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  • 1. Abbas, Ghazanfar
    et al.
    Chaudhry, M. Ashraf
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Singh, Manish
    Liu, Qinghua
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Qin, Haiying
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Study of CuNiZnGdCe-Nanocomposite Anode for Low Temperature SOFC2012In: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Letters, ISSN 1941-4900, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 389-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite electrodes of Cu0.16Ni0.27Zn0.37Ce0.16Gd0.04 (CNZGC) oxides have been successfully synthesized by solid state reaction method as anode material for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC). These electrodes are characterized by XRD followed by sintering at various time periods and temperatures. Particle size of optimized composition was calculated 40-85 nm and sintered at 800 degrees C for 4 hours. Electrical conductivity of 4.14 S/cm was obtained at a temperature of 550 degrees C by the 4-prob DC method. The activation energy was calculated 4 x 10(-2) eV at 550 degrees C. Hydrogen was used as fuel and air as oxidant at anode and cathode sides respectively. I-V/I-P curves were obtained in the temperature range of 400-550 degrees C. The maximum power density was achieved for 570 mW/cm(2) at 550 degrees C.

  • 2.
    Abbas, Ghazanfar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan.
    Ahmad, M. Ashfaq
    Khan, M. Ajmal
    Hussain, M. Jafar
    Ahmad, Mukhtar
    Aziz, Hammad
    Ahmad, Imran
    Batool, Rida
    Altaf, Faizah
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Electrochemical investigation of mixed metal oxide nanocomposite electrode for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell2017In: International Journal of Modern Physics B, ISSN 0217-9792, Vol. 31, no 27, article id 1750193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc-based nanostructured nickel (Ni) free metal oxide electrode material Zn-0.60/CU0.20Mn0.20 oxide (CMZO) was synthesized by solid state reaction and investigated for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC) applications. The crystal structure and surface morphology of the synthesized electrode material were examined by XRD and SEM techniques respectively. The particle size of ZnO phase estimated by Scherer's equation was 31.50 nm. The maximum electrical conductivity was found to be 12.567 S/cm and 5.846 S/cm in hydrogen and air atmosphere, respectively at 600 degrees C. The activation energy of the CMZO material was also calculated from the DC conductivity data using Arrhenius plots and it was found to be 0.060 and 0.075 eV in hydrogen and air atmosphere, respectively. The CMZO electrode-based fuel cell was tested using carbonated samarium doped ceria composite (NSDC) electrolyte. The three layers 13 mm in diameter and 1 mm thickness of the symmetric fuel cell were fabricated by dry pressing. The maximum power density of 728.86 mW/cm(2) was measured at 550 degrees C.

  • 3.
    Abbas, Ghazanfar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Ashfaq, M.
    Chaudhry, M. Ashraf
    Khan, Ajmal
    Ahmad, Imran
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Electrochemical study of nanostructured electrode for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC)2014In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 518-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zn-based nanostructured Ba0.05Cu0.25Fe0.10Zn0.60O (BCFZ) oxide electrode material was synthesized by solid-state reaction for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell. The cell was fabricated by sandwiching NK-CDC electrolyte between BCFZ electrodes by dry press technique, and its performance was assessed. The maximum power density of 741.87 mW-cm(-2) was achieved at 550 degrees C. The crystal structure and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and SEM. The particle size was calculated to be 25 nm applying Scherer's formula from XRD data. Electronic conductivities were measured with the four-probe DC method under hydrogen and air atmosphere. AC Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of the BCFZ oxide electrode was also measured in hydrogen atmosphere at 450 degrees C.

  • 4. Abbas, Ghazanfar
    et al.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan .
    Chaudhry, M. A.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Preparation and characterization of nanocomposite calcium doped ceria electrolyte with alkali carbonates (NK-CDC) for SOFC2010In: ASME 2010 8th International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology, FUELCELL 2010, ASME Press, 2010, p. 427-432Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The entire world's challenge is to find out the renewable energy sources due to rapid depletion of fossil fuels because of their high consumption. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are believed to be the best alternative source which converts chemical energy into electricity without combustion. Nanostructured study is required to develop highly ionic conductive electrolyte for SOFCs. In this work, the calcium doped ceria (Ce0.8Ca0.2O 1.9) coated with 20% molar ratio of two alkali carbonates (CDC-M: MCO3, where M= Na and K) electrolyte was prepared by co-precipitation method in this study. Ni based electrode was used to fabricate the cell by dry pressing technique. The crystal structure and surface morphology was characterized by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The particle size was calculated in the range of 10-20nm by Scherrer's formula and compared with SEM and TEM results. The ionic conductivity was measured by using AC Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) method. The activation energy was also evaluated. The performance of the cell was measured 0.567W/cm2 at temperature 550°C with hydrogen as a fuel.

  • 5.
    Abbas, Ghazanfar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Chaudhry, M. Ashraf
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Preparation and Characterization of Nanocomposite Calcium Doped Ceria Electrolyte With Alkali Carbonates (NK-CDC) for SOFC2011In: Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology, ISSN 1550-624X, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 041013-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The entire world's challenge is to find out the renewable energy sources due to rapid depletion of fossil fuels because of their high consumption. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are believed to be the best alternative source, which converts chemical energy into electricity without combustion. Nanostructure study is required to develop highly ionic conductive electrolytes for SOFCs. In this work, the calcium doped ceria (Ce0.8Ca0.2O1.9) coated with 20% molar ratio of two alkali carbonates (CDC-M: MCO3, where M = Na and K) electrolyte was prepared by coprecipitation method. Ni based electrode was used to fabricate the cell by dry pressing technique. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by an X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The particle size was calculated in the range 10-20 nm by Scherer's formula and compared with SEM and TEM results. The ionic conductivity was measured by using ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method. The activation energy was also evaluated. The performance of the cell was measured 0.567 W/cm(2) at temperature 550 degrees C with hydrogen as a fuel.

  • 6.
    Abbas, Ghazanfar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan.
    Khan, M. Ajmal
    Ahmad, Imran
    Chaudhry, M. Ashraf
    Sherazi, Tauqir A.
    Mohsin, Munazza
    Ahmad, Mukhtar
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Synthesize and characterization of nanocomposite anodes for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell2015In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 891-897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid oxide fuel cells have much capability to become an economical alternative energy conversion technology having appropriate materials that can be operated at comparatively low temperature in the range of 400-600 degrees C. The nano-scale engineering has been incorporated to improve the catalytic activity of anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells. Nanostructured Al0.10NixZn0.90-xO oxides were prepared by solid state reaction, which were then mixed with the prepared Gadolinium doped Ceria GDC electrolyte. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by XRD and SEM. The particle size was evaluated by XRD data and found in the range of 20-50 nm, which was then ensured by SEM pictures. The pellets of 13 mm diameter were pressed by dry press technique and electrical conductivities (DC and AC) were determined by four probe techniques and the values have been found to be 10.84 and 4.88 S/cm, respectively at hydrogen atmosphere in the temperature range of 300-600 degrees C. The Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis exhibits the pure electronic behavior at hydrogen atmosphere. The maximum power density of ANZ-GDC composite anode based solid oxide fuel cell has been achieved 705 mW/cm(2) at 550 degrees C.

