

    The results showed that biodiversity, greenhouse effect, eutrophication, use of non-renewable resources and toxicity were potential hotspots in the agriculture sector. In the energy sector, the hotspots were air quality, greenhouse effect, use of non-renewable resources and toxicity.

    Analysis of sector policies (Paper III) showed that both sectors are focusing on some of the hotspots identified, but other important problems are not receiving sufficient attention. In the agriculture sector, the focus is principally on biodiversity and toxicity, while the energy sector mainly focuses on issues of climate change and non-renewable resources.

    A second hybrid IOA-LCA method (Energy Analysis Programme, EAP) was employed to study direct and indirect use of energy carriers in households (Papers IV and V). Through a combination of IOA and process data, the energy intensity (energy per monetary unit, e.g. MJ/SEK) of a large number of goods and services was calculated. When combined with information on household expenditure, these data provided information on total household use of fuels and electricity and provided insights into spending patterns that could result in lower energy intensity. A final study investigated the significance of reducing food losses as a strategy to reduce environmental impacts from the food sector (Paper VI). The results from the studies with a consumer perspective were used to identify how consumers can contribute to reducing environmental impacts in the two sectors investigated. For agriculture, consumers can help reduce impacts through reduced consumption of animal products, while for energy, reduced energy use in households is important, as is further substitution of fossil fuels.

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  • 4.
    Engström, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Land use in the future - needs and limitations2005In: Ecosystems and Sustainable Development V / [ed] Tiezzi, E; Brebbia, CA; Jorgensen, SE; Gomar, DA, ASHURST: WIT PRESS , 2005, Vol. 81, p. 365-374Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suitable cropland is needed for production of food, forest products, bioenergy and other crops, and in all areas future projections have been made on the need for land. Projections of future contribution from biomass to the global energy system often take food production into consideration. But there is not only a conflict between different kinds of production: land has to be set aside also for protection of biological diversity. Saving species is important for reasons such as current and future commercial benefits, but also because of functional values of the ecosystems, to maintain productivity. In this study projections of future land use for different purposes are compared with total suitable land on a global scale. It discusses possibilities for realisation of the projections and potential strategies for making the fulfilment of the different needs compatible. Strategies for reducing land use are for example changed food consumption and energy saving measures. A main finding is that the available land can suffice for the needs according to the studied projections, but we might have to consider alterations for example in diet.

  • 5.
    Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Infrastructure.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    Food losses in food service institutions: Examples from Sweden2004In: Food Policy, ISSN 0306-9192, E-ISSN 1873-5657, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 203-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Lowering food losses is a potential measure to overcome hunger and reduce the ecological side effects from the food system. However, few observations of food losses have been reported in the literature during recent years. We studied food losses in four food service institutions in Stockholm, Sweden. The results show that about one-fifth of the food is lost. Plate waste is the single largest source of loss, at 11-13% of the amount of food served. Losses in food service institutions can be of significant economic value, and arable land equivalent to 1.5% of the area under cultivation in Sweden may be used to produce food eventually lost in food service institutions. The results indicate that the economic and environmental consequences of current levels of food losses may be substantial. More research is needed in order to better estimate levels, devise prevention strategies and identify policy implications.

  • 6.
    Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Dreborg, Karl-Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Åtgärdspaket och omvärldsscenarier för de svenska miljömålen2007Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Dreborg, Karl-Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Omvärldsscenarier till miljömålsarbetet2007Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Nilsson, Måns
    Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Kräftriket 2B, SE 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Which environmental problems get policy attention? Examining energy and agricultural sector policies in Sweden2008In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 8, no 4-5, p. 241-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Not all environmental problems get the same level of policy attention. An interesting question is thus why certain aspects receive attention and others do not. This paper studies the level of policy attention given to different environmental aspects in agriculture and energy policy in Sweden and explores empirically some factors that can explain the level of attention. The first step was to explore the link between environmental issue characteristics and the level of policy attention. The level of policy attention was measured through a content analysis of Swedish government bills. The results from the content analysis are clear and stable over the studied time period. In the agriculture sector biodiversity and toxicity are in focus whereas in the energy sector climate change and resources are given the attention. Besides these aspects, the attention is limited. These results were compared with the results from sector-wide environmental assessments of the same sectors. These assessments were based on hybrid input-output analysis and life cycle assessment methodologies. A main finding from the study is that issue importance is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for policy attention. Other explanations are needed to understand which environmental issues get attention in sectoral policy. Our assessment showed that while the level of knowledge does not provide an explanation, the presence of strong and well-organised stakeholders within the sector, with an interest in having a certain issue on the agenda, might be decisive for issue attention. Path dependency and limited attention capacity are other important factors.