  • 7.
    Afzal, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Madaan, Sushant
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Dong, Wenjing
    Raza, Rizwan
    Xia, Chen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. Hubei University, China.
    Analysis of a perovskite-ceria functional layer-based solid oxide fuel cell2017In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 42, no 27, p. 17536-17543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fuel cell based on a functional layer of perovskite Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-delta (BSCF) composited samarium doped ceria (SDC) has been developed. The device achieves a peak power density of 640.4 mW cm(-2) with an open circuit voltage (OCV) of 1.04 Vat 560 degrees C using hydrogen and air as the fuel and oxidant, respectively. A numerical model is applied to fit the experimental cell voltage. The kinetics of anodic and cathodic reactions are modeled based on the measurements obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Modeling results are in well agreement with the experimental data. Mechanical stability of the cell is also examined by using analysis with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) associated with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) after testing the cell performance.

  • 8.
    Afzal, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Saleemi, Mohsin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Wang, Baoyuan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Xia, Chen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Zhang, Wei
    He, Yunjuan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Jayasuriya, Jeevan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Zhu, Binzhu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fabrication of novel electrolyte-layer free fuel cell with semi-ionic conductor (Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-delta- Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9) and Schottky barrier2016In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 328, p. 136-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perovskite Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-delta (BSCF) is synthesized via a chemical co-precipitation technique for a low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC) (300-600 degrees C) and electrolyte-layer free fuel cell (EFFC) in a comprehensive study. The EFFC with a homogeneous mixture of samarium doped ceria (SDC): BSCF (60%:40% by weight) which is rather similar to the cathode (SDC: BSCF in 50%:50% by weight) used for a three layer SOFC demonstrates peak power densities up to 655 mW/cm(2), while a three layer (anode/ electrolyte/cathode) SOFC has reached only 425 mW/cm(2) at 550 degrees C. Chemical phase, crystal structure and morphology of the as-prepared sample are characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The electrochemical performances of 3-layer SOFC and EFFC are studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). As-prepared BSCF has exhibited a maximum conductivity above 300 S/cm at 550 degrees C. High performance of the EFFC device corresponds to a balanced combination between ionic and electronic (holes) conduction characteristic. The Schottky barrier prevents the EFFC from the electronic short circuiting problem which also enhances power output. The results provide a new way to produce highly effective cathode materials for LTSOFC and semiconductor designs for EFFC functions using a semiconducting-ionic material.

  • 9.
    Afzal, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Xia, Chen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. Hubei University, China.
    Lanthanum-doped Calcium Manganite (La0.1Ca0.9MnO3) Cathode for Advanced Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)2016In: MATERIALS TODAY-PROCEEDINGS, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 3, no 8, p. 2698-2706Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present here a new perovskite oxide with low lanthanum content doped in calcium manganite, La0.1Ca0.9MnO3 (LCM) as a functional material for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC) and electrolyte-layer free fuel cell (EFFC). The LCM introduces an intrinsic mixed-ion and electron conduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis shows high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity with an extremely low activation energy which enables an excellent cathode activity. Fuel cells using LCM as cathode with oxide ion conducting electrolyte samarium doped ceria (SDC) and NCAL as an anode, demonstrate a maximum power density of 650 mW cm(-2) at 550 degrees C, which is higher than most of the cathode materials reported for SOFC at this temperature. For EFFC, maximum power density of 750 mW cm(-2) is achieved using LCM as a semiconductor material with SDC ion conducting material. The present work highlights the development of new active air electrode especially for developing low temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

  • 10. Ali, A.
    et al.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Kaleem Ullah, M.
    Rafique, A.
    Wang, B.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. Hubei University, China.
    Alkaline earth metal and samarium co-doped ceria as efficient electrolytes2018In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 112, no 4, article id 043902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-doped ceramic electrolytes M0.1Sm0.1Ce0.8O2-δ (M = Ba, Ca, Mg, and Sr) were synthesized via co-precipitation. The focus of this study was to highlight the effects of alkaline earth metals in doped ceria on the microstructure, densification, conductivity, and performance. The ionic conductivity comparisons of prepared electrolytes in the air atmosphere were studied. It has been observed that Ca0.1Sm0.1Ce0.8O2-δ shows the highest conductivity of 0.124 Scm-1 at 650 °C and a lower activation energy of 0.48 eV. The cell shows a maximum power density of 630 mW cm-2 at 650 °C using hydrogen fuel. The enhancement in conductivity and performance was due to increasing the oxygen vacancies in the ceria lattice with the increasing dopant concentration. The bandgap was calculated from UV-Vis data, which shows a red shift when compared with pure ceria. The average crystallite size is in the range of 37-49 nm. DFT was used to analyze the co-doping structure, and the calculated lattice parameter was compared with the experimental lattice parameter.

  • 11. Basile, A.
    et al.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Iulianelli, A.
    Cigolotti, V.
    European Fuel Cell 20112013In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 319-319Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Bin, Zhu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Lund, Peter D.
    Aalto University, Finland .
    Single component fuel cell: materials and technology2011In: EFC 2011 - Proceedings of the 4th European Fuel Cell Piero Lunghi Conference and Exhibition, ENEA , 2011, p. 183-184Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developments on NANOCOFC (Nanocomposites for advanced fuel cell technology)-a EC-China research network, www.nanocofc.com bring about many new functional materials for advanced fuel cell technologies by introducing nanotechnology into the ceria-composite field. The NANOCOFC has developed this field with more great potentials for continuous research and developments. A typical example is single-component fuel cell reactor or electrolyte-free fuel cell technologies. A radical new fuel cell R&D and new strategy would be explored and developed. Since invented in 1839, all fuel cells (FCs) have been built using three components - the electrolyte, anode and cathode with the electrolyte as the core. Liberation from the constraints of electrolytes has created a revolutionary way to construct a more efficient, ultra low cost and simple FC. The core of our new invention and advanced technology consists of a single layer with mixed ionic and semi- conductivities, providing direct and more efficient conversion from chemical energy to electricity. The FC reactions take place on surfaces of particles all over the component acting as a reactor. This article makes a short review on materials and technology for this radical new fuel cell R&D.

  • 13. Cai, Y.
    et al.
    Xia, C.
    Wang, B.
    Zhang, W.
    Wang, Y.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. Hubei University, China.
    Bioderived Calcite as Electrolyte for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: A Strategy toward Utilization of Waste Shells2017In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 5, no 11, p. 10387-10395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The excessive consumption of synthesized materials and enhanced environmental protection protocols necessitate the exploitation of desirable functionalities to handle our solid waste. Through a simple calcination and composite strategy, this work envisages the first application of biocalcite derived from the waste of crayfish shells as an electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which demonstrates encouraging performances within a low temperature range of 450-550 °C. The single cell device, assembled from calcined waste shells at 600 °C (CWS600), enables a peak power density of 166 mW cm-2 at 550 °C, and further renders 330 and 256 mW cm-2 after compositing with perovskite La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (LSCF) and layer-structured LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (LNCA), respectively. Notably, an oxygen-ion blocking fuel cell is used to confirm the proton-conducting property of CWS600 associated electrolytes. The practical potential of the prepared fuel cells is also validated when the cell voltage of the cell is kept constant value over 10 h during a galvanostatic operation using a CWS600-LSCF electrolyte. These interesting findings may increase the likelihood of transforming our solid municipal waste into electrochemical energy devices, and also importantly, provide an underlying approach for discovering novel electrolytes for low-temperature SOFCs.

  • 14. Chen, Mingming
    et al.
    Wang, Chengyang
    Niu, Xiaomeng
    Zhao, Shuo
    Tang, Jian
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Carbon anode in direct carbon fuel cell2010In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 2732-2736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is a kind of high temperature fuel cell using carbon materials directly as anode. Electrochemical reactivity and surface property of carbon were taken into account in this paper. Four representative carbon samples were selected. The most suitable ratio of the ternary eutectic mixture Li2CO3-K2CO3-Al2O3 was determined at 1.05:1.2:1(mass ration). Conceptual analysis for electrochemical reactivity of carbon anode shows the importance of (1) reactive characteristics including lattice disorder, edge-carbon ratio and the number of short alkyl side chain of carbon material, which builds the prime foundation of the anodic half-cell reaction; (2) surface wetting ability, which assures the efficient contact of anode surface with electrolyte. It indicates that anode reaction rate and DCFC output can be notably improved if carbon are pre-dispersed into electrolyte before acting as anode, due to the straightway shift from cathode to anode for CO32- provided by electrolyte soaked in carbon material.

  • 15.
    Chen, Mingming
    et al.
    Tianjin Univ, Sch Chem Engn & Technol, China.
    Zhang, Hongjuan
    Fan, Liangdong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Wang, Chengyang
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. Hubei Univ, Fac Phys & Elect Sci, Hubei Collaborat Innovat Ctr Adv Organ Chem Mat, China.
    Ceria-carbonate composite for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell: Sintering aid and composite effect2014In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 39, no 23, p. 12309-12316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the effect of carbonate content on microstructure, relative density, ionic conductivity and fuel cell performance of Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9-(Li/Na)(2)CO3 (SDC-carbonate, abbr. SCC) composites is systematically investigated. With the addition of carbonate, the nanoparticles of ceria are well preserved after heat-treatment. The relative densities of SCC pellets increase as the carbonate content increases or sintering temperature rises. Especially, the relative density of SCC2 sintered at 900 degrees C is higher than that of pure SDC sintered at 1350 degrees C. Both the AC conductivity and DC oxygen ionic conductivity are visibly improved compared with the single phase SDC electrolyte. Among the composites, SDC-20 wt% (Li/Na)(2)CO3 (SCC20) presents high dispersion, relative small particle size, and the dense microstructure. The optimized microstructure brings the best ionic conductivity and fuel cell performance. It is hoped that the results can contribute the understanding of the role of carbonate in the composite materials and highlight their prospective application.

  • 16. Deng, Hui
    et al.
    Feng, Chu
    Zhang, Wei
    Mi, Youquan
    Wang, Xunying
    Dong, Wenjing
    Wang, Baoyuan
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. Hubei University, China.
    The electrolyte-layer free fuel cell using a semiconductor-ionic Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6-delta - Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-delta composite functional membrane2017In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 42, no 39, p. 25001-25007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial double Perovskite Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6-delta (SFM), a high performance and redox stable electrode material for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), has been used for the electrolyte (layer)-free fuel cell (EFFC) and also as the cathode for the electrolyte based SOFC in a comprehensive study. The EFFC with a homogeneous mixture of Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-delta (SDC) and SFM achieved a higher power density (841 mW cm(-2)) at 550 degrees C, while the SDC electrolyte based SOFC, using the SDC-SFM composite as cathode, just reached 326 mW cm(-2) at the same temperature. The crystal structure and the morphology of the SFM-SDC composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results showed that the charge transfer resistance of EFFCs were much lower than that of the electrolyte-based SOFC. To illustrate the operating principle of EFFC, we also conducted the rectification characteristics test, which confirms the existence of a Schottky junction structure to avoid the internal electron short circuiting. This work demonstrated advantages of the semiconductor-ionic SDC-SFM material for advanced EFFCs.

  • 17. Deng, Hui
    et al.
    Zhang, Wei
    Wang, Xunyin
    Mi, Youquan
    Dong, Wenjin
    Tan, Wenyi
    Zhu, Binzhu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Physics and Electronic Science, Hubei University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430062, PR China.
    An ionic conductor Ce0.8Sm0.2O2_(delta) (SDC) and semiconductor Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3 (SSC) composite for high performance electrolyte-free fuel cell2017In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 42, no 34, p. 22228-22234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An advanced electrolyte-free fuel cell (EFFC) was developed. In the EFFC, a composite layer made from a mixture of ionic conductor (Ce0.8Sm0.2O2_(delta), SDC) and semiconductor (Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3, SSC) was adopted to replace the electrolyte layer. The crystal structure, morphology and electrical properties of the composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS). Various ratios of SDC to SSC in the composite were modulated to achieve balanced ionic and electronic conductivities and good fuel cell performances. Fuel cell with an optimum ratio of 3SDC:2SSC (wt.%) reached the maximum power density of 741 mW cm(-2) at 550 degrees C. The results have illuminated that the SDC-SCC layer, similar to a conventional cathode, can replace the electrolyte to make the EFFC functions when the ionic and electronic conductivities were balanced.

  • 18. Di, J.
    et al.
    Chen, M. M.
    Wang, C. Y.
    Zheng, J. M.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Low temperature solid oxide fuel cells with SDC-carbonate electrolytes2010In: Chinese Ceramics Communications, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2010, no 1, p. 687-690Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composites consisting of Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 (SDC)-carbonate were developed as electrolytes for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFC). The SDC power was prepared by sol-gel method. The carbonates were binary eutectics of (Li/Na)2CO3, (Li/K)2CO3 and (K/Na)2CO3. Conductivity measurements showed that the conductivities were depended on the type of carbonates. Discontinuities were found in the Arrhenius plots for both SDC-(Li/Na)2CO3 and SDC-(Li/K)2CO3. For SDC-(Na/K)2CO3 composite electrolyte, the conductivity increased as temperature rose following one slope. Single cells based on various composites were fabricated by a uniaxial die-press method and tested at 450-600 °C. The results showed all cells exhibited improved performances upon that of pure SDC-based cell. The best power density of 532 mW cm -2 at 600 °C was achieved for LTSOFC using composite of SDC and (Li/Na)2CO3. Conductivity mechanism was also discussed.