  • 9. Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    Wadeskog, Anders
    Environmental impact from a sector: Production and consumption of energy carriers in Sweden2006In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 451-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental impacts from the Swedish energy sector, including upstream and downstream effects, were investigated using a hybrid IOA-LCA method. Use of abiotic resources, climate change, air pollution and toxic effects were identified as environmental hotspots in the sector. On the production side, power, gas and heat production were found to cause many environmental effects, but impacts abroad from imported energy carriers, mainly oil, also contributed significantly to total impact. However, impacts from use of energy carriers overshadowed impacts from their production, and the cumulative impact from many small users of energy carriers was shown to be as important as emissions from large industries. The assessment provides a basis for sector policymakers and shows, e.g., the importance of not focusing solely on climate change, and the significance of including upstream and downstream effects.

  • 10.
    Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Wadeskog, Anders
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture2007In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 550-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes an environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture, including upstream and downstream effects. The analysis is based on environmentally extended input-output analysis, but it is also supplemented with data from other sources. The analysis shows that direct effects by the Swedish agriculture are the most important, while indirect effects from other sources including mobile and impacts abroad are also considerable. The most important impacts from Swedish agriculture according to the analysis are eutrophication, global warming and resource use. The agricultural sector produces a large share of the Swedish emissions causing both global warming and eutrophication. In addition, current agricultural practice causes problems with loss of biodiversity. The most important actors in the sector are agriculture itself, but also all actors using fossil fuels: primarily the transport sector and the energy sector. In addition, consumers are important since they can influence the composition of agricultural production. The analysis shows the importance of including upstream and downstream effects when analysing the environmental impacts from a sector.

  • 11.
    Höjer, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Dreborg, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Engström, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Experiences of the development and use of scenarios for evaluating Swedish national environmental objectives (vol 43, pg 1, 2011)2011In: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 497-512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and evaluates a method for encouraging long-term thinking and for considering a variety of scenarios in environmental policy processes. The Swedish environmental policy is based on 16 environmental quality objectives (EQOs) that national authorities are obliged to observe. These objectives are reviewed annually and evaluated in depth every four years. Here we describe and explore a futures study project for introducing more long-term thinking into work on the EQOs, which we tested in the in-depth evaluation in 2008. We found it difficult to design a collective scenario for a case with a wide variety of objectives and individuals with different backgrounds. However, this difficulty makes it even more important to incorporate futures studies into the work of the relevant authorities. Scenario work is often subcontracted, leading to a constant lack of futures studies expertise and thinking within authorities. Despite the difficulties, we found that experts within the authorities did begin to recognise the opportunities provided by futures studies. The project revealed an interest and need for futures studies within the authorities in charge of Swedish environmental quality objectives and our findings show that the authorities need to build up their own skills in futures studies.

  • 12.
    Höjer, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Dreborg, Karl-Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Engström, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Gunnarsson Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Experiences of the development and use of scenarios for evaluating Swedish national environmental objectives2011In: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present paper is to present and evaluate a method for encouraging long-term thinking and considerations of a variety of scenarios in environmental policy processes. The Swedish environmental policy is based on 16 environmental objectives that national authorities are responsible for. They are evaluated annually and also in-depth every fourth year. Here we describe and explore a futures study project for introducing a more long-term thinking in the work with the environmental objectives, tested in the in-depth evaluation 2008. An experience was that it is difficult to design a collective scenario work in a case with a wide variety of objectives and with individuals with different backgrounds. However, this difficulty makes it even more important to incorporate futures studies in authorities work. Scenario work is often subcontracted, leading to a constant lack of futures studies competence and thinking at the authorities. Another experience is that despite the difficulties, experts at the authorities did start thinking more in terms of opportunities with futures studies. A general conclusion from the work was that there is an interest and need for futures studies at the authorities in charge of the environmental objectives. The possibly most important conclusion from this project was that the authorities need to build up their own competences in futures studies.