  • 19. Di, Jing
    et al.
    Chen, Mingming
    Wang, Chengyang
    Zheng, Jiaming
    Fan, Liangdong
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Samarium doped ceria-(Li/Na)(2)CO3 composite electrolyte and its electrochemical properties in low temperature solid oxide fuel cell2010In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 195, no 15, p. 4695-4699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A composite of samarium doped ceria (SDC) and a binary carbonate eutectic (52 mol% Li2CO3/48 mol% Na2CO3) is investigated with respect to its morphology, conductivity and fuel cell performances. The morphology study shows the composition could prevent SDC particles from agglomeration. The conductivity is measured under air, argon and hydrogen, respectively. A sharp increase in conductivity occurs under all the atmospheres, which relates to the superionic phase transition in the interface phases between SDC and carbonates. Single cells with the composite electrolyte are fabricated by a uniaxial die-press method using NiO/electrolyte as anode and lithiated NiO/electrolyte as cathode. The cell shows a maximum power density of 590 mW cm(-2) at 600 degrees C, using hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. Unlike that of cells based on pure oxygen ionic conductor or pure protonic conductor, the open circuit voltage of the SDC-carbonate based fuel cell decreases with an increase in water content of either anodic or cathodic inlet gas, indicating the electrolyte is a co-ionic (H+/O2-) conductor. The results also exhibit that oxygen ionic conductivity contributes to the major part of the whole conductivity under fuel cell circumstances. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 20. Di, Jing
    et al.
    Wang, Cheng-Yang
    Chen, Ming-Ming
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    A novel composite electrolyte based on CeO2 for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells2008In: Journal of Inorganic Materials, ISSN 1000-324X, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 573-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [zh]

    A novel composite material based on mixture of samarium-doped ceria (SDC)-carbonate was studied as electrolyte in low temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The phase and microstructures of composite electrolyte were examined by XRD and SEM. The electrical conductivity was investigated by AC impedance spectroscopy at 400-700 degrees C in different atmospheres. An abrupt change in the conductivity at about 500 degrees C indicates that different mechanisms affect transfer in different temperature ranges. The conductivity increases with the carbonate fraction above 500 degrees C. The conductivity in reduce atmosphere is higher than that in oxide atmosphere. An anode-supported fuel cell using SDC-carbonate as electrolyte was fabricated and tested. The result shows that all the composite electrolytes exhibit better performance than pure SDC electrolyte. The electrolyte with 20wt% carbonate can achieve the highest power density of 415mW center dot cm(-2) and an open circuit voltage of 1.00V at 500 degrees C.

  • 21. Dong, Wenjing
    et al.
    Yaqub, Azra
    Janjua, Naveed K.
    Raza, Rizwan
    Afzal, Muhammad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. Faculty of Physics and Electronic Science, Hubei University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.
    All in One Multifunctional Perovskite Material for Next Generation SOFC2016In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 193, p. 225-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multifunctional roles of La0.2Sr0.25Ca0.45TiO3 (LSCT) perovskite material as anode, cathode, and electrolyte for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LT-SOFC) are discovered for the first time, and have been investigated via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and fuel cell (FC) measurements. LSCT resistance decreases prominently in FC environment as shown in this study. An improved performance was observed by compositing LSCT with samaria doped ceria (SDC) at 550 degrees C when the FC power density increased from tens of mW cm(-2) for the pure LSCT system up to hundreds of mW cm(-2). The improved conductivity of LSCT-SDC composite is highlighted. The multifunctionality of LSCT as cathode, anode and electrolyte could be attributed to different conducting behavior at high and low oxygen partial pressures and ionic conduction at intermediate oxygen partial pressures. These new discoveries not only indicate great potential for exploring multifunctional perovskites for the next generation SOFC, but also deepen SOFC science and develop new technologies.

  • 22. Dong, Wenjing
    et al.
    Zhang, Tianning
    Chen, Xin
    Wang, Baoyuan
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. Hubei University, China.
    Charge transport study of perovskite solar cells through constructing electron transport channels2017In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 214, no 10, article id 1700089Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perovskite solar cells (PSC) have attracted much attention in the recent years. It is important to understand their working principle in order to uncover the reasons behind their high efficiency. In this study, the carrier transport mechanism of PSC by controlling the structure of a scaffold is investigated. CeO2 is used as an electron blocking material in PSCs to study the electron transport behavior for the first time. The influence of light absorption can be excluded because CeO2 has a similar bandgap to TiO2. A variety of scaffolds are constructed using nano-TiO2 and CeO2. The results show that electrons can transport from light absober (perovskite) to FTO electrode (external circuit) through two kinds of channels. The energy band level, as well as the electronic conductivity of the scaffolds, is are key issues that affect electron transport. Although perovskites are able to transport both electrons and holes, it is still necessary to have effective electron transport channels (ETCs) between perovskite and external circuit for the sake of high efficiency. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis suggests that the lack of such channels will result in high recombination. The number of ETCs and effecient electron-hole separation are also proven to be important for cell performance.

  • 23. Fan, L.
    et al.
    Afzal, Muhammad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    He, C.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. Hubei University, China.
    Nanocomposites for "nano green energy" applications2017In: Bioenergy Systems for the Future: Prospects for Biofuels and Biohydrogen, Elsevier, 2017, p. 421-449Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficient conversion of fuel's chemical energy into electricity in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), one of the promising candidates to replace the current combustion process, requires highly active cell components for quick charge transfer and reaction kinetics in the current low-temperature range. Operation at low temperatures enables the deployment of nanostructured materials, while the nanostructured cell components with improved electric properties further assist the reduction of the temperature for given power output. One of the major issues of the single-phase nanoparticle is its aggregation properties under harsh fuel-cell condition, which could be overcome or alleviated by the advanced approaches. Nanocomposite approach not only addresses the instability and some intrinsic issues with the single-phase materials but also brings the interesting synergetic electric properties with multifunctionality. We summarize the research activities in a range of nanocomposite materials in SOFCs in finding the positive roles to improve the cell components (anode, electrolyte, and cathode) electrochemical performances and cell efficiency for green energy applications.

  • 24. Fan, L.
    et al.
    He, C.
    Zhu, Binzhu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. Hubei University Wuhan, China.
    Role of carbonate phase in ceria-carbonate composite for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells: A review2016In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ceria-salt composites represent one type of promising electrolyte candidates for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs), in which ceria-carbonate attracts particular attention because of its impressive ionic conductivity and unique hybrid ionic conduction behavior compared with the commonly used single-phase electrolyte materials. It has been demonstrated that the introduction of carbonate in these new ceria-based composite materials initiates multi new functionalities over single-phase oxide, which therefore needs a comprehensive understanding and review focus. In this review, the roles of carbonate in the ceria-carbonate composites and composite electrolyte-based LT-SOFCs are analyzed from the aspects of sintering aid, electrolyte densification reagent, electrolyte/electrode interfacial 'glue' and sources of super oxygen ionic and proton conduction, as well as the oxygen reduction reaction promoter for the first time. This summary remarks the significance of carbonate in the ceria-carbonate composites for low temperature, 300-600°C, SOFCs and related highly efficient energy conversion applications.

  • 25.
    Fan, Liangdong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Afzal, Muhammad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Effective hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis with ceria-carbonate compositeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The high temperature electrolysis potentially offers an effective approach for large-scale and high purity hydrogen production. Besides, the research on the hybrid oxygen ion/proton conductive behavior is a hot field in the ceria-based composite field. In this present study, single cell assembled by SDC-carbonate electrolyte and Ni-based electrode was fabricated and operated in ceramic electrolysis cells (CECs) model. The effect of the relative humidity and temperature on the electrochemical performance was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and polarization curves. Under an applied electrolysis voltage of 1.6 V, the maximum consumed current density is 1.2 Acm-2 in oxygen ionic conduction mode. The electrochemical performance in proton conduction mode is comparable to the oxygen ion conduction mode. The results here again demonstrate the hybrid ionic conduction of ceria-carbonate composite, and provide a promising materials system for high efficient hydrogen production.

  • 26.
    Fan, Liangdong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Chen, Mingming
    Tianjin University, China.
    Wang, Chengyang
    Tianjin University, China.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Pr2NiO4–Ag composite cathode for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells with ceria-carbonate composite electrolyte2012In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 37, no 24, p. 19388-19394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pr2NiO4-Ag composite was synthesized and evaluated as cathode component for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells based on ceria-carbonate composite electrolyte. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the formation of a single phase K2NiF4-type structure occurs at 1000 °C and Pr2NiO4-Ag composite shows chemically compatible with the composite electrolyte. Symmetrical cells impedance measurements prove that Ag displays acceptable electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction at the temperature range of 500-600 °C. Single cells with Ag active component electrodes present better electrochemical performances than those of Ag-free cells. An improved maximum power density of 695 mW cm-2 was achieved at 600 °C using Pr 2NiO4-Ag composite cathode, with humidified hydrogen as fuel and air as the oxidant. Preliminary results suggest that Pr 2NiO4-Ag composite could be adopted as an alternative cathode for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

  • 27.
    Fan, Liangdong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Ma, Ying
    Wang, Xiaodi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Singh, Manish
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Understanding the electrochemical mechanism of the core-shell ceria-LiZnO nanocomposite in a low temperature solid oxide fuel cell2014In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 2, no 15, p. 5399-5407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ceria based solid solutions have been considered some of the best candidates to develop intermediate/low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT/LT-SOFCs, 600-800 degrees C). However, the barrier to commercialization has not been overcome even after numerous research activities due to its inherent electronic conduction in a reducing atmosphere and inadequate ionic conductivity at low temperatures. The present work reports a new type of all-oxide nanocomposite electrolyte material based on a semiconductor, Li-doped ZnO (LixZnO), and an ionic conductor, samarium doped ceria (SDC). This electrolyte exhibits superionic conductivity (>0.1 S cm(-1) over 300 degrees C), net-electron free and excellent electrolytic performances (400-630 mW cm(-2)) between 480 and 550 degrees C. Particularly, defects related to interfacial conduction and the intrinsic and extrinsic properties of ions are analysed. An internal or interfacial redox process on two-phase particles is suggested as a powerful methodology to overcome the internal short-circuit problem of ceria-based single phase materials and to develop new advanced materials for energy related applications. The combination of the above promising features makes the SDC-LiZnO nanocomposite a promising electrolyte for LTSOFCs.

  • 28.
    Fan, Liangdong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Wang, C.
    Chen, M.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Low temperature ceramic fuel cells using all nano-composite materials2011In: EFC 2011 - Proceedings of the 4th European Fuel Cell Piero Lunghi Conference and Exhibition, 2011, p. 175-176Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nano-structural components have attracted increasing attention in intermediate/low temperature ceramic fuel cell. We reported here a ceramic fuel cell with a configuration of (Ni/Fe)-NSDC/NSDC/LiNiZnO-NSDC by all nano-composite materials and operated at low temperature range of 500-600°C. The prepared nanocomposite materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrochemical performances were studied by current -Voltage, power density characteristics and Ac impedance spectroscopy. The short term stability of fuel cell was also investigated in 100 min. The high fuel cell performance and reasonable stability demonstrated that the all nanocomposite fuel cell concept is feasible and may have great potential in future study.

  • 29.
    Fan, Liangdong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Wang, C.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Low temperature ceramic fuel cells using all nano composite materials2012In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 631-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shift to low operational temperature of solid oxide or ceramic fuel cells has induced many new concepts and novel technologies. In the present study, fuel cell assembled by all nano composite materials - NiO/Fe 2O 3-SDC anode, SDC-carbonate electrolyte and lithiated NiO/ZnO cathode - is investigated. A range of techniques, i.e., X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as well as polarization measurements are employed to characterize the crystalline structures, morphologies and electrochemical properties of the synthesized nanocomposite materials and cells. Performance comparison is made between single cells with and without a pre-sintering process. Finally, single cell short term stability and thermo cycle behaviors are also examined. Combined the facile fabrication process, relative high performance and reasonable stability, the current all nanocomposite system may be a promising functional system for low temperature ceramic fuel cells.

  • 30.
    Fan, Liangdong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Wang, Chengyang
    Chemical engineering and technology.
    Chen, Mingming
    Di, Jing
    Zheng, Jiaming
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Potential low-temperature application and hybrid-ionic conducting property of ceria-carbonate composite electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells2011In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 36, no 16, p. 9987-9993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ceria-carbonate composite materials have been widely investigated as candidate electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells operated at 300-600 degrees C. However, fundamental studies on the composite electrolytes are still in the early stages and intensive research is demanded to advance their applications. In this study, the crystallite structure, microstructure, chemical activity, thermal expansion behavior and electrochemical properties of the samaria doped ceria-carbonate (SCC) composite have been investigated. Single cells using the SCC composite electrolyte and Ni-based electrodes were assembled and their electrochemical performances were studied. The SCC composite electrolyte exhibits good chemical compatibility and thermal-matching with Ni-based electrodes. Peak power density up to 916 mW cm(-2) was achieved at 550 degrees C, which was attributed to high electrochemical activity of both electrolyte and electrode materials. A stable discharge plateau was obtained under a current density of 1.5 A cm(-2) at 550 degrees C for 120 min. In addition, the ionic conducting property of the SCC composite electrolyte was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. It was found that the hybrid-ionic conduction improves the total ionic conductivity and fuel cell performance. These results highlight potential low-temperature application of ceria-carbonate composite electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells.