  • 13. Moll, Henri C
    et al.
    Noorman, Klaas Jan
    Kok, Rixt
    Engström, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Trone-Holst, Harald
    Clark, Charlotte
    Pursuing More Sustainable Consumption by Analyzing Household Metabolism in European Countries and Cities2005In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 9, no 1-2, p. 259-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bringing about more sustainable consumption patterns is an important challenge for society and science. In this article the concept of household metabolism is applied to analyzing consumption patterns and to identifying possibilities for the development of sustainable household consumption patterns. Household metabolism is determined in terms of total energy requirements, including both direct and indirect energy requirements, using a hybrid method. This method enables us to evaluate various determinants of the environmental load of consumption consistently at several levels - the national level, the local level, and the household level. The average annual energy requirement of households varies considerably between the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Norway, and Sweden, as well as within these countries. The average expenditure level per household explains a large part of the observed variations. Differences between these countries are also related to the efficiency of the production sectors and to the energy supply system. The consumption categories of food, transport, and recreation show the largest contributions to the environmental load. A comparison of consumer groups with different household characteristics shows remarkable differences in the division of spending over the consumption categories. Thus, analyses of different types of households are important for providing a basis for options to induce decreases of the environmental load of household consumption. At the city level, options for change are provided by an analysis of the city infrastructure, which determines a large part of the direct energy use by households (for transport and heating). At the national level, energy efficiency in production and in electricity generation is an important trigger for decreasing household energy requirements

  • 14.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Engström, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hushållning med mark, vatten och bebyggd miljö: åtgärdsstrategier under olika omvärldsutvecklingar2007Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Engström, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Use of explorative scenarios in environmental policy making: Evaluation of policy instruments for management of land, water and the built environment2010In: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 42, no 10, p. 1166-1175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve the Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives (EQOs), three action strategies have been adopted by the Swedish parliament. The strategy addressed in this paper deals with the management of land, water and the built environment. The paper reports on a project involving authorities and researchers in which policy measures required for achieving relevant targets for the strategy were gathered, structured and analysed regarding their potential assuming alternative futures. Measures with proposed policy instruments were qualitatively evaluated against one business as usual scenario and four explorative scenarios varying along two dimensions; level of governance and level of embeddedness. The results show a heavy predominance of administrative policy instruments. This policy strategy depends on a future development where such policy instruments are accepted. In order to achieve the EQOs regardless of future developments, more robust packages of measures including a larger variation in policy instruments need to be developed.

  • 16.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Engström, Rebecka
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Svane, Örjan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Decreased energy use in buildings by 50% by 2050: a backcasting study using stakeholder groups2011In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 78, no 5, p. 785-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a backcasting study focusing on fulfilment of a national target to decrease energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by 2050 compared with the consumption in 1995, and identifying possible measures for achieving it. A method based on a combination of backcasting methodology and focus group methodology was used. Two different scenarios were developed. They were used in discussions with stakeholders in the building sector, to explore and identify measures and actors important for target fulfillment. The main outcomes were ideas for strategies and measures needed to achieve the target. The current potential for target fulfilment was also analysed and discussed. The discussions in the different stakeholder groups were mainly concerned with changes in attitude and behaviour and the need for radical changes in social structures. For example, enhanced communication between actors in the building chain, and the need for relevant feedback in order to illustrate the link between the effort in decreasing energy use and actual outcome. The findings suggest that there is sufficient technical potential to achieve the target by 2050 but that this potential will not be realised to a sufficient extent. Achieving the target would be facilitated by policy that is oriented more towards identifying actors with direct influence to promote change. An analysis of incentives for these actors to act, and how different actors can cooperate for energy-efficient solutions should be integrated into the process of suggesting and implementing policy measures.

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