  • 31.
    Fan, Liangdong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Wang, Chengyang
    Chen, Mingming
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Recent development of ceria-based (nano)composite materials for low temperature ceramic fuel cells and electrolyte-free fuel cells2013In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 234, p. 154-174Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last ten years, the research of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) or ceramic fuel cells (CFC) had focused on reducing the working temperature through the development of novel materials, especially the high ionic conductive electrolyte materials. Many progresses on single-phase electrolyte materials with the enhanced ionic conductivity have been made, but they are still far from the criteria of commercialization. The studies of ceria oxide based composite electrolytes give an alternative solution to these problems because of their impressive ionic conductivities and tunable ionic conduction behaviors. Significant advances in the understanding the ceria based composite material and construction of efficient fuel cell systems have been achieved within a short period. This report reviews recent developments of ceria-based composite from different aspects: materials, fundamentals, technologies, fabrication/construction parameters, electrochemistry and theoretical studies. Particular attention is given to ceria-carbonate (nano)composite, including its fuel cell performance, multi-ionic transport properties, advanced applications, corresponding electrode material and stability concerning. Besides, several novel fuel cell (FC) concepts like nanowire FC, all-nanocomposite FC and single-component/electrolyte-free fuel cell (SC-EFFC) are presented. This mini-review emphasizes the promise of ceria-based composites for advanced FC application and highlights the breakthrough of SC-EFFC research for high efficient energy conversion.

  • 32.
    Fan, Liangdong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Wang, Chengyang
    Chemical engineering and technology.
    Di, Jin
    Tianjin University, China.
    Chen, Mingming
    Chemical engineering and technology.
    Zhen, Jiaming
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Study of Ceria-Carbonate Nanocomposite Electrolytes for Low-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells2012In: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, ISSN 1533-4880, E-ISSN 1533-4899, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 4941-4945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite and nanocomposite samarium doped ceria-carbonates powders were prepared by solidstatereaction, citric acid-nitrate combustion and modified nanocomposite approaches and used aselectrolytes for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells. X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope,low-temperature Nitrogen Adsorption/desorption Experiments, Electrochemical ImpedanceSpectroscopy and fuel cell performance test were employed in characterization of these materials.All powders are nano-size particles with slight aggregation and carbonates are amorphous incomposites. Nanocomposite electrolyte exhibits much lower impedance resistance and higher ionicconductivity than those of the other electrolytes at lower temperature. Fuel cell using the electrolyteprepared by modified nanocomposite approach exhibits the best performance in the whole operationtemperature range and achieves a maximum power density of 839 mW cm−2 at 600 C withH2 as fuel. The excellent physical and electrochemical performances of nanocomposite electrolytemake it a promising candidate for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

  • 33.
    Fan, Liangdong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Wang, Chengyang
    Osamudiamen, Ose
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Singh, Manish
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Mixed ion and electron conductive composites for single component fuel cells: I. Effects of composition and pellet thickness2012In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 217, p. 164-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical performances of single component fuel cells (SCFCs) based on mixed ion and electron conductors have been studied as a function of composition and pellet thickness by polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electronic conductor of LNCZO shows conductivities of 21.7 and 5.3 S cm(-1) in H-2 and in air, respectively. SCFC using 40 wt. % of LNCZO and 60 wt. % of ion conductive SDC-Na2CO3 with a thickness of 1.10 mm shows the highest power density of 0.35 W cm(-2) at 550 degrees C. The performance is correlated to the mixed conduction properties (ionic and electronic, p and n-type) and the microstructure of the functional SCFC layer.

  • 34.
    Fan, Liangdong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Wang, Chengyang
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Qin, Haiying
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Low temperature Solid Oxide fuel cells using all nanocomposite materials2011In: Proceedings: 4th European Fuel Cell - Piero Lunghi Conference, Italy: ENEA , 2011, p. 175-176Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Fan, Liangdong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhang, Guoquan
    Chen, Mingming
    Wang, Chengyang
    Di, Jing
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Proton and Oxygen Ionic Conductivity of Doped Ceria-Carbonate Composite by Modified Wagner Polarization2012In: International Journal of Electrochemical Science, ISSN 1452-3981, E-ISSN 1452-3981, Vol. 7, no 9, p. 8420-8435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impressive ionic conductivity and tunable conduction behaviors have made the ceria-carbonate composite an attractive electrolyte for low temperature ceramic fuel cells. However, the conduction mechanism is not yet well studied. In the present study, both proton and oxygen ion conductivity as well as the transport properties of samaria-doped ceria/ sodium-lithium-carbonate (denoted as SDCLN) composite are investigated by the fuel cell study and the modified Hebb-Wagner polarization measurements. The multi-ionic polarization behaviors and the transfer processes in composite electrolyte under external electrical field are analyzed. A maximum power density of 780 mW cm(-2) and a calculated total ion (proton and oxygen ion) conductivity of 0.153 S cm(-1) are obtained under H-2/air condition at 550 degrees C. The Wagner DC polarization measurements show that the proton conduction dominates the total ionic conductivity. A synergistic effect exists between the charge carriers in the doped ceria-carbonate composite system. An ideal interfacial conduction model is also proposed based on the obtained results.

  • 36.
    Fan, Liangdong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhang, Hongjuan
    Chen, Mingming
    Wang, Chengyang
    Wang, Hao
    Singh, Manish
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Electrochemical study of lithiated transition metal oxide composite as symmetrical electrode for low temperature ceramic fuel cells2013In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 38, no 26, p. 11398-11405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, Lithiated NiCuZnOx (LNCZO) composite is synthesized and evaluated as a potential symmetrical electrode for ceria-carbonate composite electrolyte based low temperature ceramic fuel cells. Its crystal structures, the hydrogen oxidation/oxygen reduction electrochemical activities and fuel cell performances are systematically examined on the symmetrical cell configuration. Nano crystallite particles in the form of composite are observed for these oxides. The LNCZO shows relatively high catalytic activities for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reaction according to the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. A remarkable low oxygen reduction activation energy of 42 kJ mol(-1) is obtained on the LNCZO/ceria-carbonate composite, demonstrating excellent electro-catalytic activity. Especially, the catalytic activity can be further improved in the presence of water in the cathode chamber. The results show that the lithiated transition metal oxide composite is a promising symmetrical electrode for ceria-carbonate electrolyte and composite approach might a probable solution to develop super-performance electrodes for reduced temperature ceramic fuel cells.

  • 37.
    Fan, Liangdong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Chen, Mingming
    Chemical engineering and technology.
    Wang, Chengyang
    Chemical engineering and technology.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Qin, Haiying
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Wang, Xuetao
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Wang, Xiaodi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Ma, Ying
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    High performance transition metal oxide composite cathode for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells2012In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 203, no 1, p. 65-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with metal oxide composite cathode on the ceria–carbonate composite electrolyte have shown promising performance. However, the role of individual elements or compound is seldom investigated. We report here the effect of the ZnO on the physico-chemical and electrochemical properties of lithiated NiO cathode. The materials and single cells are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, DC polarization electrical conductivity, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and fuel cell performance. The ZnO modified lithiated NiO composite materials exhibit smaller particle size and lower electrical conductivity than lithiated NiO. However, improved electro-catalytic oxygen reduction activity and power output are achieved after the ZnO modification. A maximum power density of 808 mW cm−2 and the corresponding interfacial polarization resistance of 0.22 Ω cm2 are obtained at 550 °C using ZnO modified cathode and 300 μm thick composite electrolyte. The single cell keeps reasonable stability over 300 min at 500 °C. Thus, ZnO modified lithiated NiO is a promising cathode candidate for low temperature SOFCs.

  • 38. Feng, B.
    et al.
    Wang, C. -Y
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Catalysts and performances for direct methanol low temperature (300 to 600°C) ceramic fuel cells2005In: Proc. Eur. Fuel Cell Technol. Applic. Conf. Book Abstr., 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low temperature (300 to 600°C) ceramic fuel cells promise high efficiencies in a range of fuels other than pure hydrogen. In this case, liquid hydrocarbon fuels, e.g., methanol can be easily thermally decomposed to H2 and CO that can be directly used for fuel cell operation without external reformer leading to simple system and high efficient operation. In the present work, a novel anode catalyst C-MO-CeO2 (C=activated carbon/carbon black, M=Cu, Ni, Co) was synthesized employing citrate/nitrate combustion technique. And acceptable performances, e.g. power intensity of 0.20 W cm-2, were achieved by directly operating the methanol at 560°C. Also the carbon deposition and cracking on anode were studied as thermal decomposing of methanol. Transition metal oxides of CuO with n-type conductivity and NiO, CoO with p-type conductivity, possess catalytic activity of the electrochemical oxidation for liquid hydrocarbon fuels. CeO2 becomes an oxide-ion and electron mixed conductor in the reducing fuel environment, which can expand the reaction zone beyond three-phase boundaries, can store and transfer oxygen ions, so it can also enhance the catalytic oxidation of methanol. In addition, carbon materials e.g., activated carbon and carbon black were used to improve the characters of anode materials, especially to enhance the anode electronic conductivity and catalyst function to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In contrast to LaCrO3-based, Ni-YSZ-based anode materials, C-MO-CeO2 can be synthesized more economically. Thus there arc considerable interests and demands in finding alternative anodes composites.

  • 39. Feng, B.
    et al.
    Wang, C. Y.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Reaction Engineering.
    Catalysts and performances for direct methanol low-temperature (300 to 600 degrees C) solid oxide fuel cells2006In: Electrochemical and solid-state letters, ISSN 1099-0062, E-ISSN 1944-8775, Vol. 9, no 2, p. A80-A81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel anode catalyst, C-MO-SDC (C=activated carbon/carbon black, M=Cu, Ni, Co, SDC=Ce0.9Sm0.1O1.95) was synthesized by employing a citrate/nitrate combustion technique. Carbon materials, e.g., activated carbon and carbon black were first used to improve the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode properties, especially to improve the microstructure and to enhance the anode conductivity and catalyst function for directly operating methanol as the fuel. The resulting anode catalyst C-MO-SDC materials used in a SOFC device have successfully achieved a high power density of 0.25 W cm(-2) by directly operating the methanol at 560 degrees C.

  • 40. Feng, B.
    et al.
    Wang, C. Y.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Novel AC-MO-CSC anode for direct methanol low temperature ceramic fuel cells2007In: High-Performance Ceramics IV, Pts 1-3, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2007, p. 494-497Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low temperature (300 to 650°C) ceramic fuel cells (LTCFCs) were developed by using novel AC-MO-CSC anode material based on activated carbon (AC), transition metal oxides (MO) and ceria-salt composites (CSC). The activated carbon was first used to improve the characters of anode materials, especially to enhance the anode catalytic activity for liquid hydrocarbon fuels, e.g., methanol. The microstructure, conductivity and electrochemical properties of anode materials were investigated as functions of the activated carbon. Using the anode materials, maximum power density of 0.2 W cm -2 was achieved for fuel cells directly operating methanol at 600°C.

  • 41. Feng, B.
    et al.
    Wang, C. -Y
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Reaction Engineering.
    Novel AC-M-SCC anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells using methanol at intermediate or low temperature2005In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering, and Technology, ASME Press, 2005, p. 785-788Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, novel anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells which can directly operate liquid fuels at intermediate or low temperature were investigated. These materials were based on the activated carbons supported transition metal catalysts (AC-M) and the solid carbonate-ceria composite (SCC) materials, which were prepared via the sol-gel route. The SCCs possess both oxide-ion and proton conductivity, being used as multi-ion conductors. Activated carbons supported transition metals were used to improve the characters of anode materials and especially to enhance the anode catalyst function to liquid fuels, e.g., methanol. The internal reforming of liquid fuels was proved. There is no external reforming system needed. We used also the chemical methods to improve the commercial activated carbons. The microstructure, conductivity and electrochemical properties of anode materials were investigated as functions of the activated carbon pre-treating condition. Using these novel materials, the power intensity of 0.2 W/cm 2 was achieved for fuel cells directly operating the methanol at 600°C.

  • 42. Fu, Q. X.
    et al.
    Zha, S. W.
    Zhang, W.
    Peng, D. K.
    Meng, G. Y.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Intermediate temperature fuel cells based on doped ceria-LiCl-SrCl2 composite electrolyte2002In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 104, no 1, p. 73-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new type of oxide-salt composite electrolyte, gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC)-LiCl-SrCl2, was developed and demonstrated its promising use for intermediate temperature (400-700 degreesC) fuel cells (ITFCs). The dc electrical conductivity of this composite electrolyte (0.09-0.13 S cm(-1) at 500-650 degreesC) was 3-10 times higher than that of the pure GDC electrolyte, indicating remarkable proton or oxygen ion conduction existing in the LiCl-SrCl2 chloride salts or at the interface between GDC and the chloride salts. Using this composite electrolyte, peak power densities of 260 and 510 mW cm(-2), with current densities of 650 and 1250 mA cm(-2) were achieved at 550 and 625 degreesC, respectively. This makes the new material a good candidate electrolyte for future low-cost ITFCs.

  • 43. Fu, Q. X.
    et al.
    Zhang, W.
    Peng, R. R.
    Peng, D. K.
    Meng, G. Y.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Doped ceria-chloride composite electrolyte for intermediate temperature ceramic membrane fuel cells2002In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 186-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A kind of oxide-salt composite electrolyte, gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC)-LiCl-SrCl2, prepared with hot-press technique, shows superior ionic conductivity, which is 2-10 times higher than that of GDC itself at the temperature range of 400-600 degreesC. More interestingly, not like the GDC electrolyte, which has some extent of electronic conduction under reducing atmosphere, the composite electrolyte is almost a pure ionic conductor, evidenced by the fuel cell's (FC) open circuit voltage (OCV) close to the theoretical one. The fuel cells based on this composite electrolyte show excellent power density output even at temperature as low as 500 degreesC (240 mW cm(-2)) in spite of the relatively thick electrolyte (0.4 mm). Such high performance, in combination with its low cost in both raw materials and fabrication process, make this kind of composite electrolyte a good candidate electrolyte material for future ultra-low-cost intermediate temperature ceramic membrane fuel cells (IT-CMFCs).

  • 44. Gao, Zhan
    et al.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Development of Direct Methanol Low Temperature Fuel Cells from a Polygeneration, Perspective2011In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 35, p. 690-696Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Gao, Zhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Mao, Zongqiang
    Development of methanol-fueled low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells2011In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 690-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, 300-600 degrees C) technology fueled by methanol possessing significant importance and application in polygenerations has been developed. Thermodynamic analysis of methanol gas-phase compositions and carbon formation indicates that direct operation on methanol between 450 and 600 degrees C may result in significant carbon deposition. A water steam/methanol ratio of 1/1 can completely suppress carbon formation in the same time enrich H(2) production composition. Fuel cells were fabricated using ceria-carbonate composite electrolytes and examined at 450-600 degrees C. The maximum power density of 603 and 431 mW cm(-2) was achieved at 600 and 500 degrees C, respectively, using water steam/methanol with the ratio of 1/1 and ambient air as fuel and oxidant. These results provide great potential for development of the direct methanol low-temperature SOFC for polygenerations.

  • 46.
    Gao, Zhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Mao, Zongqiang
    Electrochemical Characterization on SDC/Na2CO3 Nanocomposite Electrolyte for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells2011In: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, ISSN 1533-4880, E-ISSN 1533-4899, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 5413-5417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our previous work has demonstrated that novel core-shell SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposite electrolyte possesses great potential for the development of low temperature (300-600 degrees C) solid oxide fuel cells. This work further characterizes the nanocomposite SDC/Na2CO3 electrochemical properties and conduction mechanism. The microstructure of the nanocomposite sintered at different temperatures was analyzed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrical and electrochemical properties were studied. Significant conductivity enhancement was observed in the H-2 atmosphere compared with that of air atmosphere. The ratiocination of proton conduction rather than electronic conduction has been proposed consequently based on the observation of fuel cell performance. The fuel cell performance with peak power density of 375 mW cm(-2) at 550 degrees C has been achieved. A.C. impedance for the fuel cell under open circuit voltage (OCV) conditions illustrates the electrode polarization process is predominant in rate determination.

  • 47. Gao, Zhan
    et al.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Mao, Zongqiang
    Wang, Cheng
    Liu, Zhixiang
    Preparation and characterization of Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9/Na2CO3 nanocomposite electrolyte for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells2011In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 3984-3988Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 (SDC)/Na2CO3 nanocomposite synthesized by the co-precipitation process has been investigated for the potential electrolyte application in low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The conduction mechanism of the SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposite has been studied. The performance of 20 mW cm(-2) at 490 degrees C for fuel cell using Na2CO3 as electrolyte has been obtained and the proton conduction mechanism has been proposed. This communication demonstrates the feasibility of direct utilization of methanol in low-temperature SOFCs with the SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposite electrolyte. A fairly high peak power density of 512 mW cm(-2) at 550 degrees C for fuel cell fueled by methanol has been achieved. Thermodynamical equilibrium composition for the mixture of steam/methanol has been calculated, and no presence of C is predicted over the entire temperature range. The long-term stability test of open circuit voltage (OCV) indicates the SDC/Na2CO3 nanocomposite electrolyte can keep stable and no visual carbon deposition has been observed over the anode surface. Copyright (C) 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC.

  • 48.
    He, Yunjuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. Faculty of Computer and Information, Hubei University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.
    Fan, Liangdong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. Faculty of Computer and Information, Hubei University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.
    Afzal, Muhammad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Singh, Manish
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Zhang, Wei
    Zhao, Yufeng
    Li, Junjiao
    Zhu, Bin
    Faculty of Computer and Information, Hubei University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.
    Cobalt oxides coated commercial Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-delta as high performance cathode for low-temperature SOFCs2016In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 191, p. 223-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve the catalytic activity of commercial Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-delta (BSCF) for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFC) (300-600 degrees C), CoOx has been used to modify the commercial BSCF through a solution coating approach. Phase and morphology of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), respectively. BSCF with 10 wt% CoOx exhibited an improved conductivity of 44 S/cm, and achieved a peak power density of 463 mW/cm(2) at 550 degrees C for LTSOFC, which is a 100% enhancement than that with the BSCF cathode. The cathode oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) promoted by CoOx and enhanced device performance mechanism have been proposed. This work provides a new way for the exploitation of high effective cathode materials for LTSOFCs.

  • 49. Hu, H. -Q
    et al.
    Lin, Q. -Z
    Zhu, Binzhu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Research progress of single layer fuel cell2017In: Xiandai Huagong/Modern Chemical Industry, ISSN 0253-4320, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 31-35 and 37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The definition, working principle and the superior performance of single layer fuel cell are briefly introduced. The latest achievement and research progress in this field are summarized, which lay a foundation for the next development of single layer fuel cell.

  • 50. Hu, Huiging
    et al.
    Lin, Qizhao
    Zhu, Zhigang
    Liu, Xiangrong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Time-dependent performance change of single layer fuel cell with Li0.4Mg0.3Zn0.3O/Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-delta composite2014In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 39, no 20, p. 10718-10723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Large-size engineering single layer fuel cell (SLFC) consisting of a nano-structured Li0.4Mg0.3Zn0.3O2-delta/Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-delta (LMZSDC) composite with an active area of 25 cm(2) (6 cm x 6 cm x 0.1 cm) is successfully fabricated. The SLFC is evaluated by testing the cell durability with a time-dependent degradation using an H-2 fuel and an air oxidant at 600 degrees C for over 120 h. A maximum power of 12.8 W (512 mW cm(-2)) is achieved at 600 degrees C. In the initial operation stage around 50 h, the cell's performance decreases from 12.8 to 11.2 W; however, after this point, the performance was consistently stable, and no significant degradation is observed in the current density or the cell performance. The device performed excellently at low temperatures with a delivered power output of more than 250 mW cm(-2) at a temperature as low as 400 degrees C. By curve fitting the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results, the ratio of Ce3+/(Ce3++Ce4+) before and after the long-time operation is analyzed. The ratio increased from 28.2% to 31.4% in the electrolyte which indicates a reduction occurs in the beginning operation that causes an initial performance loss for the device power output and OCV. Electrochemical impedance analyses indicate that the LMZSDC had a high ionic transport, and the device had quick dynamic processes and, thus, a high fuel cell performance. The LMZSDC is a new type of ionic material that has been successfully applied to SLFCs.

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